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EN
Proper operation of railway vehicles is the basis for the functioning of a safe railway system. At the same time, it is not possible to talk about the safe use of a vehicle without adequately carried out maintenance processes. Due to legislative changes in August 2017, the maintenance system of railway vehicles has changed significantly. In most cases, it is the entities responsible for maintenance that are fully liable for the shape of the maintenance documentation, not the national security authority (in Poland the President of the Rail Transport Office) as has been the case so far. That is a big challenge for everyone involved in maintaining railway vehicles. The article presents the system of maintenance of railway vehicles as critical for the railway system safety, with the division into those registered in the National Railway Register and the unregistered ones. National and EU requirements for maintenance systems as well as the conditions for the implementation of "changes" in these systems have been presented, based, among others, on the results of the risk assessment of the threats they generate.
PL
Prawidłowa eksploatacja pojazdów kolejowych jest podstawą funkcjonowania bezpiecznego systemu kolejowego. Jednocześnie nie można mówić o bezpiecznym użytkowaniu pojazdu bez prawidłowego przeprowadzenia procesów utrzymaniowych W związku ze zmianami legislacyjnymi w sierpniu 2017 r. system utrzymania pojazdów kolejowych uległ istotnym zmianom. W większości przypadków to na podmiotach odpowiedzialnych za utrzymanie spoczęła pełna odpowiedzialność za kształt dokumentacji utrzymaniowej, nie zaś na krajowej władzy bezpieczeństwa (w przypadku Polski na Prezesie Urzędu Transportu Kolejowego), jak było do tej pory. To duże wyzwanie dla wszystkich zajmujących się utrzymywaniem pojazdów kolejowych. Artykuł przedstawia krytyczny dla bezpieczeństwa systemu kolejowego system utrzymania pojazdów kolejowych, z podziałem na pojazdy zarejestrowane w Krajowym Rejestrze Pojazdów Kolejowych i niezarejestrowane. Zaprezentowano wymagania krajowe i unijne dla systemów utrzymania, jak również warunki wdrażania „zmian” w tych systemach, oparte m.in. na wynikach oceny ryzyka generowanych przez nie zagrożeń.
EN
The article discusses the legal acts applicable to the process of obtaining authorization for placing TSI-compliant railway vehicles in service. The procedure in the case of applying for the first authorization for a railway vehicle is also outlined. The procedure concerning a vehicle that is authorized for placement in service in another Member State, but that will also be used in Poland, is presented, as well.
PL
W ostatnich latach, w Europie i na świecie obserwuje się dynamiczny rozwój kolei dużych prędkości. Przy rosnących prędkościach, aerodynamika pojazdów kolejowych staje się coraz bardziej istotnym zagadnieniem. W artykule odniesiono się do problemu stateczności pojazdów przy wietrze bocznym i omówiono wpływ prędkości pojazdu na to zjawisko. Do określania sił aerodynamicznych występujących w tym zagadnieniu wykorzystuje się sześć współczynników aerodynamicznych. Opisano metody służące do ich wyznaczania – badania modelowe w tunelach wiatrowych i badania numeryczne z użyciem symulacji CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics), w odniesieniu do normy PN-EN 14067-6:2018-10 i wymagań TSI. Przedstawiono wyniki wstępnych badań własnych, których celem było rozpoznanie możliwości obliczeniowych analiz CFD jako narzędzia do numerycznego wyznaczania współczynników aerodynamicznych na potrzeby dalszych badań prowadzących do opracowania metody analizy drgań układu pociąg – most, poddanego działaniu wiatru bocznego.
EN
In recent years, dynamic development of high-speed railways is observed in Europe and in the world. Due to the train speeds increase, aerodynamics of railway vehicles becomes more and more important issue. In the paper, the cross-wind stability problem of a railway vehicle and the influence of the train speed on this phenomenon is discussed. As a derailment risk analysis requires to determine in total six cross-wind aerodynamic forces and moments acting on a given vehicle, a knowledge of six associated with them aerodynamic coefficients is a groundwork for train stability analysis. Two most common methods of analysis of air flow around trains are pointed out – wind tunnel testing and CFD method (Computational Fluid Dynamics method). Both methods are described in the paper, in reference to PN-EN 14067-6:2018-10 and TSI requirements, and later a CFD method is applied to examine a basic train model. The main aim of this preliminary research was to recognize CFD method as a tool for a further research on cross-wind-induced vibrations of a train - bridge system.
EN
The paper discusses one of the most important stages in the developed methodology for building a strategy of maintenance of railway vehicles, which is the RAMS analysis (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, Safety) in the area of safety. The paper presents the application of RAMS analysis in the construction process (development or change) of the maintenance strategy on the example of a 6Dg diesel locomotive. Based on the conducted research, it was found that this analysis enables proper classification of hazards, quantification of the frequency of occurrence of hazards and the adoption of the appropriate criteria for risk assessment of the created strategy.
PL
W pracy omówiono jeden z najistotniejszych etapów w opracowanej metodyce budowy strategii utrzymania kolejowych środków transportu jakim jest analiza RAMS (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability, Safety) w obszarze bezpieczeństwa. W pracy przedstawiono zastosowanie analizy RAMS w procesie budowy (opracowania lub zmiany) strategii utrzymania na przykładzie lokomotywy spalinowej typu 6Dg. Na podstawie przeprowadzonych badań stwierdzono, że analiza ta umożliwia właściwą klasyfikację zagrożeń, kwantyfikację częstości wystąpienia zagrożeń, a także przyjęcie właściwych kryteriów w ocenie ryzyka budowanej strategii.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono możliwości wykorzystania wybranych smarów stałych i urządzeń do ich zastosowania do smarowania w skojarzeniach tocznych i ślizgowych maszyn i urządzeń w zależności od warunków użytkowania, w tym maszyn stosowanych w górnictwie. Zarówno smary stałe w postaci kostek, jak i ich aplikatory sprawdziły się w smarowaniu obrzeży kół kolejowych podczas jazdy po łuku, kiedy dodatkowe zużycie obręczy koła i główki szyny jest spowodowane siłami odśrodkowymi.
EN
The paper presents the possibilities of using selected solid greases and devices used for their application for lubricating the rolling and sliding contacts of machines and devices, depending on operational conditions, including machines used in mining. Both solid greases in the form of blocks and their applicators have turned out to be effective in lubricating the edges of railway wheels while driving around a curve, when the additional wear of the wheel rim and the rail head is caused by centrifugal forces.
EN
The article presents an innovative, electronic system of tracking and monitoring of the condition of railway vehicles. Thanks to the use of electronic tools, it is possible to track vehicles and transported cargo in real time, in particular railway wagons. The author also presents the functionalities of the system, including the possibility of ongoing management of the operation process of railway vehicles and the detection of potentia! hazards and emergency states of monitored railway fleet. A system user, e.g. a railway undertaking, can use the System to optimize the maintenance process of railway vehicles. lt can easily manage periodic inspections ofvehicles, including individual levels of maintenance. Thanks to the system, the user can continuously receive information and alerts regarding the location of vehicles and their technical condition. Thanks to this, it can optima Iły manage their operation process, significantly increasing the level of safety in rail transport.
7
Content available remote Processing of Information Obtained From Passing Vehicles
EN
The article discusses the design project of a speed bump enabling the monitoring of the vehicle chassis. The proposed analysis of the chassis will serve the purpose of reducing the threats connected with undesirable interference with in the vehicle’s structure. Additionally, it can allow for identification of foreign objects located under the vehicle, in order to prevent their uncontrolled transfer into or from the protected zone. The duralumin housing with cameras and sensors installed, as well as the matrix of magnetic sensors mounted on the speed bump, make it possible to identify characteristic magnetic anomalies, enabling the comparison of the "map" of the distribution of the magnetic levels of specific vehicle at points representing various time spans. At the same time, magnetic sensors are capable of detecting magnetic objects mounted under the vehicle. The article presents the results of the selection and optimization of individual elements of the monitoring system, and their real operation. The application in the Labview environment ensures the registration and analysis of signals appropriate for the system. The entire detection process can be observed on an ongoing basis on the computer screen, and recordings of various time lapses can be digitally compared by means of processing of the obtained images. The used functions minimize threats connected with unauthorized use of vehicles entering the protected zone where particular safety measures are applied.
8
Content available remote Adaptive slip&slide control system design in railway applications
EN
Adhesion coefficient and the resultant normal force occurred at the wheel-rail contact determine braking and traction forces in railway applications. Due to the limits on controlling the resultant normal force, maximization of the adhesion coefficient is the only way to obtain larger braking and tractive works. There are various advantages of utilization of adhesion in an efficient way, such as reducing operating costs, minimizing trip time, preventing wheel-rail wear. On the other hand, the adhesion mechanism at the wheel-rail contact has a highly non-linear complex nature, whose dynamics are changed as a function of parameters like environmental conditions, vehicle speed, slip ratio etc. There is not any satisfactory accurate and trustworthy way of estimating these parameters yet. In this paper, an event based adaptive control scheme has been introduced to maximize the adhesion coefficient without requiring the exact value of those parameters. The efficient adhesion utilization can be obtained by using the proposed method while maintaining the stability. The continuous excitement of traction system and slow recuperation detection time difficulties in the former research has been overcome. The dynamics of phase shift were analyzed and an adaptive structure were built. Results acquired by using the proposed adaptive method were compared with the conventional control scheme in “Matlab&Simulink” software under various driving scenarios and wheel-rail contact conditions.
9
Content available remote Metody zmniejszenia uciążliwości środowiskowej pojazdów kolejowych
PL
W artykule przedstawiono przegląd najbardziej nowatorskich technologii i systemów wykorzystywanych do oczyszczania spalin emitowanych z silników tłokowych montowanych w pojazdach szynowych. Przedmiotowe układy zostały scharakteryzowane zarówno pod względem wydajności, jak i zastosowanych rozwiązań technologicznych. Przedstawiono wpływ ich użycia na zmianę klasy emisji jednostki napędowej pojazdu kolejowego, co jest istotne w dobie obecnej problematyki skutecznego zmniejszania emisji zanieczyszczeń stałych i gazowych z każdego sektora transportu.
EN
The article presents an overview of the most novel technologies and systems used as aftertreatment in rail vehicles. Different solutions, both in terms of efficiency and technologies used, are explored and evaluated based on their applicability. Modern aftertreatment solutions were assessed based on their cost and availability, the downsides and advantages of using either solution are presented, their impact on the vehicle emission class is also described. The article aims to present a clear assessment of available technologies currently in use, such as aftertreatment systems to be attached to locomotives and their ergonomic limitations, to serve as a guide for further development in the rail transport sector emission reduction technologies.
10
Content available remote Kolejowe krzywe przejściowe, a dynamika poprzeczna i pionowa pojazdu
PL
Niniejsza praca to element weryfikacji wyników wcześniejszych badań autorów dotyczących poszukiwania optymalnych kształtów kolejowych krzywych przejściowych (KP). Wykorzystano w niej matematyczne metody optymalizacji i symulacji. Zastosowana symulacja komputerowa dotyczyła zachowania modelu dynamicznego 2-osiowego pojazdu szynowego. Jako krzywą przejściową w wykonanych dotąd analizach przyjęto wielomian stopnia n, gdzie n=9 i 11. Jako funkcje celu (kryteria oceny) zastosowano wielkości dotyczące dynamiki tak poziomej, jak i pionowej – przemieszczeń i przyspieszeń nadwozia pojazdu szynowego. Celem badań było znalezienie optymalnych kształtów KP ze względu na przyjęte kryteria oraz porównanie ich ze sobą.
EN
This work is part of the verification of the results of previous studies of the authors concerning the search for the optimum shape of railway transition curves (TCs). In work it used mathematical methods of optimization and simulation. The computer simulation concerned the dynamic behavior of the the 2-axle rail vehicle model. As the transition curve the authors adopted a polynomial of degree n, where n=9 and 11. The quality function (evaluation criteria) used concerned both lateral and vertical - displacements and accelerations of the vehicle body. The aim of the research was to find the optimum shapes of the TCs, taking into account the criteria adopted and comparison of them among themselves.
EN
Dynamic behavior of a track-train system is a function of axle loads and support stiffness because of non-linear supports. Therefore, it is expected that the support stiffness affects the behavior of the railway track during passing of a light or heavy car body. Since the effects of axle loads caused by light and heavy railway vehicles and support stiffness of ballasted railway tracks due to passing railway vehicles have not been studied adequately, therefore the present study focused on this issue. For this purpose, this issue was first investigated by passing a light and heavy car body including bogies with three axle loads as field tests. Then, numerical analyses of the railway track caused by the passing of these railway vehicles were studied, and the numerical results were compared with the field results. There was a good agreement between the values of field responses and numerical analyses. Subsequently, a series of sensitivity analyses on effects of the axle loads caused by light or heavy loading and support conditions was done on the ballasted railway track. The results indicated that the maximum vertical displacements increased by axle loads, increased sleeper distances and decreases support stiffness. Finally, equations of track behavior based on support stiffness and axle loads were derived.
12
Content available remote Train control system for railway vehicles running at operational speed
EN
Purpose: Bulgaria's accession to the transport system in European Union as well as the strategic geographic location of the country suggests a high level of operational reliability in the rail sector. This paper contains a detailed study aimed to investigate the advantages and disadvantages of the Checkpoint Systems implemented by leading railway administrations. Design/methodology/approach: The basic principles of the construction of Checkpoint Systems are examined and the purpose of corresponding regional system for control of the train technical state in motion in Bulgaria is defined. The possibilities for the application of different types of sensors in order to achieve necessary and sufficient features for reliable implementation at a relatively low price were analysed. Findings: A model for values comparison of the most important parameters is proposed. The Recognition System is based on intelligent optical sensors that operate through cameras mounted on certain height which scans the numbers of wagons and after subsequent software image processing it compares them to the numbers from database. Practical implications: Application of these systems increases safe movement of trains and regulates the superintendence between the infrastructure operators and managing infrastructure state institutions. Originality/value: The novelty in this authors’ approach is the use of accelerometer sensors measurements that examines the magnitude of acceleration acquired by the rail under the effect of shock cyclical loads. Thanks to achievements of modern communication and information technologies, the key aspects of creating technical connections are marked. This research indicated the guidelines for the development of a nationwide unified network of diagnostic points which will help the future studies.
13
Content available remote Zagadnienie nawisu taboru w kontekście systemów sterowania ruchem kolejowym
PL
W artykule opisano zagadnienia związane z konstrukcją taboru kolejowego i jej wpływem na możliwość wykrywania zajętości w układzie torowym. Wskazano możliwe konsekwencje braku kompatybilności taboru z linią w tym zakresie. Podano przykładowe wielkości nawisów oraz przepisy projektowania urządzeń sterowania ruchem kolejowym odnoszące się do tego zagadnienia.
EN
In the article issues connected with railway vehicles structures and their possible impact on track occupancy detection are described. Possible consequences of lack of compatibility between track and vehicles are pointed in this context. Examples of lengths of vehicles noses and design rules relating to this issue are presented.
PL
W publikacji przestawiono zagadnienia związane z monitorowaniem czynności utrzymaniowych dla pojazdów kolejowych, oraz rozwiązania dedykowane dla podmiotów odpowiedzialnych za utrzymanie wagonów towarowych oparte na normie PN-EN 50126:2002 wraz z opisem analizy czynnikowej dla 11 proponowanych wskaźników, wyłaniając ostatecznie pięć, mających decydujący wpływ na prawidłowy proces nadzorowania pojazdów. Od 1991 roku Rada Wspólnot Europejskich publikując Dyrektywę 1991/440/WE „w sprawie rozwoju kolei wspólnotowych” zainicjowała liberalizację europejskiego rynku kolejowego. Po trzynastu latach odpowiadając na wymagania branżowe Wspólnota zajęła wspólne stanowisko w sprawie bezpieczeństwa na kolei, wydając 29 kwietnia 2004 roku Dyrektywę 2004/49/WE Parlamentu Europejskiego i Rady. W dyrektywie tej zawarto wymóg budowy i wdrożenia Systemów Zarządzania Bezpieczeństwem (SMS), którego głównym narzędziem jest zarządzanie ryzykiem operacyjnym. Cztery lata później Dyrektywa 110/2008/WE po raz pierwszy wprowadza termin Podmiotu Odpowiedzialnego za Utrzymanie (ECM) a co za tym idzie idee Systemu Zarządzania Utrzymaniem (MMS), ostatecznie finalizując je 10 maja 2011 obowiązkową certyfikacją systemów utrzymania dla wagonów towarowych, zgodnie z Rozporządzeniem Komisji 445/2011. Jednym z obowiązkowych kryteriów, opisywanych w rozporządzeniu jest wymóg monitorowania czynności utrzymaniowych, mający zastosowanie w celu utrzymywania lub podnoszenia poziomu bezpieczeństwa poprzez ciągłe doskonalenie procesu utrzymywania pojazdów kolejowych.
EN
Commission Regulation (EU) No. 445/2011 on a system of certification of entities in charge of maintenance (ECM) for freight wagons requires these entities to supervise the condition of wagons, without specifying methods of supervision This publication discusses issues related to the monitoring of maintenance operations for rail vehicles and dedicated solutions for entities in charge of maintenance for freight wagons based on PN-EN 50126:2002 standard. This paper describes factor analysis of the proposed indicators (eventually five are selected), having decisive impact on the correctness of process for monitoring vehicles. Council of the European Communities published the Directive No 1991/440/WE "On the development of the Community’s railways" in 1991 and initiated thus the liberalization of the European Rail Market. After thirteen years the Community took a common position on rail safety, publishing on 29 April 2004 Directive 2004/49/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council. The Directive requires the development and implementation of Safety Management Systems (SMS), whose main tool is the management of operational risk. Four years later, Directive 110/2008/WE first introduced the term Entity in Charge of Maintenance (ECM) and new system Maintenance Management System (MMS) associated with ECM. Finally, on 10 May 2011 Commission Regulation 445/2011 [3] established mandatory certification of maintenance systems for freight wagons. One of the mandatory criteria described in the Regulation is the obligation to monitor maintenance operations in order to keep or to increase the level of safety through continuous improvement.
15
EN
Nowadays, transportation becomes a significant source, apart from factories and power plants, of air pollution. Therefore, due to legal restrictions on the emission of noxious gases, other power sources for vehicles are necessary. Some of these power sources allow replacement of the internal combustion engine completely, whereas the other ones only support the engine operation. Hence, a hybrid powertrain – alternative to the drivetrain equipped with an internal combustion engine only – is increasingly being used. The hybrid powertrain was mostly applied in cars and buses but recently it has been also used in railway vehicles such as locomotives and multiple units. The paper presents a shortened and brief overview of construction solutions of selected hybrid locomotives. A list of the applied hybrid drive systems as well as the basic data and properties are provided. The most important variants of vehicles are compared. The presented material allows identification of the development trends in the considered area. The hybrid locomotive usually uses an onboard rechargeable energy storage system, placed between the power source and the traction transmission system connected to the wheelsets. Modification of a classic diesel-electric locomotives is a relatively simple procedure since they have all the components of a series hybrid transmission except the storage battery. Therefore, the existing and operated diesel-electric locomotives can be modified to increase their efficiency and reduce operating costs and emissions.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono i przeanalizowano zagadnienie odporności pojazdów szynowych na ich wywracanie się przy poprzecznym silnym wietrze porywistym. Wyprowadzane i przeanalizowane zostały podstawowe wzory opisujące to zagadnienie, łącznie z autorską metodologią wyznaczania prędkości krytycznej wiatru poprzecznego, przy której występuje 100% odciążenie kół pojazdu po stronie nawietrznej.
EN
In the paper, the problem of resistance of railway vehicles to roll-over in gales was presented and analysed. Basic formulae describing this problem together with the authorial methodology of determination of the intrinsic roll-over wind velocity for a vehicle were derived and analysed.
EN
The utilization of installed power capacity of internal combustion engines (ICE) in motive power units (especially in shunting locomotives and locomotives for industrial transport) is very low. The mean output of ICE in this operational mode is about 15 - 20 % of its installed power. The result is that most of the time the internal combustion engine works in regimes that are far from optimum mode. It means that specific fuel consumption is high. Some examples of measured operational regimes of locomotives in shunting operation and other motive power units are given in the paper. Kinetic energy of a classic diesel locomotive as well as the DMUs and trains is transformed into thermal energy during braking process. Normally it is not possible to utilize this kinetic energy in areasonable way. In order to improve fuel economy, the kinetic energy should be transformed into a suitable form and stored for subsequent use. The improvement can be achieved by using of the unconventional traction drive of rail vehicles. One of possible ways is using of the hybrid traction drive. The hybrid drive includes the ICE, generator, traction motors and the energy storage device. In this case the output of ICE can be substantially lower than in the classic traction. The parameters of such traction drive must be based on analysis of real operational regimes of vehicles. Those parameters are particularly: output of ICE,output of traction motors, capacity and output of energy storage devices (accumulators). There are other ways how to save fuel on railway vehicles, e.g. by better utilization of heat released from the fuel or using of solar energy.
18
Content available Przykład systemu wibroizolacji podtorzy kolejowych
PL
W pracy przedstawiono kompleksowe podejście do problemu wibroizolacji podtorzy pojazdów kolejowych w terenach zabudowanych i przebiegających na konstrukcjach inżynierskich. Wykorzystano koncepcję opracowaną w latach 80 ubiegłego wieku, opracowano jej model MES i przeprowadzono symulację skuteczności wibroizolacji. Następnie po wdrożeniu opracowanej na tej bazie konstrukcji układu wibroizolacji torowiska na dworcu kolejowym przeprowadzono kontrolne pomiary drgań.
EN
In the paper a comprehensive approach to the analysis of problem of vibration isolation railway subgrades in urban areas and built on civil engineering structures is presented. The FE model of vibration isolation system developed in the 80s of last century was developed and simulation of dynamic behavior of vibration isolation system was performed. Then, after the implementation of developed of vibration isolation system of tracks at the railway station, the verification measurements of vibration were performed.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono urządzenie wdrożone w jednym z zakładów naprawy taboru kolejowego, przeznaczone do automatycznego pomiaru i rejestracji charakterystyk dynamicznych zestawów kołowych, używanych w pojazdach kolejowych. Zastosowany zestaw czujników pomiarowych i przygotowane oprogramowanie zapewniają prostą obsługę podczas wykonywania pomiarów, jak również pozwalają na obiektywną ocenę badanych elementów. Część pomiarowa i część sterująca przebiegiem pomiarów zrealizowane są na sterowniku PLC, natomiast archiwizacja danych odbywa się z wykorzystaniem komputera PC.
EN
In the paper we present an installation, put into use in one of the railway vehicles repair companies, to provide automatic measurements and registering of dynamic characteristics of wheelsets used in rolling stock vehicles. The sensor set along with the applied software give ease of operation for measurement capture as well as an objective evaluation of tested elements. The measuring and controlling equipment solution is based on a PLC controller while a PC computer is used to archive measurement results.
EN
For railway vehicles with electric traction drives with induction motors, it is necessary to determine traction characteristic curves of such a vehicle. Such a traction characteristic curve is essential to calculate All the static and dynamic parameters of the vehicle, such as maximum acceleration, maximum speed, time of approaching the maximum speed, and many others. For this purpose, one needs the original torque - speed characteristic of applied traction motors as well as both the wheel - rail adhesion coefficient and the train resistance as functions of the speed of the vehicle. It was taken into account of the three regions on the traction characteristic curve of the traction drive: the constant torque, the constant power, and the weakened power regions. Various formulas for the wheel - rail adhesion coefficient were compared and discussed. The metod for considering the dispersion of real values of the adhesion coefficient was considered. Making use of all considerations, the resultant traction characteristic curves were created.
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