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EN
Continuous monitoring of natural gamma radiation in air has been carried out, during December 2014 – January 2018, with 1-min cyclic measurement in Prague, Czech Republic using a NaI(Tl) probe. The 214Bi/214Pb ratio as a tracer in rainwater has been investigated to study its variations related to both the ambient dose equivalent rate per hour and the amount of rainfall. A hybrid methodology for time series analysis, composed of the aggregation of two signal decomposition methods (multiple linear regression and empirical mode decomposition) and one forecasting method (support vector regression), has been applied to identify the anomalies in the studied signals in order to better find correlations among them. The results show a strong correlation between the ambient dose equivalent rate and the 214Bi/214Pb ratio values and between both these signals and rainfall amount≥5 mm/h. Furthermore, the considered descendants of radon are mainly responsible for the overall ambient dose equivalent rate.
EN
Scarcity of fresh water resources is the major constraint for agricultural development in Iran as in many other regions with arid and semi-arid climate. With the pressure on fresh water resources, the use of un-conventional water resources including brackish, saline and sewage water has received greater attentions in recent years. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of farmers' practices using saline groundwater on wheat yield and soil salinity in a Mediterranean climate of Fars province in southern Iran. The study was carried out in several commercial wheat production regions for two years. Chemical analysis of irrigation waters, volume of applied irrigation water, electrical conductivity of soil saturation extract (ECe) and yield were measured in each field. General information on agronomic practices was also collected using a questionnaire. Results demonstrate that waters with salinities higher than what has been classified as “suitable for irrigation” are being used for the production of wheat crop. Analysis of wheat yield response to saline irrigation water showed that for water salinities up to 10.7 mS∙cm–1 (threshold value) variation in yield was relatively minor, above which wheat yield decreased at a greater rate. Root zone salinity profiles showed the effect of winter rainfall in reducing soil salinity. It is concluded that although acceptable yields are obtained with some of the highly brackish waters, over application of these waters would threaten the sustainability of crop production in the region.
EN
This study is aimed at evaluating the applicability of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model technique for river discharge forecasting. Feed-forward multilayer perceptron neural network trained with back-propagation algorithm was employed for model development. Hydro-meteorological data for the Imo River watershed, that was collected from the Anambra-Imo River Basin Development Authority, Owerri – Imo State, South-East, Nigeria, was used to train, validate and test the model. Coefficients of determination results are 0.91, 0.91 and 0.93 for training, validation and testing periods respectively. River discharge forecasts were fitted against actual discharge data for one to five lead days. Model results gave R2 values of 0.95, 0.95, 0.92, 0.96 and 0.94 for first, second, third, fourth, and fifth lead days of forecasts, respectively. It was generally observed that the R2 values decreased with increase in lead days for the model. Generally, this technique proved to be effective in river discharge modelling for flood forecasting for shorter lead-day times, especially in areas with limited data sets.
EN
Climate, land use, and land cover change can propagate alteration to the watershed environment. The interaction between natural and human activities probably accelerates the change, a phenomenon that will generate serious environmental problems. This study aims to evaluate the change in the hydrological regime due to natural and human-induced processes. The study was conducted in Brantas watershed, Indonesia, which is the largest watershed in East Java. This area is populated by more than 8 million inhabitants and is the most urbanized area in the region. An analysis of rainfall time series use to shows the change in natural phenomena. Two land-use maps at different time intervals were used to compare the rapid development of urbanization, and the discharge from two outlets of the sub-watersheds was employed to assess hydrological changes. The indicator of hydrological alteration (IHA) method was used to perform the analysis. The daily discharge data are from 1996 to 2017. The research results show an increase in flow (monthly, 1-day, 3-day, 7-day, 30-day, and 90-day flows) in the two sub-watersheds (Ploso and Kertosono) from the pre-period (1996–2006) to the post-period (2007–2017).
PL
Niniejszy artykuł przedstawia racjonalizatorskie podejście do problemu zagospodarowania wód opadowych i roztopowych na przykładzie mareckiego systemu kanalizacji deszczowej, przybliżając kolejne etapy działania gminy od sporządzenia prostych modeli na podstawie wzoru Błaszczyka aż do opracowania zaawansowanych modeli hydrodynamicznych, przy zastosowaniu oprogramowania SWMM (Storm Water Management Model) w oparciu o Polski Atlas Natężeń Deszczów Miarodajnych (PANDa) [8]. Zwraca się szczególną uwagę na kompleksowe podejście do projektowania sieci kanalizacji deszczowej wraz z analizą warunków hydrogeologicznych oraz z uwzględnieniem topografii miasta i możliwości wykorzystania istniejących zbiorników wodnych oraz rowów melioracyjnych, jak również w odniesieniu do koncepcji przebudowy ulic [9]. Podejście takie pozwala na efektywne wydatkowanie pieniędzy z budżetu gminy oraz prowadzi do konsekwentnego powstawania sprawnego systemu zagospodarowania wód opadowych na terenie całego miasta. Należy dążyć do jak największego wykorzystania wód opadowych na obszarze ich powstawania oraz do minimalizowania ilości wód odprowadzanych bezpowrotnie do cieków płynących, np. do rzek. Autorzy prezentują prawidłowe podejście do modelowania oraz projektowania systemu sieci kanalizacji deszczowej, z uwzględnieniem możliwie wysokiego udziału retencji wód opadowych oraz rewitalizacji istniejących zbiorników wodnych (stawów pogliniankowych), co dodatkowo poprawi walory rekreacyjne miasta.
EN
The article presents a rationalized approach to the problem of stormwater management based on the example of rainwater drainage system in Marki, bringing closer the successive stages of municipal authorities, from the simple models based on the Błaszczyk formula to the advanced hydrodynamic models using the SWMM (Storm Water Management Model) software based on the Polish Atlas of Rains Intensities PANDa [1]. Particular attention is paid to a complex approach to designing a rainwater drainage system with an analysis of hydrogeological conditions and taking into account the topography and the possibility of using existing water reservoirs and ditches, also referring to a concept design for streets redevelopment [2]. Such an approach allows to spend money from the municipal budget in more effective way and leads to the consistent creation of an efficient stormwater management system throughout the city. One should strive to maximize the use of rainwater in the area of the rainfall and to minimize the amount of water irretrievably released to watercourses, e.g. rivers. The authors present the valid approach to modeling and designing a rainwater drainage system, considering the highest share of stormwater retention and the revitalization of existing water reservoirs (clay ponds), which will further improve the recreational value of the city.
EN
In spite of enormous investment for water harvesting in Maharashtra, the issue of water defciency persist. Therefore, with the proper understanding of recent (1975–2014) hydrometeorological characteristics in the semiarid region of Maharashtra, the study endeavored to suggest management strategies to optimize the water resources. To understand the inherent characteristics of rainfall, runof, dam storages and groundwater, statistical techniques including descriptive statistics, correlation, regression and Student’s t test were applied. The monsoon rainfall has notable control over the water resources. As the study region characterized by signifcantly low water availability with high variability which is accountable for higher frequency and intensity of drought, it should be prioritized while formulating a judicial plan for water management. The major rivers of Maharashtra follow the unimodal pattern of rainfall. Whereas the study area displays a peculiar character of the bimodal and unimodal regimes of rainfall and runof, respectively, this highlights the role of hydrological losses. However, it also indicates that there is a wide scope to harvest surface water, particularly during the months of September and October. Interestingly, the inter-annual variability in the extreme rainfall and runof events over the study basins is observed to be higher in India. Most of the water (>50%) received during fashy rainfall events drains out through fashy discharges. The impoundment of this water and modifed irrigation schedule by considering the recent hydrological characteristics may diminish the variability and defciency of surface and subsurface water. Furthermore, for the precise forecast of water availability in the study area, ENSO condition needs to incorporate, as it has a signifcant connection with rainfall and runof.
EN
The purpose of this paper was to demonstrate the added value of the spatial distribution of rainfall and potential evapotranspiration (PE) in the prediction of the discharge for a small Mediterranean catchment located in the Medjerda basin in Tunisia, i.e. the Raghay. We compare therefore the performance of a conceptual hydrological model available in the ATHYS platform, using global and spatial distributed input data. The model was implemented in two diferent ways. The frst implementation was in a spatially distributed mode, and the second one was in a non-distributed lumped mode by using spatially averaged data weighed with a Thiessen-interpolated factor. The performance of the model was analysed for the distributed mode and for the lumped mode with a cross-validation test and through several modelling evaluation criteria. Simultaneously, the impact of the spatial distribution of meteorological data was assessed for the two cases when estimating the model parameters, the fow and water amounts, and the fow duration curves. The cross-validation of the split-sample test shows a preference for the spatially distributed model based on accuracy criteria and graphical comparison. The distributed mode required, however, more simulation time. Finally, the results reported for the Raghay indicated that the added value of the spatial distribution of rainfall and PE is not constant for the whole series of data, depending on the spatial and temporal variability of climate data over the catchment that should be assessed prior to the modelling implementations.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono przegląd literatury dotyczącej wyboru natężenia opadu określanego dla różnych celów. Rozpoczęto od wartości przyjmowanych do wymiarowania lokalnych systemów odwodnień, poprzez krótkie kanały, do dużych systemów kanalizacyjnych. Opisano szczegółowo dwie racjonalne metody wymiarowania kanalizacji stosowane w Polsce. Następnie podano wartości intensywności opadów przyjmowane do projektowania systemów oczyszczania wód deszczowych.
EN
A literature review on different rain intensities selected for different purposes was presented. The selection started from the values used for designing of local area draining systems, through short sewers to large sewerage systems. Two rational methods used for designing of sewerage systems in Poland were described in details. Then selection of rain intensities were described for designing of storm water treatment systems.
PL
W pracy podjęto próbę predykcji przyszłych opadów maksymalnych, miarodajnych do wymiarowania systemów odwodnień terenów zurbanizowanych. Materiałem badawczym były archiwalne zapisy pluwiograficzne ze stacji IMGW-PIB we Wrocławiu z 59. lat obserwacji (1960-2018). Opracowany model maksymalnych wysokości opadów ma zastosowanie dla czasów trwania od 5 do 4320 minut i częstości występowania od 1 do 50 lat dla okresu predykcji opadów na lata 2020-2050. Na podstawie przeprowadzonych badań przewiduje się wzrost wysokości opadów krótkotrwałych i spadek wysokości opadów długotrwałych w perspektywie do 2050 roku.
EN
The paper attempts to predict future maximum rainfall, reliable for dimensioning drainage systems. The research material was archival pluviographic records from the IMGW-PIB station in Wroclaw from 59 years of observations (1960-2018). The developed model of maximum rainfall amounts is applicable for durations from 5 to 4320 minutes and frequency of occurrence from 1 to 50 years for the period of rainfall prediction for 2020-2050. On the basis of the conducted research, an increase in short-term rainfall amounts and a decrease in long-term rainfall amounts are expected.
EN
The article presents issues related to modeling of the rainfall-runoff phenomenon. As factors influencing the simulation results, the velocity and direction of precipitation relative to the drainage basin were indicated. The possibility of underestimating the crosssections of rainwater channels as a result of overlapping rain wave directions and the dominant flow direction in the rainwater channel network was pointed out. The research results to date indicate a reduction in the symptoms of this phenomenon as the complexity of the channel network increases. The final verification was based on the actual catchment. Calculations were made using the Epa SWMM 5.1.013 software. The results are presented in a graphic form to illustrate the variability of stormwater outflow.
EN
West Africa plays key roles in global climate and shows one of the strongest variations in hydro-climatic conditions. As it turns out, the region appears to be underrepresented in the existing compendium of Earth science and hydrology-focused journal papers when it comes to significant discussion on terrestrial hydrology and freshwater science. This prominent gap is largely precipitated by increasing number of constraints that include lack of considerable and robust investments in gauge measurements for meteorological and hydrological applications, poor funding of research institutions and other disincentives, among other factors. In this manuscript, the challenges and problems in large-scale terrestrial hydrology-focused investigation in West Africa are reviewed. Using a dossier of some recent contributions in the field of remote sensing hydrology, this review also highlights some of the progress in terrestrial hydrology and the opportunities that exist for hydro-geodetic research in West Africa that leverage on sustained investments in satellite geodetic missions. It is noted that West Africa is still a pristine environment for hydrology-focused research and can benefit from recent advancements in sophisticated space agency programs such as the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment, which undoubtedly has revolutionized terrestrial hydrology research around the world for nearly two decades. Given the poor density of gauge stations and limited ground observations, hydrological research in West Africa is expected to benefit more from independent space observations and multi-resolution data. This is because the lack of sufficient in-situ data for the parameterizations and adequate initialization of outputs from hydrological models and reanalysis data for hydrological applications results in poor representation of the West African land surface and hydrological state variables. To further improve our contemporary understanding of West Africa’s terrestrial hydrology, the continued evaluation/validation of these observations and space-borne measurements is advocated.
PL
Zarządzanie wodami opadowymi stanowi jedno z największych wyzwań stojących przed współczesnymi miastami. Coraz częściej dochodzi do gwałtownych zjawisk pogodowych, takich jak ulewne deszcze. O tym, jak radzić sobie z tym zjawiskiem rozmawiano w Gniewie podczas 13. Konferencji Wody Opadowe – aspekty prawne, ekonomiczne i techniczne.
EN
The aim of the research is to obtain preliminary information about the spatial distribution of gamma radionuclides in the soils taken from the Ojców National Park with emphasis on the behaviour of artificial radionuclides, with 137Cs as a representative. The natural radionuclides 40K, 226Ra (uranium series), and 228Th (thorium series), which are considered as background radiation, were also determined. In total, 18 soil samples were collected during the summer periods in 2015–2017, while the sampling points were selected with respect to differences in rainfall and local topography gradient. The method was based on gamma-ray spectrometry performed on high-purity germanium (HPGe) gamma detector (relative efficiency 34%). 137Cs was mostly deposited in the top soil layers, with activity in the range of 27.9÷586.6 Bq•kg–1. We found strong positive correlation of the 137Cs activity with the soil organic matter content, and at the same time, its dependence on the rainfall amount. Consequently, the soil types and local climate can control the spatial distribution of 137Cs on a small spatial scale. The quantity of natural radionuclides was highly similar in all samples with the following mean values: 38.0 Bq•kg–1 for 228Th, 33.1 Bq•kg–1 for 226Ra, and 479.9 Bq•kg–1 for 40K.
EN
This study detected, for the first time, the long term annual and seasonal rainfall trends over Bihar state, India, between 1901 and 2002. The shift change point was identified with the cumulative deviation test (cumulative sum – CUSUM), and linear regression. After the shift change point was detected, the time series was subdivided into two groups: before and after the change point. Arc-Map 10.3 was used to evaluate the spatial distribution of the trends. It was found that annual and monsoon rainfall trends decreased significantly; no significant trends were observed in pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon and winter rainfall. The average decline in rainfall rate was –2.17 mm·year–1 and –2.13 mm·year–1 for the annual and monsoon periods. The probable change point was 1956. The number of negative extreme events were higher in the later period (1957–2002) than the earlier period (1901–1956).
PL
W badaniach prezentowanych w niniejszej pracy wykryto po raz pierwszy długookresowe trendy rocznych i sezonowych wartości opadów w indyjskim stanie Bihar w latach 1901–2002. Stosując kumulatywny test odchyleń (CUSUM – ang. cumulative deviation test) i regresję liniową zidentyfikowano punkt zwrotny. Następnie serie czasowe zostały podzielone na dwie grupy: przed i po punkcie zwrotnym. Do oceny przestrzennego rozkładu trendów zastosowano program Arc-Map 10.3. Stwierdzono, że trendy rocznych i monsunowych opadów znacząco malały. Nie zaobserwowano istotnych trendów w odniesieniu do opadów przed monsunem, po monsunie i w okresie zimowym. Średnie zmniejszenie ilości opadów wynosiło 2,17 mm·rok–1 i 2,13 mm ·rok–1 odpowiednio dla opadów rocznych i monsunowych. Prawdopodobnym punktem zwrotnym był rok 1956. Liczba skrajnych negatywnych zjawisk była większa w okresie 1957–2002 niż w okresie 1901–1956.
EN
The dam of Hammam Boughrara is an embankment dam built in a transboundary basin, between Algeria and Morocco; it was type-approved and delivered in 1998. This dam was supposed to solve the lack of drinking water in Oran (Algeria's second largest city) and enhance the agricultural perimeter of the area. It should regulate an annual water volume of 59 million m3. However, the northwest Algeria has experienced a fairly severe drought since the 80s. This article aims to show the impact of this drought on the amount of surface water that can be mobilized by this dam. The rainfall series recorded at four stations, located within the basin of the dam, were examined using the proportional deviation from the average, the running average, the frequency analysis, the Pita’s index and the standardized precipitation index. These methods have shown a significant decrease of rain, starting from the hydrological year 1975/1976. These same approaches were also used to analyse series of flows spread over a longer period. This fact revealed three periods of drought which are 1940–1945, 1955–1967 and the most recent one highlighted by the rainfall series, starts at the year 1975/1976. The regularized water volume of the dam, calculated from the series of flow rates, is around 37 million m3. This value reflects a deficit of 40% of the regularized volume predicted by the designers of the dam.
PL
Zaporę Hammam Boughrara zbudowano na granicy Algierii i Maroka i uruchomiono w 1998 r. Zapora miała na celu rozwiązać problem braku wody pitnej w Oranie (drugim co do wielkości mieście Algierii) i zwiększyć zasięg rolnictwa w regionie. Miała regulować rocznie zasoby wody o objętości 59 milionów m3. Północnozachodnie regiony Algierii doświadczają jednak silnej suszy od lat osiemdziesiątych XX wieku. Artykuł ma wykazać wpływ tej suszy na ilość wody, którą może gromadzić zbiornik. Serie opadowe notowane w czterech stacjach zlokalizowanych w zlewni zbiornika analizowano z wykorzystaniem proporcjonalnego odchylenia od średniej, ruchomej średniej, analizy częstości, wskaźnika Pity i wskaźnika standaryzowanego opadu. Stosowane metody wykazały istotne zmniejszenie ilości opadu począwszy od roku hydrologicznego 1975/1976. Takie samo podejście zastosowano do analizy serii szybkości przepływu, które obejmują dłuższy okres. Analiza ujawniła trzy okresy suszy, które przypadały na lata 1940–1945, 1955–1967 i ostatni wykazany przez serie opadów, który rozpoczął się w roku 1975/1976. Zasoby wody regulowane rocznie obliczone z serii przepływów wynoszą ok. 37 milionów m3. Ta ilość w istocie odzwierciedla deficyt gromadzonej wody, gdyż jest o 40% mniejsza niż objętość przewidywana przez projektantów zapory.
EN
The climatic change is a reality largely recognized today in the scientific community. Nevertheless, its impact on precipitation, especially on annual, monthly and seasonally rainfall in arid and semi-arid regions is not yet certain. Indeed, very few studies have dealt with this matter in Algeria. In this context to examine spatial distribution of annual and seasonal rainfall an attempt has been made using the inverse distance weighting (IDW) method. Trends and magnitude estimate of change in rainfall series were detected by Mann–Kendall tests and Sen's test slope, has been applied to the data registered of 35 stations in the watershed Constantinois Seybouse Mellegue (CSM) North-Eastern Algeria over a period of 43 years (1969–2012). Results from spatial plot of annual rainfall showed that the rainfall increases with altitude, but is higher for the stations exposed to moist winds. It also increases from east to west and conversely decreases as one moves away from the coast to the south. From statistical method showed that there are increase trends at 95% confidence at annual scale in some rainfall stations with high altitude and coastal stations during winter season.
PL
Zmiana klimatu jest faktem powszechnie uznawanym obecnie przez społeczność naukową. Mimo to jej wpływ na opady, szczególnie na roczny, miesięczny i sezonowy opad na obszarach klimatu suchego i półsuchego, nie jest jeszcze dobrze rozpoznany. Do tej pory tylko kilka badań w Algierii dotyczyło tej kwestii. W związku z tym podjęto próbę zbadania przestrzennego rozmieszczenia rocznych i sezonowych opadów za pomocą metody odwrotnej odległości (IDW – ang. inverse distance weighting). Trendy i wielkość oszacowanych zmian w seriach opadów analizowano testem Manna–Kendalla, a test nachylenia Sena użyto do danych zgromadzonych w 35 posterunkach opadowych w zlewni Constantinois Seybouse Mellegue (CSM) w północno- -wschodniej Algierii w ciągu 43 lat (1969–2012). Wyniki analiz przestrzennego rozkładu rocznych opadów wykazały, że opad rośnie wraz z wysokością nad poziomem morza i jest większy w stanowiskach eksponowanych na wilgotne wiatry. Opad rośnie ze wschodu na zachód, a maleje od wybrzeża w kierunku południowym. Metody statystyczne ujawniły rosnący (przedział ufności 95%) trend opadów w niektórych posterunkach na dużych wysokościach i w posterunkach przybrzeżnych w okresie zimy.
EN
The study presents the analysis of water consumption in Bialystok in north-eastern Poland in the years 2007–2013. It has been shown in the study that demand for water during a week is varying and it fluctuates. A detailed analysis of water consumption on individual days of the week and public holidays is presented. Individual consumption per capita and daily water consumption irregularity coefficients were estimated. In the analysed period, the highest average daily water demand was recorded on Saturdays (43,129 m3 ), and the lowest on Sundays (37,712 m3 ). Moreover, the impact of economic and environmental factors on the process under study has been characterized in the study. In Bialystok, the price of water increased by 42% in the years 2007-2013, with the inflation rate in the country at 119.2% in those years. It is also presented the influence of maximum daily temperature and precipitation sum on daily water consumption on working days and Saturdays, as well as separately, on Sundays and public holidays.
EN
Analysis of rainfall data from the island of Crete, Greece was performed to identify key hydrological years and return periods as well as to analyze the inter-annual behavior of the rainfall variability during the period 1981–2014. The rainfall spatial distribution was also examined in detail to identify vulnerable areas of the island. Data analysis using statistical tools and spectral analysis were applied to investigate and interpret the temporal course of the available rainfall data set. In addition, spatial analysis techniques were applied and compared to determine the rainfall spatial distribution on the island of Crete. The analysis presented that in contrast to Regional Climate Model estimations, rainfall rates have not decreased, while return periods vary depending on seasonality and geographic location. A small but statistical significant increasing trend was detected in the inter-annual rainfall variations as well as a significant rainfall cycle almost every 8 years. In addition, statistically significant correlation of the island’s rainfall variability with the North Atlantic Oscillation is identified for the examined period. On the other hand, regression kriging method combining surface elevation as secondary information improved the estimation of the annual rainfall spatial variability on the island of Crete by 70% compared to ordinary kriging. The rainfall spatial and temporal trends on the island of Crete have variable characteristics that depend on the geographical area and on the hydrological period.
EN
Abundant rainfall areas promote sediment yield at both sub-watershed and watershed scale due to soil erosion and increase siltation of river channel, but it can be curtailed through planned urbanization. The urbanization of Skudai watershed is analysed from historical and future perspective. A GIS-based model (Hydrological Simulation Programme-FORTRAN-HSPF) is used to modelled sediment flow using basin-wide simulation, and the output result is utilized in evaluating sediment yield reduction due to increased urbanization by swapping multiple temporal land-use of decadent time-steps. The analysis indicates that sediment yield reduces with increase urban built-up and decrease forest and agricultural land. An estimated 12 400 tons of sediment will be reduced for every 27% increase in built-up areas under high rainfall condition and 1 490 tons at low rainfall. The sensitivity analysis of land-use classes shows that built-up, forest and barren are more sensitive to sediment yield reduction compared to wetland and agricultural land at both high and low rainfall. The result of the study suggests that increased urbanization reduced sediment yield in proportion to the rainfall condition and can be used as an alternative approach for soil conservation at watershed scale independent of climate condition.
PL
Duże opady atmosferyczne sprzyjają przemieszczaniu się osadów w skali zlewni w wyniku erozji gleby, powodując zamulanie koryta rzecznego. Procesy te można ograniczyć przez planową urbanizację. Urbanizację zlewni Skudai analizowano w perspektywie historycznej (przedziały 10-letnie) i w kontekście przyszłych zmian. Do modelowania przepływu osadu użyto programu symulacji hydrologicznej Fortran (HSPF), a wyniki modelowania wykorzystano do oceny zmniejszenia ilości osadu związanej z urbanizacją. Analiza wskazuje, że ładunek osadów maleje ze zwiększeniem udziału zabudowy miejskiej oraz z ograniczeniem powierzchni lasów i gruntów rolniczych. W warunkach intensywnych opadów ładunek osadu może zmaleć o 12 400 t, gdy udział terenów zabudowanych zwiększy się o 27%. W warunkach małych opadów ładunek zmniejszy się o 1 490 t. Analiza wrażliwości klas użytkowania ziemi wykazała, że obszary zabudowane, lasy i ugory są bardziej wrażliwe na zmniejszenie ładunku osadu niż obszary podmokłe i grunty rolnicze, zarówno w warunkach dużego jak i małego natężenia opadów. Wyniki badań sugerują, że zwiększony udział terenów zabudowanych ogranicza ładunek osadów proporcjonalnie do ilości opadów, w związku z czym planowa urbanizacja może być wykorzystana jako alternatywne podejście do ochrony gleb w skali zlewni, niezależnie od warunków klimatycznych.
EN
This study intended to illustrate the distribution of surface run-off. The methodology was by using Kineros model (kinetic run-off and erosion model). This model is a part of AGWA program which is as the development of ESRI ArcView SIG software that is as a tool for analysing hydrological phenomena in research about watershed simulating the process of infiltration, run-off depth, and erosion in a watershed of small scale such as ≤100 km2. The procedures are as follow: to analyse the run-off depth in Brantas sub-watershed, Klojen District by using Kineros model based on the land use change due to the rainfall simulation with the return period of 2 years, 5 years, 10 years, and 25 years. Results show that the difference of land use affect the surface run-off or there is the correlation between land use and surface run-off depth. The maximum surface run-off depth in the year 2000 was 134.26 mm; in 2005 it was 139.36 mm; and in 2010 it was 142.76 mm. There was no significant difference between Kineros model and observation in field, the relative error was only 9.09%.
PL
Celem badań było przedstawienie rozkładu spływu powierzchniowego za pomocą modelu Kineros (model kinetyki spływu i erozji). Model jest częścią programu AGWA, który stanowi rozwinięcie programu ESRI ArcView SIG, czyli narzędzia do analizowania zjawisk hydrologicznych w badaniach zlewni symulujących procesy infiltracji, spływu powierzchniowego i erozji w małych zlewniach o powierzchni mniejszej niż 100 km2. Procedura obejmowała analizę głębokości spływu w zlewni cząstkowej Brantas, w Dystrykcie Klojen za pomocą modelu Kineros na podstawie zmiany użytkowania ziemi i symulacji opadów z okresem powtarzalności 2, 5, 10 i 25 lat. Wyniki wskazują, że różnice w użytkowaniu ziemi wpływają na spływ powierzchniowy i że istnieje korelacja między użytkowaniem ziemi i głębokością spływu powierzchniowego. Maksymalna głębokość spływu wynosiła 134,26 mm w roku 2000, 139,36 mm w roku 2005 i 142,76 mm w roku 2010.
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