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EN
In the paper, we demonstrate the feasibility of interdigital electrodes fabrication with the usage of inkjet printing technology. The emphasis was put to obtain better shape quality and lower spacing between electrodes with respect to typical printing process. The paper presents an analysis of the main factors that have an influence on the dimension and quality of printed structures and proposes two methods that allow eliminating the main problems. The first proposed method is based on controlling the time between patterning of successive drops. While the second method is based on changing the design methods considering printing orientation. Both methods do not require any additional technological processes or the use of any special surface preparation methods. Finally, the obtained results and conclusions were presented and discussed.
EN
Automatic detection of objects is a part of visual systems supporting a quality control system of a manufacturing process. The paper concerns the influence of the resolution of images and the size of detected objects in pixels on measurements results. Test images of the objects of a known size were generated. The values of the perimeter of the objects were compared to the obtained values of measurements on the images with degraded resolution. The process of the degradation of the references images by successive downsizing the resolution, detection and measurements were performed applying automatic algorithm. The analysis of obtained results showed that the size of the analysed objects on the digital images plays an important role in reliability and accuracy of the measurement. The author concludes that, in order to avoid a bias in measurement caused by insufficient object resolution, the minimal acceptable size of objects on digital images in pixels should be recommended.
EN
This paper reports a new multi-item planning and scheduling problem in a job-shop production system with the consideration of energy consumption. A mixed integer linear programming is proposed to integrate planning and scheduling with the consideration of energy aspect. In this study a new operational constraint is considered in the tactical level because of the huge interest given to energy consumption and its strong link existing with production system. To evaluate the performance of this model, computational experiments are presented, and numerical results are given using the software CPLEX and then discussed.
PL
Regulacje prawne oraz zalecenia obligujące do tworzenia systemu kontroli jakości w medycynie nuklearnej mają na celu zapewnienie odpowiedniego poziomu jakości badań diagnostycznych. Podstawowe testy kontroli jakości są ważną częścią rutynowej pracy klinicznej. Celem niniejszej pracy jest przedstawienie procedur testów podstawowych kontroli jakości dla planarnych kamer scyntylacyjnych oraz systemów SPECT i SPECT/CT.
EN
Regulations and recommendations that oblige to create a system of quality assurance in nuclear medicine, provide a sufficient level of quality diagnostic tests. The basic quality control tests are important part of routine clinical work. The aim of the work is to present quality control procedures for planar cameras and SPECT and SPECT/CT systems.
EN
Quality control at all stages of the polygraphic process will allow to establish a feedback between technological processes of printing. The validity of the selected criteria, technological effectiveness and objectivity of the quality assessment methods will allow to organise technically accurate modelling of the processes as well as to promptly interfere with the production process if necessary. The tendency of the development of technologies and control tools as well as computer expansion are the reasons why the objectivity and impartiality of the assessment become the main criteria for the choice of method for quality assessment of the polygrafic product. Methodological purpose of the quality control is to make the polygrafic process technologically driven and stable, and the quality of the received print - more predictable.
EN
A highly sensitive photonic crystal fiber based on the surface plasmon resonance (PCF-SPR) biosensor for the detection of the density alteration in non-physiological cells (DANCE) is described. Human acute leukemia cells are determined by the discontinuous sucrose gradient centrifugation (DSGC) in which the cells are separated into several bands. The separated cells with different intracellular densities and refractive indexes (RI) ranging from 1.3342 to 1.3344 are distinguished in situ by means of the differential transmission spectrum. The biosensor shows a maximum amplitude sensitivity of 2000 nm/RIU and resolution as high as 5 × 10⁻⁵ RIU. According to the wavelength interrogation method, a maximum spectral sensitivity of 9000 nm/RIU in the sensing range between 1.33 and 1.53 is achieved, corresponding to a resolution as high as 1.11 × 10⁻⁵ 5RIU for the biosensor. The proposed PCF-SPR biosensor has promising application in biological and biochemical detection.
EN
The resolution of a Direction of Arrival (DOA) estimation algorithm is determined based on its capability to resolve two closely spaced signals. In this paper, authors present and discuss the minimum number of array elements needed for the resolution of nearby sources in several DOA estimation methods. In the real world, the informative signals are corrupted by Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN). Thus, a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) offers a better resolution. Therefore, we show the performance of each method by applying the algorithms in different noise level environments.
EN
Small-scale geological discontinuities are not easy to detect and image in seismic data, as these features represent themselves as diffracted rather than reflected waves. However, the combined reflected and diffracted image contains full wave information and is of great value to an interpreter, for instance enabling the identification of faults, fractures, and surfaces in built-up carbonate. Although diffraction imaging has a resolution below the typical seismic wavelength, if the wavelength is much smaller than the width of the discontinuity then interference effects can be ignored, as they would not play a role in generating the seismic diffractions. In this paper, by means of synthetic examples and real data, the potential of diffraction separation for high-resolution seismic imaging is revealed and choosing the best method for preserving diffraction are discussed. We illustrate the accuracy of separating diffractions using the plane-wave destruction (PWD) and dip frequency filtering (DFF) techniques on data from the Sarawak Basin, a carbonate field. PWD is able to preserve the diffraction more intelligently than DFF, which is proven in the results by the model and real data. The final results illustrate the effectiveness of diffraction separation and possible imaging for high-resolution seismic data of small but significant geological features.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono dwa różne podejścia do zagadnienia zwiększania rozdzielczości danych sejsmicznych. Pierwsze, omówione szczegółowo w artykule pt.: Dobór optymalnej rozdzielczości sekcji sejsmicznej na drodze analizy i modyfikacji charakterystyk spektralnych danych sejsmiki powierzchniowej i otworowej, pokazuje możliwości poszerzenia charakterystyki spektralnej pola falowego na drodze modyfikacji zapisu sejsmicznego z wykorzystaniem danych otworowych, natomiast drugie wykorzystuje możliwości manipulacji i doboru parametrów akwizycji, a szczególnie parametrów (krotności) sumowania.
EN
In the paper two different approaches to the issue of seismic resolution enhancement are presented. The first approach is discussed in detail in the paper: The choice of optimal resolution of seismic data for given geological objects through the application of borehole velocity measurement for spectral modification – where the possibility of broadening of wave field spectral characterization via modification of seismic data with the use of well log was presented. The second approach, utilizes the possibility of tuning of acquisition parameters, especially fold-coverage stacking parameters.
EN
This article presents the performance of a new approach to determine the model order for the modified Prony method applied to swath acoustic mapping. Key requirements for any mapping application are depth determination accuracy and angular resolution. Depth determination accuracy is strictly related to angular accuracy and geometrical relations between receiver and sources of the backscattered signal. Angular resolution determines detection capabilities of targets laying on the seafloor. Performance of the proposed method, in terms of these two parameters, is tested against a simulated signal in a number of generic configurations, and compared to the results of other methods applied to the same signal.
PL
Wykonanie prawidłowych i wartościowych pod kątem interpretacji podwodnych zdjęć cyfrowych do celów archeologicznych, ze względu na specyficzne warunki fotografowania, nie jest łatwe. Należy mieć na uwadze liczne ograniczenia charakterystyczne wyłącznie dla tego typu ośrodka obrazowania. Dlatego też Autorzy podjęli się próby opisu zmian jakości zdjęć fotogrametrycznych, które zachodzą w dwóch różnych ośrodkach fotografowania. W pierwszej kolejności przeanalizowano zdolność rozdzielczą kamery cyfrowej INTOVA IC500 oraz dokładność geometryczną pozyskanych zobrazowań. Następnie określono, jak zmiana ośrodka fotografowania wpływa na rozdzielczość radiometryczną oraz odwzorowanie barw na analizowanych obrazach. W ostatnim etapie pozyskane zobrazowania zastosowano w praktyce - do oceny stopnia zniszczeń obiektu archeologicznego, a także wykonano jego dokumentację w postaci rysunku wektorowego z dokładnością mxy = ±2 piksele.
EN
Archaeological data are usually inherently incomplete, heterogeneous, discontinuous and require frequent updates and possible adjustments. It is important to constantly create detailed documentation, which will precisely represent the actual situation. However, even the most precise figure is only an estimated representation of the documented object. Therefore, it is necessary to collect fully metric documentation and its professional archaeological interpretation. Acquiring correct and valuable underwaterdigital images for the archaeology purposes is not easy due to specific shooting conditions. It should be noted a number of limitations are unique to this type of imaging environment - the apparent extension of the focal length, the “disappearance” of colours, as well as a significant reduction in the transparency of the water environment. Therefore, the authors have made attempts to describe changes, in a much broader sense, in the quality of photogrammetric images that had been taken in various shooting conditions. Underwater and aerial images of two test fields were tested. First, the ground sampling distance of the INTOVA IC500 digital camera and the geometric accuracy of the acquired images were examined. Then, the impact of changes to the imaging conditions on the radio-metric resolution and colour projection were designated. In the last stage, the acquired images were used in practice - to assess the progress of the erosion process of an archaeological object, and also to comply its documentation in the form of vector drawing with the accuracy of mxy = ±0.5 mm.
EN
This article provides description of new achievements in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in the field of photogrammetry and remote sensing related to laser scanning technology. Platforms equipped with laser scanners are becoming a growing trend in UAV mapping. Two perspectives of development, which use laser sensors, as payload are described in this paper. The first solution is related to application of advanced LiDAR sensor, which collects data with simulated Beyond Visual Line Of Sight UAV (BVLOS UAV) platform from high altitude. The second development was less expensive UAV laser scanning system that acquires data from low-altitude Visual Line Of Sight (VLOS) platform. Additionally, state-of-art of LiDAR sensors, which can be mounted on UAVs, is presented, including categorization of ultralight laser scanners, legal restriction related to operating UAVs equipped with LiDAR system. In the experiment described in the article two datasets are introduced, one collected with Riegl VUX-1 UAV mounted on the first platform and the second with YellowScan Mapper that is a part of second UAV system. Captured datasets are evaluated concerning point density, spatial resolution, vegetation penetration and noise of laser beam assessment. The comparison indicates the differences between the platforms, what determines fields of their application. Therefore, conclusion related to the presented perspectives of development of UAV laser scanning can be drawn and possible future applications of both platforms are discussed.
PL
Artykuł zawiera opis koncepcji rozwoju bezzałogowych statków latających (UAV) w dziedzinie fotogrametrii i teledetekcji związanych z technologią skanowania laserowego. Platformy wyposażone w skanery laserowe stają się coraz bardziej zauważalnym trendem w wykorzystaniu UAV w geodezji i kartografii. W niniejszym artykule opisano dwie perspektywy rozwoju tej branży, które wykorzystują sensory laserowe. Pierwsze rozwiązanie jest związane z zastosowaniem zaawansowanego skanera, który zbiera dane z symulowanej w doświadczeniu platformy poza zasięgiem wzroku (BVLOS UAV) z dużej wysokości. Drugą koncepcją rozwoju rynku jest pokazanie przykładu systemu skanowania laserowego UAV, który pozyskiwał dane z platformy w zasięgu wzroku (VLOS) na małej wysokości. Ponadto w artykule przedstawiono najnowocześniejsze skanery LiDAR, które mogą być montowane na UAV, w tym kategoryzację ultralekkich skanerów laserowych oraz prawne ograniczenia związane z eksploatacją UAV wyposażonych w system LiDAR. W opisanym eksperymencie w artykule analizowano dwa zestawy danych: jeden zebrano za pomocą UAV Riegl VUX-1 zamontowanego na platformie w postaci załogowego płatowca i drugiego za pomocą YellowScan Mappera, który jest częścią systemu UAV z platformą wielowirnikową. Przechwycone zestawy danych są oceniane pod względem gęstości punktów, rozdzielczości przestrzennej, możliwości penetracji roślinności i obserwowanego szumu wiązki laserowej. Porównanie wskazuje różnice między platformami, a tym samym koncepcjami i ich możliwymi zastosowaniami w perspektywie rozwoju skanowania laserowego UAV.
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EN
According to the scaling laws for nanomechanical resonators, many of their metrological properties improve when downscaled. This fact encourages for constant miniaturization of MEMS/NEMS based sensors. It is a well known fact, that the laws of classical physics cannot be used to describe the systems which are arbitrarily small. In consequence, the classical description of nanoresonators must break down for sufficiently small and cool systems and then the quantum effects cannot be neglected. One of the fundamental question which arises is, how one may investigate quantum effects in MEMS/NEMS sensors and what is the influence of quantum effects on the performance of such systems. In this paper we would like to raise those issues by presenting the results of our work related to our estimations and calculations of MEMS/NEMS dynamics. The first and second sections are of theoretical character. In the first section (Classical modeling), we describe the classical methods for describing the resonator dynamics and the classical limit on the resolution of MEMS/NEMS based force sensors, which is set by the thermomechanical noise. In the second section (Quantum aspects), we concentrate on the quantum description of micro and nanoresonators and the influence of quantum effects, such as zero-point motion and back-action, on their performance (quantum limits). The third section is devoted to the presentation of our experimental methods of MEMS/NEMS deflection metrology, i.e. Optical Beam Deflection method (OBD) and fibre optics interferometry.
EN
The resolution complexity of the perfectmatching principle was studied by Razborov [1], who developed a technique for proving its lower bounds for dense graphs. We construct a constant degree bipartite graph Gn such that the resolution complexity of the perfect matching principle for Gn is 2Ω(n)) where n is the number of vertices in Gn. This lower bound is tight up to some polynomial. Our result implies the 2Ω(n) lower bounds for the complete graph K2n+1 and the complete bipartite graph KnO(n), that improves the lower bounds following from [1]. We show that for every graph G with n vertices that has no perfect matching there exists a resolution refutation of perfect matching principle for G of size O(n22n). Thus our lower boundsmatch upper bounds up to a multiplicative constant in the exponent. Our results also imply the well-known exponential lower bounds on the resolution complexity of the pigeonhole principle, the functional pigeonhole principle and the pigeonhole principle over a graph. We also prove the following corollary. For every natural number d, for every n large enough, for every function h : {1, 2, . . . , n} → {1, 2, . . . , d}, we construct a graph with n vertices that has the following properties. There exists a constant D such that the degree of the i-th vertex is at least h(i) and at most D, and it is impossible to make all degrees equal to h(i) by removing the graph's edges. Moreover, any proof of this statement in the resolution proof system has size 2Ω(n). This result implies well-known exponential lower bounds on the Tseitin formulas as well as new results: for example, the same property of a complete graph. Preliminary version of this paper appeared in proceedings of CSR-2015 [2].
EN
Breast cancer screening is based on X-ray mammography, while ultrasound is considered a complementary technique with improved detection in dense tissue. However, breast cancer screening requires a technique that provides repeatable results at the inspection interval which cannot be achieved with manual breast exploration. During the last years there have appeared several approaches to overcome this limitation by means of automated ultrasonic tomography performed with motorized probes or with a large set of array transducers. This work addresses these problems by considering a quite simple and low-cost arrangement, formed with a ring of conventional medical-grade array probes which are multiplexed to the electronics to build Full Angle Spatially Compounded (FASC) images. The work analyzes the performance of such arrangement in terms of resolution and isotropy, showing by numerical modelling and experimentally that it provides high resolution and homogeneity in the whole imaged region. The implementation of this technique would provide more than one circular FASC per second and a whole breast volume image in 1–2 minutes with conventional technology, a process fast enough to be clinically useful. Moreover, the automated technique is repeatable and can be used by the clinician to perform immediately the diagnosis without requiring additional data processing.
PL
W artykule omówiono założenia metodyczne systemu LOFRES do pomiaru metodą niskoczęstotliwościowej sejsmiki pasywnej. System ten służy do badania budowy i właściwości przypowierzchniowych warstw ośrodka geologicznego z wykorzystaniem szumu sejsmicznego. Badania są wykonywane za pomocą dwóch metod: sondowania mikrosejsmicznego i interferometrii sejsmicznej. W artykule przedstawiono ich podstawy metodyczne oraz algorytmy przetwarzania i interpretacji danych sejsmicznych. Przedstawiono również przykłady wyników badań. W podsumowaniu wskazano na zalety i ograniczenia sejsmiki pasywnej. Podkreślono większe znaczenie metody interferometrii sejsmicznej w rozwiązywaniu zagadnień w geoinżynierii.
EN
This paper presents the methodological assumptions of the system LOFRES adapted for the low frequency passive seismicity. This system is used to study the structure and properties of subsurface layers of geological medium by seismic noise. The system uses two methods: microseismic sounding and seismic interferometry. The paper describes the methodological basis and the algorithms of processing and interpretation of seismic data. It also presents examples of research results. The summary points to the advantages and limitations of the passive seismics. Greater importance of seismic interferometry methods in solving problems of geoengineering was highlighted.
PL
W publikacji zaprezentowano metodę zwiększenia rozdzielczości zarejestrowanego pola falowego sejsmiki powierzchniowej, wprowadzając do tras sekcji sejsmicznej częstotliwości wyższe pochodzące z pomiarów pionowego profilowania sejsmicznego PPS. Zastosowana procedura dekonwolucji typu shape filter do poprawy rozdzielczości sekcji sejsmicznej była realizowana w oparciu o obliczony operator z danych pionowego profilowania sejsmicznego PPS i aplikowana do rzeczywistych profili sejsmicznych 2D. Zaimplementowanie do sejsmiki powierzchniowej dodatkowych informacji zawartych w polu falowym PPS pozwala na odtworzenie wysokich częstotliwości, niezbędnych do opisu budowy geologicznej o dużym stopniu szczegółowości.
EN
This article presents a method of increasing the resolution of a recorded seismic wave field by introducing higher frequencies into the traces of the seismic section, derived from measurements of the Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP). Application of shape filter deconvolution to improve the resolution of seismic data was realized based on the calculated operator from VSP and applied to real 2D seismic section. Implementation to seismic surface of additional information included in VSP wave field allows the restoration of high frequencies necessary to describe the geological structure with a high degree of detail.
PL
Dwuwymiarowa chromatografia gazowa jest prężnie rozwijającą się techniką analityczną, charakteryzuje się zwiększoną zdolnością rozdzielczą oraz większą czułością w porównaniu do standardowej jednowymiarowej techniki chromatografii gazowej, co pozwala na znaczne obniżenie granicy wykrywalności analitów. Bardzo dobrze sprawdza się w przypadku analiz skomplikowanych próbek o złożonym składzie. W pracy scharakteryzowana została zasada, w oparciu o którą funkcjonuje dwuwymiarowa chromatografia gazowa, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem budowy modulatorów jako istoty całego systemu. Omówiony został sposób prezentacji wyników oraz etap ich wizualizacji. Technika dwuwymiarowej chromatografii gazowej wykorzystywana jest coraz powszechniej, między innymi w analizie produktów ropopochodnych, analizie środowiskowej do oznaczania związków toksycznych dla organizmów, w analizie produktów żywnościowych oraz w kryminalistyce. W artykule przedstawiono wybrane przykłady aplikacyjne omawianej techniki.
EN
Two-dimensional gas chromatography is rapidly developing analytical technique, which is characterized by an increased resolving ability and higher sensitivity compared to standard technique of one-dimensional gas chromatography, which allows for a significant reduction in the limit of detection of analytes. This technique is ideally suited for the analysis of complicated samples with complex composition. The paper characterizes the principle of functioning of the two-dimensional gas chromatography, with particular emphasis on the construction of modulators, which are the essence of the system. Presentation of the results and the step of visualization were explained. Two-dimensional gas chromatography technique is increasingly popular, inter alia, in the petroleum products analysis, environmental analysis for the determination toxic compounds to the organisms, in the food products analysis and in the criminology. The article presents some examples of application of the technique.
PL
Przedstawiona analiza wybranych parametrów metrologicznych mikrometrów laserowych stanowi wstęp do dalszych artykułów omawiających zasadę optycznych pomiarów bezdotykowych. Na podstawie pomiarów kontrolnych wybranego mikrometru laserowego omówiono możliwości pomiarowe tych urządzeń oraz wskazano na ograniczenia w zakresie zmniejszania niepewności pomiaru. Pokazano występującą często niezgodność między podawanymi przez producentów rozdzielczościami a rzeczywistymi parametrami.
EN
This analysis of selected properties of metrological laser micrometers is an introduction to further articles in which principles of optical touchless measuring would be discussed. Basing on control measuring of a selected laser micrometer, measuring possibilities of these units have been discussed, also some restrictions concerning limitation of uncertainty of measuring have been indicated. Frequently appearing discrepancy between resolutions, presented by the producers, and real capabilities have been shown.
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