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EN
In the frame of Radon rEal time monitoring System and Proactive Indoor Remediation (RESPIRE), a LIFE 2016 project funded by the European Commission, the contribution of building materials of volcanic origin to indoor radon concentration was investigated. First, total gamma radiation and related outdoor dose rates of geological materials in the Caprarola area (Central Italy) were measured to define main sources of radiation. Second, 222Rn and 220Rn exhalation rates of these rocks used as building materials were measured using an accumulation chamber connected in a closed loop with a RAD7 radon monitor. Among others, the very porous “Tufo di Gallese” ignimbrite provided the highest values. This material was then used to construct a scale model room of 62 cm × 50 cm × 35 cm (inner length × width × height, respectively) to assess experimental radon and thoron activity concentration at equilibrium and study the effects of climatic conditions and different coatings on radon levels. A first test was carried out at ambient temperature to determine experimental 222Rn and 220Rn equilibrium activities in the model room, not covered with plaster or other coating materials. Experimental 222Rn equilibrium was recorded in just two days demonstrating that the room “breaths”, exchanging air with the outdoor environment. This determines a dilution of indoor radon concentration. Other experiments showed that inner covers (such as plasterboard and different kinds of paints) partially influence 222Rn but entirely cut the short-lived 220Rn. Finally, decreases in ambient temperature reduce radon exhalation from building material and, in turn, indoor activity concentration.
EN
The continuous monitoring of 222Rn activity concentration, CO2 concentration, and microclimatologic parameters (internal air temperature and relative humidity) in the Važecká Cave (Northern Slovakia) is being carried out at three monitoring stations, namely, Gallery, Lake Hall, and Entrance Hall. Radon activity concentration and CO2 concentration exhibited a clear annual variation. The daily average of radon concentration ranged 1300–27 700 Bq/m3 at the Lake Hall station and 3600–42 200 Bq/m3 at the Gallery station. Radon reached its maximum in the summer months, from June to September. The annual maximum of CO2 concentration is registered approximately one month later than radon maximum. The annual variation of radon and CO2 is controlled by the seasonal change of ventilation regime associated with the seasonal variation of the difference between the temperature measured inside the cave and the atmospheric temperature.
EN
The radon issue has been known worldwide for dozens of years. Many scientifi c (ICRP Publication No. 137), technical (ICRU Report No. 88), and legislative (Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM (EU-BSS)) documents have been published in the last decade. More and more attention is being paid to precise quantification to determine the concentration and consequent effects of various pollutants on human health worldwide. The quality of measurement and the variety of measurement techniques increase the need to unify measurement procedures and metrology continuity. Countries around the world are beginning to unify metrological procedures for determining different quantities based on international recommendations and standards. Not only for these reasons, it became more actual a need for more accurate radon activity concentration measurement and radon metrology unification. This paper summarizes the main remarks and technical aspects to the historical development of radon metrology.
EN
The new radiation protection law in Germany, which came into effect 2018, puts greater emphasis on the protection against naturally occurring radiation, especially radon as a known health hazard. The law requires the delineation of radon priority areas, where prevention and remediation of high indoor radon concentrations should be taken with priority. In Germany, radiation protection is the administrative responsibility of the federal states. The state of Hesse has early on decided to fully survey the state for radon priority areas. To identify radon priority areas, the geogenic radon potential has to be determined. To achieve that radon, soil-gas measurements combined with soil permeability are a necessity. The University of Applied Sciences (THM) in Giessen is responsible for the radon soil-gas measurement campaign in Hessen. To achieve a statistically sound survey of the state of Hessen with an achievable amount of different measurement locations, and in the given time-frame, a geology-based concept has been designed. Taking into account the known geological information about geological structures in combination with the administrative counties, a survey strategy has been established. Prior known information regarding soil thickness, moisture, digability, and other technical limitations are used to determine the exact measuring locations. At every location, the radon activity in soil gas is measured. The soil permeability is determined for every measurement as well. Three measurements are performed at each location. Having completed the first set of measurements, the design criteria of the campaign and the practical experiences will be presented.
6
Content available Radon intercomparison tests : Katowice, 2016
EN
At the beginning of the year 2016, the representatives of the Polish Radon Centre decided to organize proficiency tests (PTs) for measurements of radon gas and radon decay products in the air, involving radon monitors and laboratory passive techniques. The Silesian Centre for Environmental Radioactivity of the Central Mining Institute (GIG), Katowice, became responsible for the organization of the PT exercises. The main reason to choose that location was the radon chamber in GIG with a volume of 17 m3 , the biggest one in Poland. Accordingly, 13 participants from Poland plus one participant from Germany expressed their interest. The participants were invited to inform the organizers about what types of monitors and methods they would like to check during the tests. On this basis, the GIG team prepared the proposal for the schedule of exercises, such as the required level(s) of radon concentrations, the number and periods of tests, proposed potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC) levels and also the overall period of PT. The PT activity was performed between 6th and 17th June 2016. After assessment of the results, the agreement between radon monitors and other measurement methods was confirmed. In the case of PAEC monitors and methods of measurements, the results of PT exercises were consistent and confirmed the accuracy of the calibration procedures used by the participants. The results of the PAEC PTs will be published elsewhere; in this paper, only the results of radon intercomparison are described.
7
Content available Radon in houses of Kowary : Sudety Mountains, Poland
EN
The presence of uranium makes the Kowary area characterized by an increased concentration of radon in the air and the living houses. Measurements of periodic radon concentrations in dwellings of Kowary were carried out three times in the last 20 years. It can be observed that 20 years ago level of radon concentrations in houses of Kowary were lower than today. Measurements carried out in Kowary over 20 years have shown that residents are exposed to radon concentrations, which often exceed 300 Bq•m-3 – a reference level recommended by the European Union. The present geometric mean of radon concentration in houses of Kowary (260 Bq•m-3 ) exceeds the geometric mean of radon concentration of buildings in the rest of Poland (142 Bq•m-3 ).
EN
More than 40 years ago, Public Health England (PHE and its predecessor organizations) established a radon laboratory to deliver services for radon measurements in homes and workplaces in the UK [1]. A key factor in developing these services was to set up stringent quality control and assurance protocols to enable the delivery of reliable and accurate results. There are nearly 40 checkpoints in the process, most exceeding 94% pass rate, starting from a quality check of poly-allyl diglycol carbonate (PADC) polymer and ending with a result modified by seasonal and occupancy correction factors. This work aims to show how to obtain the reliable results of radon measurements.
EN
More than half of the total natural ionizing radiation dose received by the human population is caused by radon and thoron (Rn and Tn) and their progeny. To estimate the level of radiation due to radon and thoron and their progeny, an investigation was conducted in a residential area near the world’s largest open-pit mine of Bayan Obo in Inner Mongolia, China. The concentration of Rn, Tn, and their decay products in air and soil were studied by using AlphaGUARD, RAD7, and ERS-RDM-2S for a discrete period of time in three different locations. The average indoor concentration of radon and thoron was 62.6 ± 44.6 Bq/m3 and 108.3 ± 94.5 Bq/m3 respectively, and the outdoor concentration was 12.9 ± 6.3 Bq/m3 and 55.8 ± 18.5 Bq/m3 , respectively. Relatively high concentrations were recorded in the area near to the mine, with a significant increasing trend observed in indoor thoron concentration. A prominent hotspot in thoron concentration was found in a single-story house with values 747 ± 150 Bq/m3 . The equilibrium equivalent thoron concentration (EECTn) varies from 0.48 Bq/m3 to 2.36 Bq/m3 with an arithmetic mean of 1.37 ± 0.64 Bq/m3 , and comparatively higher than EECRn. Concluding that the mining activity at Bayan Obo mine is significantly increasing the level of indoor thoron and its progeny in surroundings. It is suggested to further systematically investigate the indoor Rn and Tn progeny concentrations in the residential dwellings of the Bayan Obo mining area, and 232Th content of the building materials, to provide a basis for calculating the radiation dose.
EN
The exposure from radon, thoron, and thoron progeny was measured for 45 dwellings in high background radiation area in Takandeang, Indonesia with ambient dose equivalent rate ranging from 0.34 µSv•h-1 to 1.90 µSv•h-1 . The measurement was taken using passive radon and thoron discriminative detector and thoron progeny detector. This measurement was taken from November 2018 to October 2019, and within one month the detector would be replaced with a new detector. The concentrations of radon, thoron, and thoron progeny were calculated as 42–490 Bqm−3 , 20–618 Bqm−3 , and 4–40 Bqm−3 , respectively. The concentrations for outdoor were 49–435 Bqm−3 , 23–457 Bqm−3 , and 4–37 Bqm−3 , respectively, and the annual effective dose was 9.8–28.6 mSv•y-1 . Based on the result of Spearman’s correlations analysis between the indoor radon and thoron concentrations and between the indoor thoron progeny and thoron concentrations, we suggest that exposure to thoron cannot be predicted from exposure to radon, and the equilibrium equivalent thoron concentration has a large uncertainty when it is estimated from thoron concentration assuming a single thoron equilibrium factor.
EN
Objectives: Recent results of epidemiological and medical statistics studies of lung cancer and indoor radon in different regions of the world make a relevant new combined analysis of residential exposure health effects. In particular, new data were obtained by means of a meta-analysis of case-control studies as well as taking into account a confounding effect of human papillomavirus infection in studies of geographically aggregated data. Materials and methods: Two sources of epidemiological data are considered: (1) studies of ecological design and (2) case-control studies. Ecological studies included the analysis performed for the USA counties and Russian oblasts with adjusting for the main confounders. Data on the case-control studies were gained from the meta-analysis of 31 individual studies with a weighting of obtained odds ratios according to the quality of radon exposure reconstruction and size of the reference group. Estimations of lung cancer excess relative risk (ERR) associated with indoor radon exposure are combined. Results: Two types of epidemiological study design provided generally consistent EER estimations. The combined value of ERR due to radon exposure is 0.14 (90% CI: 0.10–0.18) per 100 Bq/m3 . Conclusion: Available geographically aggregated data in regions of Russia and the United States and the meta-analysis of case-control studies conducted in a large number of countries confirm the association of lung cancer with indoor radon exposure.
EN
Four years of observations of radon, meteorology and atmospheric pollution was used to demonstrate the efficacy of combined diurnal and synoptic timescale radon-based stability classification schemes in relating atmospheric mixing state to urban air quality in Zgierz, Central Poland. Nocturnal radon measurements were used to identify and remove periods of non-stationary synoptic behaviour (13–18% of each season) and classify the remaining data into five mixing states, including persistent temperature inversion (PTI) conditions, and non-PTI conditions with nocturnal conditions ranging from well mixed to stable. Mixing state classifications were performed completely independently of site meteorological measurements. World Health Organization guideline values for daily PM2.5/PM10 were exceeded only under strong PTI conditions (3–15% of non-summer months) or often under non-PTI stable nocturnal conditions (14–20% of all months), when minimum nocturnal mean wind speeds were also recorded. In non-summer months, diurnal amplitudes of NO (CO) increased by the factors of 2–12 (3–7) from well-mixed nocturnal conditions to PTI conditions, with peak concentrations occurring in the morning/evening commuting periods. Analysis of observations within radon-derived atmospheric mixing ‘class types’ was carried out to substantially clarify relationships between meteorological and air quality parameters (e.g. wind speed vs. PM2.5 concentration, and atmospheric mixing depth vs. PM10 concentration).
PL
Projekt instalacji wentylacji domu jednorodzinnego, choć pozornie wydaje się prosty, powinien uwzględniać klika aspektów dotychczas pomijanych w opracowaniach. Aby uzyskać spodziewany efekt – czyli doskonałą jakość powietrza wewnętrznego – należy poświęcić dużo więcej czasu na analizę potencjalnych strumieni zanieczyszczeń, np. radonu, i odpowiednio zaprojektować instalację.
EN
The design of a single-family house ventilation system, although seemingly simple, should include several aspects that have been omitted in the studies. In order to achieve the expected effect – that is, excellent indoor air quality – much more time should be spent to analyze potential contaminant streams, eg. radon, and design the installation accordingly.
PL
Radon jest radioaktywnym gazem szlachetnym, obecnym w środowisku człowieka. Jest on drugim po paleniu papierosów czynnikiem odpowiedzialnym za powstawanie raka płuc. W 2019 r. do prawa polskiego została zaimplementowana Dyrektywa Rady Unii Europejskiej 2013/59/EURATOM (tak zwana BSS) wymagająca czynnej ochrony przed stężeniami radonu powyżej 300 Bq/m3. Jednak problem jakie stężenia radonu zwiększają ryzyko powstawania nowotworów płuc jest tematem dyskusji naukowej i nie jest jednoznaczny. Cytogenetyczne efekty działania radonu można pokazać przy pomocy testu kometowego w limfocytach krwi obwodowej oraz przy pomocy analizy częstości mikrojąder w komórkach nabłonkowych pochodzących z worka policzkowego.
EN
Radon is a radioactive noble gas present in the human environment. It is the second factor behind lung cancer after smoking cigarettes. In 2019, the European Council Directive 2013/59/EURATOM (so-called BSS) was implemented into Polish law, requiring active protection against radon concentrations above 300 Bq/m3. However, the problem of what radon levels increase the risk of lung cancer is a topic of scientific discussion and is not clear. The cytogenetic effects of radon can be demonstrated using a comet assay in peripheral lymphocytes or the micronucleus frequency analysis in buccal epithelial cells.
EN
The survey of ambient airborne particle size distribution is important when the deposition of radioactive particles is considered in the human lung and the assessment of radiation hazard in occupational exposures or contaminated environments. CLOR (the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection) in cooperation with CMI (the Central Mining Institute) performed simultaneous measurements of the activity size distribution of radon progeny and ambient aerosols using different types of aerosols. Measurements were performed in a radon chamber with a volume of 17m3, where radon was generated by a radium-226 open source, and ambient aerosols by an oil candle, vax candle, and incense sticks. Such measurements were also made in an aerosol depleted atmosphere after cleaning the chamber air by means of a high-efficiency pump and filters. The size distribution of radioactive aerosols containing radon progeny was measured by RPPSS (Radon Progeny Particle Size Spectrometer) with the measuring size ranging from 0.6 nm to approximately 2500 nm. The key parts of this device are the impaction plates and diffusion screen batteries, which collect aerosols of different sizes, and semiconductor alpha detectors which detect the activity of the collected particles. The SMPS (Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer Spectrometer) and APS (Aerodynamic Particle Sizer) were applied to evaluate the size distribution of all aerosols with sizes from approximately 3 nm to 20 μm. Based on the results obtained by these spectrometers, the activity size distributions and related dose conversion factors (DCF) were evaluated both for the exposed workers and the general population.
EN
The detailed research of a gas mixture released from the thermal water, which is extracted from borehole KT-1 at Karpniki, showed the predominance of nitrogen (98.08% by volume) with subordinate Ar (1.52%) and He (0.32%) and trace amounts of CO2 (0.07%) and CH4 (0.01%). The 222Rn radionuclide is also dissolved in this water, showing an activity concentration of 245 Bq/dm3 at the outflow and 256 Bq/dm3 in the aquifer. A small value of the gas exponent (0.014), and also a value of the δ coefficient close to 1 (0.93) were calculated based on the dissolved Ar and N2 content in the water examined, as well as on concentrations of argon and nitrogen in water, assuming that atmospheric air is present above the water surface with a contemporary composition and under normal pressure. The data obtained indicate that these gases and additionally CO2 and CH4 are of atmospheric origin. These gases were either dissolved in rainwater, which infiltrated deep into the Karkonosze granite massif, orformed within the organic layer covering this exposed intrusion. This is evidenced by concentrations of these gases that can be comparable to their atmospheric equivalents. Helium is a radiogenic gas formed as a result of nuclear transformation of isotopes assigned to natural radioactive series. The radiogenic and also radioactive gas is represented by the 222Rn radioisotope which is released from reservoir rocks, in an amount of 5% of the atom poolforming in the reservoir rock, into thermal water that subsequently reaches borehole KT-1 from a distance of 34 m at most. The thermal paleoinfiltration water has been heated up as a result of the conduction, and the source of heat is the temperature of the rocks resulting from an average geothermal gradient of 2.96°C per 100 m. The results of the authors’research indicate that there are no traces of inflow of hotfluids (especially water) from the deeper layers of the crust or from the mantle. If the examined thermal water is considered as paleoinfiltration water, its static resources may be limited, non-renewable.
17
Content available Antyradonowe polimery
PL
Radon i promieniotwórcze produkty jego rozpadu występujące w powietrzu atmosferycznym są najważniejszym źródłem dawki, jaką otrzymuje człowiek z naturalnych źródeł promieniowania. W Polsce roczna skuteczna dawka od radonu zgromadzonego w budynkach szacowana jest na 1,36 mSv. Z najnowszych danych epidemiologicznych pochodzących z badań budynków mieszkalnych wynika, że występuje statystycznie istotny wzrost ryzyka zachorowania na nowotwór płuc w wyniku przedłużonego narażenia na radon wewnątrz pomieszczeń na poziomie rzędu 100 Bq/m3. W tym roku zaczyna obowiązywać w UE Dyrektywa BSS (Basic Safety Standards). Ważnym ze względów praktycznych jest ustalenie w nowych przepisach poziomu odniesienia dla średniorocznego stężenia radonu w powietrzu w miejscu pracy oraz w pomieszczeniach przeznaczonych na pobyt ludzi w wysokości 300 Bq/m3. Jednym ze sposobów zapobiegania gromadzeniu się radonu w pomieszczeniach jest uszczelnienie fundamentów budynków poprzez zastosowanie: folii, membrany i mas wykonanych z tworzyw polimerowych.
EN
Radon and radioactive products of its decay occurring in atmospheric air are the most important source of dose that a human being receives from natural radiation sources. In Poland, the annual effective dose from radon accumulated in buildings is estimated at 1.36 mSv. The latest epidemiological data from residential building research show that there is a statistically significant increase in the risk of lung cancer as a result of prolonged exposure to indoor radon at the order of 100 Bq/ m3. This year, the BSS (Basic Safety Standards) directive will apply in the EU. It is important for practical reasons to establish in the new regulations a reference level for the average annual concentration of radon in the air in the workplace and in rooms for human stay in the amount of 300 Bq/m3. One of the ways to prevent the accumulation of radon in the rooms is to seal the foundations of buildings through the use of foil, membrane and masses made of polymer materials.
EN
The influence of environmental conditions and natural gamma radiation of rocks nearby measurement points has been introduced in this paper to radon concentration measurements in soil air. Our studies helped to assess anomalies caused by major tectonic zones that occurring in the Carpathians. These anomalies, can be used for interpretation and location of potential zones for oil and gas industry. Environmental tests had to be conducted because of the introduction of new measurement methodology within evaluation of statistical measurement errors and specific tests conditions. Stationary work was carried out in a limited area nearby Bagrowa st., Krakow, fieldwork was carried out at the Cergowa Mountain–Krosno profile. The conducted research did not show the influence of air humidity, precipitation, air temperature, air pressure and natural radioactive elements (K-40, U-238 and Th232) on the measured radon anomalies. In this study RAD7 spectrometer with a soil probe was used.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono wpływ warunków środowiskowych i naturalnej promieniotwórczości skał występujących w otoczeniu punktów pomiarowych, na wyniki badań koncentracji radonu w powietrzu glebowym. Badania radonu pozwalają na identyfikację anomalii powodowanych występowaniem głównych stref uskokowych w Karpatach, co może pomóc wyznaczyć lokalizację występowania obszarów o potencjale dla poszukiwań przemysłu naftowego. Konieczność przeprowadzenia testów związana jest z opracowaniem nowej metodyki, która wymagała oceny błędów pomiarowych oraz warunków, w jakich należy prowadzić badania. Prace stacjonarne wykonane zostały w obrębie ograniczonej powierzchni w Krakowie przy ul. Bagrowej, prace terenowe przeprowadzono na profilu Góra Cergowa–Krosno. Badania nie ukazały wpływu wilgotności powietrza, opadów atmosferycznych, temperatury powietrza, ciśnienia atmosferycznego oraz naturalnych pierwiastków promieniotwórczych (K-40, U-238, Th-232) na mierzone anomalie radonowe. Do przeprowadzenia badań wykorzystano aparaturę badawczą w postaci spektrometru RAD7 wraz z sondą do pomiarów gazu w powietrzu glebowym.
EN
A combination of long term passive, and short term active radon-222, radon-220 and respective progeny measurements were conducted in both traverse and longitudinal axes of a historical metalliferous underground mine in North Queensland, Australia. While the passive monitor results provided average radon and thoron air concentrations over periods of 70-90 days, active measurements over a four day period provided significantly more detail into the dynamics of radon and progeny concentrations in the naturally ventilated mine environment. Passive monitor concentrations for radon and thoron ranged between 60 and 390 Bq m-3 (mean: 140 ±55 Bq m-3) and 140 and 2600 Bq m-3 (mean: 1070 ±510 Bq m-3) respectively, with passive thoron progeny monitors providing a mean concentration of 9 ±5 Bq m-3EEC. Active measurement mean concentrations for radon, thoron, radon progeny and thoron progeny in the centre of the mine drive were 130 ±90 Bq m-3, 300 ±100 Bq m-3, 20 ±20 Bq m-3EEC and 10 ±10 Bq m-3EEC respectively. It was identified that thoron passive detector placement is critical in establishing reliable monitoring data, and is the reason for the discrepancy between the active and passive thoron results in this study. Site specific progeny measurements are required for the accurate estimation of dose to persons entering the mine. Based on short term active measurements and passive thoron progeny monitor results, the dose contribution from thoron and progeny in the mine was observed to contribute up to 80% of the total radon/thoron inhalation dose, and therefore should not be underestimated in monitoring programs under similar conditions.
20
Content available remote Zdrowie w projektowaniu [budynków]
Builder
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2018
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R.22, nr 9
96, 98, 100, 102--103
EN
Inside the buildings we spend most of our time, therefore buildings have great impact on many aspects of our life, especially on our health. Winston Churchill once said: "We shape our buildings; thereafter they shape us". When designing, we focus mainly on architecture, economy and ecology, omitting the most impartant purpose of sustainability: health. Even 30% of new or refurbished buildings are considered sick buildings, where diseases like SBS (Sick Building Syndrome) ar Legionnaire's disease can affect users. This might be the consequence of i.a. inadequate HVAC design, microbial contamination, lack of natural light or bad acoustic. And the totality of factors in indoor environments that influence human health, well-being and productivity of people who work in those spaces is called "buildingomics". lt's identification is now the most important part of green building certification systems like LEED or BREEAM. These certification process concentrates more and more on non-technical aspects like productivity, well-being, satisfaction and creating non-stress environment. However fully dedicated to the subject of health is Well Building Standard, which enables the analysis of building's impact on human health.
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