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PL
Podczas kolejowych targów Trako w Gdańsku, firma Medcom zaprezentuje innowacyjne rozwiązania energoelektroniczne dla transportu szynowego oraz rynku autobusów elektrycznych. Dodatkowo na torach wystawienniczych będzie można zobaczyć aż 4 pojazdy wyposażone w energoelektronikę Medcomu.
EN
During the Trako railway fair in Gdańsk, Medcom will present innovative power electronics solutions for rail transport and the electric bus market. In addition, as many as 4 vehicles equipped with Medcom power electronics will be presented on the exhibition tracks.
2
PL
Na przestrzeni lat wykształcił się wyraźny podział kolejowych przewozów pasażerskich na trzy segmenty, które warunkują zastosowanie odpowiednich rozwiązań konstrukcyjnych spełniających warunki eksploatacyjne, zmienne w zależności od hierarchii danego segmentu przewozowego. Współczesne pojazdy charakteryzują się wysokim bezpieczeństwem, napędem rozproszonym na całej długości pojazdu, modułową budową, niewielką masą własną, małą energochłonnością, odpowiednią dostępnością dla osób o ograniczonej możliwości poruszania się oraz zgodnością z odpowiednimi podsystemami TSI. Widoczna jest tendencja do wytwarzania rodzin pojazdów w jak największym stopniu uniwersalnych, wyposażonych w standaryzowane podzespoły, które przy niewielkich nakładach finansowych można dostosować do wymagań konkretnego zamówienia. Pomimo dostępnych na rynku rozwiązań, część podmiotów, zamawiając elektryczne zespoły trakcyjne, niepoprawnie formułuje SIWZ, w wyniku czego dostarczane pojazdy wyposażone są w niewłaściwe podzespoły, aranżacja ich wnętrza utrudnia wymianę pasażerów w trakcie postojów handlowych, a samo rozmieszczenie aparatury wpływa na wydłużenie czasu obsługiwania i przez to powoduje wzrost wysokości kosztów, w tym utrzymania kosztownej rezerwy taborowej. Niewystarczające badania popytu na usługi transportowe skutkują zakupem jednostek o niewłaściwej pojemności, przez co w późniejszych latach konieczne jest ich zestawianie w trakcji wielokrotnej.
EN
Over the years, a clear division of rail passenger transport into three segments has developed, which condition the application of appropriate construction solutions that meet the variable operating conditions depending on the hierarchy of transport segment. Modern vehicles are characterized by high safety, distributed drive along the entire length of the vehicle, modular construction, low own weight, low energy consumption, adequate accessibility for people with reduced mobility and compliance with the relevant TSI subsystems. There is a tendency to produce vehicle families as universal as possible, equipped with standardized components, which can be adapted to the requirements of a specific order with a small financial outlay. Despite the solutions available on the market, some entities ordering electric multiple units incorrectly formulate the TOR, as a result of which delivered vehicles are equipped with wrong components, an arrangement of their interior makes it difficult to exchange passengers during commercial stops, and the same arrangement of the equipment affects the length of service and thus causes increase in costs, including maintenance of an expensive rolling stock reserve. Insufficient research on the demand for transport services results in the purchase of units with improper capacity, which means that in next years it is necessary to combine them in multiple traction.
3
EN
The sliding strip of the current collector (pantograph) of a rail vehicle is an element directly cooperating with the catenary and is exposed to abrasion, electric discharge and various types of damage. It is therefore the most frequently replaced element. However, often sliding strips are exchanged before exceeding the limit thickness value, which increases the costs related to technical maintenance. Because the wear process is dependent on many factors, heuristic methods are necessary to predict the thickness of the sliding strip. Knowing the predicted thickness value, it will be possible to adapt the maintenance cycle. In the article, the results of simulations carried out based on the developed structure of the artificial neural network are also presented.
PL
Nakładka ślizgowa odbieraka prądu pojazdu szynowego jest elementem bezpośrednio współpracującym z siecią trakcyjną w związku, z czym narażona jest na zużycie ścierne, elektroerozyjne oraz różnego rodzaju uszkodzenia. Jest, zatem elementem najczęściej wymienianym. Często jednak nakładki wymieniane są przed przekroczeniem granicznej wartości grubości, co zwiększa koszty związane z obsługą techniczną. Ponieważ proces zużycia jest zależny od wielu czynników, dlatego do predykcji grubości nakładki ślizgowej niezbędne jest zastosowanie metod heurystycznych. Znając prognozowaną wartość grubości, możliwe będzie odpowiednie dostosowanie cyklu utrzymania. W artykule przedstawiono wyniki symulacji przeprowadzonych na podstawie opracowanej struktury sztucznej sieci neuronowej.
EN
The paper is dedicated to correlations between the main diagnostic features utilised for assessing the wear of wheel tyre running treads and the wear of wheel flanges. The paper focuses on analysis of the correlations between these features in the period between the mounting of new wheel tyres or new monoblock wheels in a given wheelset up to their replacement. The wheels of Electric Multiple Units and shunting locomotives were the objects of the research. The measurement data obtained from a domestic railway undertaking contain, however, many errors. It was noted that in some cases the measured values were put in the wrong places on the measurement cards. It is also possible that in some cases the wheel surfaces were not prepared properly for measurements. For those reasons, only some data, for which there were no doubts regarding credibility, were chosen. Those data were appropriate for determining the trend line equations, which depict an overview of how the values of the diagnostic features are correlated with each other. The obtained functions of the characteristics of the changes in the diagnostic features as well as calculated Pearson correlation coefficients show that there is a significant correlation between those features. This is not dependent on the significantly different operational conditions of the groups of tested rail vehicles. Conclusions on the existence of significant correlations between the tested features can be used for the creation of innovative solutions dedicated for wheel diagnostics of rail vehicles. This especially applies to the design of analytical functions, which could be used for real time verification of the correctness of the measurement results.
5
Content available remote Modelling of the Noise Propagation During the Passage of a Railway Vehicle
EN
The paper presents the process of modeling the phenomenon of noise propagation generated during the passage of a railway vehicle as a function of distance from the sound source. The basis for the development of models of sound propagation was experimental research. The experiment was conducted in the so-called "zero point", i.e. the location on a section of the route, where a railway road transforms from a embankment into a ditch and vice versa. For the cross-section at the location at the "zero" location, a model was developed which most faithfully reproduces the analysed phenomenon in real conditions.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono proces modelowania zjawiska propagacji hałasu generowanego podczas przejazdu pojazdu kolejowego w funkcji odległości od źródła dźwięku. Podstawą do opracowania modeli proragacji dźwięku były badania eksperymentalne. Eksperyment przeprowadzono w tak zwanym miejscu „zerowym”, czyli usytuowaniu na odcinku szlaku, gdzie droga kolejowa przechodzi z nasypu w przekop i na odwrót. Dla przekroju w lokalizacji w miejscu „zerowym”, opracowano model, który najwierniej odwzorowuje analizowane zjawisko w rzeczywistych warunkach.
6
Content available remote The problem of reliability allocation in the subassemblies of rail vehicles
EN
The following paper concerns an application of reliability allocation as a method for achieving the desired level of reliability for a selected subassembly of a type 6Dg diesel locomotive. On the basis of real operational data for the investigated vehicle, a decision model was developed to solve the allocation problem. It was demonstrated that the locomotive’s reliability may be improved by replacing the individual components in the braking and pneumatic system with components of higher reliability or by using additional equivalent parallel components in the reliability-wise configuration.
PL
Tematem artykułu jest zastosowanie alokacji niezawodności jako metody umożliwiającej osiągnięcie wymaganego poziomu niezawodności wybranego podzespołu pojazdu szynowego. Na podstawie rzeczywistych danych eksploatacyjnych zgromadzonych dla lokomotywy spalinowej typu 6Dg opracowano model decyzyjny do rozwiązania zagadnienia alokacji. Wykazano, że zwiększenie niezawodności układu hamulcowego i pneumatycznego może nastąpić poprzez zastąpienie poszczególnych elementów o wyższej niezawodności lub poprzez zastosowanie dodatkowych elementów rezerwowych w strukturze tego układu.
7
Content available remote Reliability as an element of process in managing a fleet of railway vehicles
EN
Safe and economical devices, which are constantly growing in demand, lead to improvement of operational strategies applied in railway enterprises. Economic analysis and safety, and hence reliability and readiness, are the most important parameters in the operation of railway vehicles. The article presents a strategy for maintaining railway vehicles based on reliability indicators. The strategy was verified based on empirical research in a transport company.
PL
Bezpieczne i ekonomiczne urządzenia, na które wciąż rośnie zapotrzebowanie, prowadzą do doskonalenia strategii eksploatacyjnych stosowanych w przedsiębiorstwach kolejowych. Analiza ekonomiczna i bezpieczeństwo, a co za tym idzie niezawodność i gotowość, to najważniejsze parametry w procesie eksploatacji pojazdów kolejowych. W artykule przedstawiono strategię utrzymania pojazdów kolejowych opartą na wskaźnikach niezawodnościowych. Strategię zweryfikowano w oparciu o badania empiryczne w przedsiębiorstwie transportowym.
8
Content available Modern drive systems of rail vehicles
EN
Rail vehicles are one of the sources of environmental pollution in the transport sector. Therefore, it is necessary to equip these vehicles with modern drive systems. This article concerns the issues of contemporary and future-oriented solutions of drive systems used in rail vehicles. The article analyzes energy storage possibilities including: electrochemical, mechanical and hydraulic accumulators. The conducted analyzes have taken into account the importance of how frequently they charge up, which dictates their possible applications. Characteristics of hybrid drive systems were presented, with particular emphasis on parallel systems of: hydrostatic, flywheels and electrochemical batteries. The analysis of energy flow control strategies in hybrid drive systems of railway vehicles has been made. In the summary, a solution was chosen that resulted in high conversion efficiency of the energy extracted from the vehicle's wheels.
EN
One of the main objectives of the European transport policy is to increase the share of alternative modes of transport – revitalization of rail transport, promotion of water transport and development of intermodal transport, which will help to reduce the dominance of road transport. The adverse impact of transport can be felt both in the natural environment and in society, where the dynamic development of this sector has enabled significant civilization development, with the effects varying depending on the level of economic development, the degree of advancement and use of the various transport sectors, geographical location (including climate), and also the sensitivity of the elements of the environment. Considering contemporary transport hazards, it is important to prevent them from occurring, and when that is not possible – limiting their impact on the environment and reducing the scale and extent of negative impacts. The impact of rail transport on the environment and safety is much lower compared to road transport. The impact of rail transport on the environment mainly comes from the emission of noise and vibration, pollution (from diesel locomotives) and land occupation. The article presents information on the current legal conditions regarding the emission of pollutants from rail vehicles. Information with reference to research tests and emission limit values was included. The subject of tests in real traffic conditions was also mentioned as the direction of changes in vehicle homologation tests.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono i przeprowadzono dowód na wyznaczenie złożoności półgrup charakterystycznych iloczynów prostych „AG” automatów asynchronicznych silnie spójnych ustalonych analogów rozszerzeń związanych z izomorfizmami DFASC2(deterministic finite asynchronous strongly connected). Półgrupa charakterystyczna automatu ingeruje w algorytm obliczeniowy uogólnionych homomorfizmów automatów, zatem wyznaczanie złożoności półgrupy charakterystycznej pozwala na oszacowanie złożoności obliczeniowej uogólnionych homomorfizmów dla innych klas automatów. W zakresie modelu matematycznego koncepcja ustalonego analogu rozszerzania automatu AG związanego z izomorfizmami g0, g1,..., gq-1 gdzie q stopień rozszerzenia, przy odpowiednich założeniach symuluje automat zmienny w czasie. Automat zmienny w czasie jest adekwatnym modelem matematycznym dla wielu procesów technicznych i obliczeniowych czasu rzeczywiste. Iloczyn prosty automatów można uważać odpowiednio za realizację równoległych obliczeń.
EN
The paper presents the assumption and the evidence is carried out of the direct product complexity of characteristic semi-groups of any number (“G”) of deterministic, finite, asynchronous, highly consistent DFASC2. automata. The characteristic semi-group of the automaton interferes in the computational algorithm of the generalized homoeomorphism of the automatons. Then determination the complexity of the characteristic semi-group enables to estimate the complexity of the computational generalized homoeomorphism for the other classes of automatons. In the range of the mathematical model the conception of the determined analog of the extension of the automaton associated with the isomorphism g0, g1,..., gq-1 where q is the grade of the extensions, with the suitable assumptions it simulates the automaton variable in time. The variable automaton in time is the adequate mathematical model for the many technical and computational processes of the real time. The direct product of automatons can be considered as the realization-parallel calculations accordingly.
EN
Railway or tram wheel is never perfectly round and its surface is not ideally smooth, even at the very moment after manufacturing. This induces dynamic interaction between wheel and rail while rolling, which may result in accelerated wear, fatigue cracking, corrugation formation (both on wheels and rails) and intensified vibroacoustic emission. This paper is an attempt of summarising the current scientific achievements concerning out-of-round (OOR) tram wheels. The gathered research may provide an introduction to the broader analysis of this issue in tram technology. However there is still very little scientific works dedicated directly to light rail vehicles such as trams. The measuring methodology of out-of-round tram wheels is also described in this article. Appropriate measurements were made on the wheels of selected vehicles operated by municipal tram company in Poznań. The obtained results allowed to learn the characteristic forms of out-of-round tram wheels, among which, several forms of polygonization (ovalization, triangularization, etc.) were observed. Therefore we confirmed the thesis, that the method of fixing tram wheel rims in the lathe has a significant effect on formation of the unevenness of its rolling surface, both when new (just after turning) and, after some mileage of use, when even small irregularities become amplified. We observed also that the amplitude values from 5th up to 10th harmonic orders were increased during the operation. The initial out-of-round shape of the wheel should be likely present on the worn wheel, but with increased amplitudes of irregularities. Wheel out-of-roundness should be identified and removed at the soonest possible state to prevent its development and generating issues in the future operation, that are for example: rolling stock and infrastructure damage, impaired comfort of passengers and city inhabitants. It makes out-of-round wheels a serious problem to cope with for the vehicle operators, which can lead even to a catastrophe.
PL
Praca prezentuje metodykę badań symulacyjnych dotyczących zamocowań wybranych podzespołów przyłączonych do elementów nośnych pojazdów szynowych. Opisano metodykę obliczeń dotyczących mocowań, która może być przydatna między innymi do takich podzespołów jak zbiorniki, elementy wyposażenia zwiększającego komfort podróżowania, układy hamulcowe, a także urządzenia elektryczne. Duża liczba podłączonych urządzeń o trudnej do zamodelowania strukturze wewnętrznej może być łatwo zaimplementowana do ogólnego modelu jako układ z wieloma masami skupionymi.
EN
The paper presents a methodology of simulation studies concerning the fastening of components connected to the load-bearing elements of rail vehicles. This methodology of calculations may be useful to strength verifications of fixing of components such as tanks, travel enhancements, braking systems, and electrical equipment. A large number of atached devices, mostly with a difficult to model internal structure, can easily be implemented in the general model as a system with multiple masses.
13
Content available remote Badania dynamiczne taboru kolejowego
PL
W artykule przedstawiono rozwój metod badawczych z zakresu badań dynamicznych taboru kolejowego w ujęciu historycznym oraz genezę dzisiejszych badań dynamiki i bezpieczeństwa jady oraz oddziaływania na tor z uwzględnieniem wartości dopuszczalnych dla poszczególnych parametrów. Omówiono rozwijane przez Instytut Kolejnictwa techniki pomiarowe mające sprostać pomiarom podczas jazdy sił Q (pionowej) i Y (poprzecznej) w strefie kontaktu koła z szyną. Wymieniono podstawowe założenia badań dynamicznych na sieci kolejowej. Przedstawiono metody obróbki danych pomiarowych i oceny wyników, zaprezentowano przykładowe wyniki w postaci graficznej.
EN
The paper presents the development of research methods in the field of dynamic research of rolling stock in historical perspective as well as the genesis of today’s dynamics and safety studies and impact on the track, taking into account the admissible values for particular parameters. Measuring techniques developed by the Railway Research Institute to measure Q (vertical) and Y (traverse) forces in the wheel-rail contact area has been discussed. Basic assumptions of dynamic tests on the railway network were mentioned. The methods of measuring data processing and the evaluation of results as well as examples of graphical results were presented.
EN
The article presents an overview of modern plastics for use in rail vehicles. The analysis of plastics and composites in the constructional aspect was analyzed. The trends in the development of polymer materials, technologies and constructions used in the manufacture of vehicles, on the one hand, are determined by the technical and economic requirements of industry and, on the other, by the continued emphasis on reducing fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. Further development will be subject to pre-impregnation techniques, particularly in the form of different types of reinforcement. Full use of the advantages of reinforced polymer materials in vehicle production will only be achieved when further optimization of the resin properties and development of automation will result in the widespread use of composite components in series production. Observing the trends and pace of development, it is possible to predict that there are still restrictions on the use of polymeric materials in the transport sector, such as relatively high prices, technological constraints and the hindering automation of large-scale production. Modern construction and material solutions, in particular those using reinforced plastics, are primarily designed to reduce vehicle weight and have better noise and vibration damping properties. Rail vehicles are becoming more environmentally friendly at the time and travel comfort is higher.
EN
Wheel sets as elements determine the reliability and safety in railway traffic demand ensuring high technological and quality standards at the stage of production and exploitation. Not satisfying these conditions may result in, among others, premature wear of wheels in the wheel sets, in turn a shortening between-repair running periods and increasing the exploitation costs of rail vehicles. The authors, based on carried out tests, analysed the influence of not satisfying proper parameters of heat treatment of wheel rims on tribological wear on their surface. This especially concerns abrasive wear of wheel rims and damages of the spalling type on the wheel thread surface in wheel sets.
PL
Zestawy kołowe jako elementy decydujące o niezawodności i bezpieczeństwie prowadzenia ruchu kolejowego wymagają na etapie wytwarzania i eksploatacji zapewnienia wysokich standardów technicznych i jakościowych. Niedotrzymanie tych warunków skutkuje m.in. przyspieszonym zużyciem kół zestawów kołowych powodującym skrócenie przebiegów międzynaprawczych i zwiększenie kosztów użytkowania pojazdów szynowych. Autorzy na podstawie przeprowadzonych badań dokonali analizy wpływu niedotrzymania właściwych parametrów obróbki cieplnej wieńców kół na zużycie tribologiczne występujące na ich powierzchni. Szczególnie dotyczy to zużycia ściernego obrzeży kół wraz z uszkodzeniami typu spalling na powierzchni tocznej kół zestawów kołowych.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono analizę pomiarów sygnałów akustycznych generowanych podczas testu pass-by wybranego typu lekkich pojazdów szynowych w warunkach normalnej eksploatacji. Pomiary hałasu wykonano zgodnie z wymaganiami normy ISO 3095. Celem analizy było sprawdzenie, w jakim stopniu uwzględnianie czasu przed i po przejeździe pojazdu przez punkt pomiarowy, ma wpływ na obliczanie ekspozycyjnego poziomu dźwięku A.
EN
The article presents the results of analysis carried out for automatization of analytical procedures for tram noise monitoring. The primary analytical procedures were developed based on the ISO 3095:2005 standard. However, it was decided to develop own research methodology. Due to, that fulfillment of all the requirements in strict urban area is impossible. The analysis of sensitivity symptom to different averaging data condition changes is presented in the comparative study. Also the possibility of its application in the vibroacoustic monitoring system of trams is proposed. There are the two main aims of the study. Firstly, checking the extent to which, the time before and after the passage of the vehicle through the measurement point, has an impact on the calculation of the exposure sound level A (SEL), on selected tram. Secondly, ensure if obtained characteristics can be considered as own, assigned to the type of vehicle. The study presents a part of research carried out in the Department of Rail Vehicles of University of Technology in Poznan, in terms of comprehensive description of the interaction of light rail vehicle – track in a highly urbanized environment. In this range, the crucial becomes an analysis of vibroacoustic activity of the tram, which is presented here.
EN
At the beginning of the twenty-first century, one of the major challenges of humanity was to reduce the negative effects of civilization development. Besides the engines used in road vehicles there is a large group of engines for non-road applications. This group includes motor propelled vehicles not used on the road NRMM (Non-Road Mobile Machinery). Engines of these vehicles, among all of the non-road applications, are characterized by very specific working conditions that do not allow for them to be qualified for propulsion engines. The main problem with these vehicles is the particulate matter and nitrogen oxides emission. Rail vehicles operating conditions these requirements take by the similar way, as having a wide range of rolling stock markedly alters the environmental impact of these vehicles. Thus it becomes necessary to consider the issue of the method of evaluation of engine emissions in rail vehicles in terms of their actual operating conditions. Thus, efforts to assess the actual level of emissivity for rail vehicles and attempts to improve it are necessary and justified.
18
Content available LNG as alternative fuel for railway transport
EN
Despite the innovating transport technologies around the globe, transport sector is the fastest growing consumer of energy and producer of greenhouse gases in the European Union and this trend is expected to continue in next years. Energy security is the one of the key condition of smooth functioning of state. Nowadays only few European countries are energy self-sufficient. Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, Russian Federation and United Kingdom produce more energy than they can consume. Countries in Central and Eastern Europe are absolutely dependent on imported oil and gas from other suppliers. This paper gives basic information about Liquefied Natural Gas as a greener alternative to other fossil fuels. It focuses on basic properties of LNG, which are fundamental to understanding LNG correctly and then possibly use it as a fuel for rail vehicles.
19
Content available Badania procesu hamowania pojazdu szynowego
PL
W artykule omówiono cykl badań procesu hamowania pojazdu szynowego jaki przeprowadzono w Katedrze Pojazdów i Podstaw Budowy Maszyn Politechniki Łódzkiej. Szczegółowo omówiono metodę pomiarową opartą o Rozporządzenie Ministra Infrastruktury z dnia 28 stycznia 2011r. Wykazano zalety i wady każdej z metod ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem metod pośrednich jako obarczonych większym błędem pomiarowym. Dodatkowo dokonano pomiarów drogi hamowania z użyciem piasecznicy na torowiskach o różnym współczynniku przyczepności, poddając ocenie zasadność stosowania urządzeń wspomagających proces hamowania.
EN
The subject of this paper is closely related to series of researches which were done in Department of Vehicles and Fundamentals of Machine Design - Technical University of Lodz. The mentioned studies was focused on tram braking problem. Presented researches was showing differences between methods of measuring braking distance of trams related to regulations commonly use to perform such tests. The main purpose of presented researches was to show differences between braking distance of the tram using sanding system and without it. The diagrams showing the comparison was clearly presented in paper.
EN
The article presents an application of a method based on fault tree analysis and the Monte Carlo simulation in the assessment of reliability and availability of the rail means of transport. The primary target of the presented method is a cause and effect assessment of the occurrence of undesirable events, the determination of selected reliability indices and identification of the weakest components of rail vehicle that affect the downtime and technical availability most strongly. To illustrate the application of the presented method, the results of a project involving a 6Dg diesel locomotive, carried out in cooperation with the biggest Polish rail carrier, are shown. The assessment of availability and reliability was based on real operation data of a selected sample of seventy-five locomotives. Based on the collected data from the operation of the 6Dg locomotives, the times-to-failure and the times-to repair models were determined. A fault tree model of the locomotive was developed to assess the influence of the faults of the components on the reliability of the vehicle. A discrete simulation process allows to obtain a chosen characteristics and values of the selected measures, which – according to the authors – may be applied to assess the reliability and availability of the rail vehicles. Specialist software including Weibull++, BlockSim and MiniTab aided calculations were performed. The software includes and advanced solutions in the range of the reliability and availability simulations. The test results indicate that the proposed solution has a wide applicability potential.
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