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PL
Przedstawiono problematykę oceny nośności przy wyboczeniu technicznym prętów ściskanych, zwichrzeniu prętów zginanych w płaszczyźnie większej bezwładności przekroju oraz wyboczeniu giętno-skrętnym prętów zginanych w płaszczyźnie większej bezwładności przekroju i ściskanych. Przytoczono analityczne modele eurokodowe oraz dokonano identyfikacji zastępczej imperfekcji geometrycznej do budowy imperfekcyjnych modeli numerycznych wyboczenia technicznego. Na przykładzie oceny nośności przy wyboczeniu słupa stalowego porównano różne podejścia analityczne oraz numeryczne.
EN
Problems related to the technical buckling resistance of compressed members, lateral-torsional buckling of members bent in the plane of section greater moment of inertia and flexural-torsional buckling of members compressed and bent in the plane of section greater moment of inertia are presented. Analytical Eurocode models are quoted and equivalent geometric amplitudes to build imperfect numerical models have been identified. Various analytical and numerical approaches were compared on examples of the buckling resistance assessment of a real steel column.
EN
Moisturizing the intake air by spraying water in the liquid phase significantly lowers the intake air temperature, mainly due to the high value of latent heat of evaporation. The paper presents a methodology for calculating the parameters of the air-fuel mixture after water injection and during subsequent processes of the Otto cycle: compression, combustion and expansion of exhaust gases. For octane as a fuel, exemplary calculations have been carried out to investigate the effect of water injection on the composition of combustion products and selected parameters of the theoretical Otto cycle (temperature, pressure, output power and thermal efficiency).
EN
Unplanned gait termination (UGT) widely occurs in various sports and daily life as a kind of stress response to unexpected stimulus. However, the body stability may be greatly affected when the body completely stops. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between muscle strength levels and body stability during UGT through comparing the plantar pressure. Methods: Twenty healthy participants (10 male and 10 female) with different lower limbs muscle strength and power were asked to perform planned gait termination (PGT) and unplanned gait termination (UGT) on an 8-m walkway. Related plantar pressure data including maximum pressure, maximum force, contact area and center of pressure were recorded with Footscan pressure platform. Results: Two types of gait termination have significant differences in the plantar pressure distribution. Maximum pressure and maximum force in the lateral metatarsal increased significantly during UGT, compared to PGT. At the same time, data from the current study suggested that there might be a correlation between the muscle strength levels of individual and the stability during the gait termination, especially between the muscle power and UGT, which means that the more excellent muscle power an individual has, the more stable the body is when UGT is performed. Conclusions: The findings suggest that different muscle strength levels could affect stability during unplanned gait termination.
EN
The article offers a new perspective on the problems of sustainable use and conservation of wildlife in the context of the concept of sustainable development. The author proposes to depart from the approach currently existing in Russia to the sustainable use of wildlife, which includes measures to preserve and use only certain species of wild animals that are more economically relevant for human beings. The ways and means to realize the concept of sustainable development proposed by the author make it possible to ensure Russia's economic, environmental and social concerns, based upon the principle of relationship between different species of wild animals.
PL
Artykuł przedstawia z nowej perspektywy problematykę zrównoważonego wykorzystywania i ochrony dzikiej przyrody w kontekście zrównoważonego rozwoju. Autorka proponuje odejście od obecnie istniejącego w Rosji podejścia do zrównoważonego wykorzystywania dzikiej fauny i flory, które obejmuje działania mające na celu zachowanie i wykorzystywanie tylko niektórych gatunków dzikich zwierząt, które są bardziej istotne ekonomicznie dla ludzi. Proponowane przez autorkę sposoby i środki realizacji koncepcji zrównoważonego rozwoju umożliwiają zapewnienie właściwego traktowania ekonomicznych, środowiskowych i społecznych problemów Rosji, w oparciu o zasadę wzajemnych relacji między różnymi gatunkami dzikich zwierząt.
5
Content available Responsible Development and Durable Development
EN
In this article, it analyzes two contemporary models of social and economic development – responsible development and sustainable development. Reflections on responsibility in the present social and economic context precede reflections about the essence of the model of the responsible development. For various reasons irresponsibility increasingly prevails over responsibility, and responsibility becomes anonymous and fictitious. Thus, the tendency to behave and to act with impunity grows. One of the forms of responsible development is the so-called smart growth. Above all, people appropriately educated and wise should realize it. Unfortunately, the number of stupid people in the world constantly increases. The model of sustainable development raises doubts from the beginning. Almost all people criticize this model or refer to it in disbelief. Only optimists see it as the only chance for the survival of humanity. The choice between responsible and sustainable development is difficult, because each one is faulty. It would be good to create one model from these two models in a form of their synthesis. Certainly, that is a difficult challenge, but doable.
PL
W artykule analizuje się dwa współczesne modele rozwoju społecznego i gospodarczego – rozwoju odpowiedzialnego i rozwoju trwałego. Rozważania o istocie modelu rozwoju odpowiedzialnego poprzedzone są refleksjami nad odpowiedzialnością w teraźniejszym kontekście społecznym i ekonomicznym. Z różnych przyczyn subiektywnych i obiektywnych nieodpowiedzialność coraz bardziej przeważa nad odpowiedzialnością, a odpowiedzialność staje się anonimowa i fikcyjna. Dlatego rośnie tendencja do zachowania się i działania bezkarnego. Jedną z form rozwoju odpowiedzialnego jest tzw. wzrost inteligentny. Przede wszystkim powinni go realizować ludzie odpowiednio wykształceni i mądrzy. Niestety, w świecie jest coraz więcej głupich. Model rozwoju trwałego budzi wątpliwości od początku. Prawie wszyscy krytykują go lub odnoszą się do niego z niedowierzaniem. Tylko optymiści widzą w nim jedyną szansę na przetrwanie ludzkości. Wybór między rozwojem odpowiedzialnym a trwałym jest trudny, ponieważ każdy z nich jest wadliwy. Być może, dobrze byłoby z tych dwóch modeli stworzyć jeden w postaci ich syntezy. Z pewnością jest to wyzwanie trudne, ale wykonalne.
6
Content available remote Determination of sorption properties of heavy metals in various biosorbents
EN
Various techniques of determination of properties of physicochemical processes of heavy metal sorption in biosorbents were analysed. The methods of preparing and storing samples, conditions of experiment performance, as well as the methods of data interpretation were discussed. Two procedures of study were analysed: (1) in the static system of biosorbent-solution contact and (2) in the system of dynamic flow of solution. Copper cation sorption was studied. The effect of consecutive stages of the study on the quality of final results was shown. A high degree of uncertainty of the sorption capacity assessment was reported, which was dependent on the manner of conducting the study. The application of the pseudo-second order reaction model was substantiated to describe kinetics of cation-exchange sorption and the model of Langmuir isotherm to describe equilibria. The study conducted reveals that in order to perform comparative analyses, it is necessary to establish a joint concept of conducting studies and the interpretation of results.
EN
In this study, ANN (artificial neural network) model was applied to estimate the Ni(II) removal efficiency of peanut shell based on batch adsorption tests. The effects of initial pH, metal concentrations, temperature, contact time and sorbent dosage were determined. Also, COD (chemical oxygen demand) was measured to evaluate the possible adverse effects of the sorbent during the tests performed with varying temperature, pH and sorbent dosage. COD was found as 96.21 mg/dm3 at pH 2 and 54.72 mg/dm3 at pH 7. Also, a significant increase in COD value was observed with increasing dosage of the used sorbent. COD was found as 12.48 mg/dm3 after use of 0.05 g sorbent and as 282.78 mg/dm3 after use of 1 g sorbent. During isotherm studies, the highest regression coefficient (R 2) value was obtained with Freundlich isotherm (R 2 = 0.97) for initial concentration and with Temkin isotherm for sorbent dosage. High pseudo-second order kinetic model regression constants were observed (R 2 = 0.95-0.99) during kinetic studies with varying pH values. In addition, Ni(II) ion adsorption on peanut shell was further defined with pseudo-second order kinetic model, since qe values in the second order kinetic equation were very close to the experimental values. The relation between the estimated results of the built ANN model and the experimental results were used to evaluate the success of ANN modeling. Consequently, experimental results of the study were found to be in good agreement with the estimated results of the model.
EN
The purpose of this paper is to study a split generalized mixed equilibrium problem and a fixed point problem for nonspreading mappings in real Hilbert spaces. We introduce a new iterative algorithm and prove its strong convergence for approximating a common solution of a split generalized mixed equilibrium problem and a fixed point problem for nonspreading mappings in real Hilbert spaces. Our algorithm is developed by combining a modified accelerated Mann algorithm and a viscosity approximation method to obtain a new faster iterative algorithm for finding a common solution of these problems in real Hilbert spaces. Also, our algorithm does not require any prior knowledge of the bounded linear operator norm. We further give a numerical example to show the efficiency and consistency of our algorithm. Our result improves and compliments many recent results previously obtained in this direction in the literature.
9
Content available remote Preparation of bentonite/nAg nanocomposites
EN
In this work results of the preparation of bentonite/nAg nanocomposites were presented. In the first stage, the bentonite sorption properties were determined, including the equilibrium and kinetics parameters of the sorption process of silver ions on the bentonite. The study analyzed the filler sorption properties for different concentrations of silver ions in solution. The equilibrium sorption data were analyzed using Freundlich, Langmuir and Temkin equations. It was found that the best fit is given by the Freundlich equation. Analysis of the kinetics of the sorption process showed that the pseudo-second-order equation was characterized by the best fit for the experimental data, suggesting the chemical character of the adsorption process. In order to obtain a nanocomposite, silver ions contained in the composite were subjected to a reduction process using tannic acid with stabilizing and reducing properties. The obtained bentonite/nAg nanocomposites contained silver nanoparticles in the range of 162÷266 mg/g. The structures of the nanomaterials were studied by XRD and SEM methods.
PL
Celem niniejszej pracy była analiza równowagi i kinetyki procesu sorpcji jonów srebra na powierzchni napełniacza oraz otrzymanie nanokompozytu bentonit/nAg. W badaniu analizowano właściwości sorpcyjne napełniacza dla różnych stężeń jonów srebra w roztworze. Do opisu równowagi sorpcji analizowanych jonów zastosowano równania Langmuira, Freundlicha oraz Temkina. Stwierdzono, że najlepsze dopasowanie daje równanie Freundlicha. Celem badania było również określenie kinetyki sorpcji. Równanie pseudodrugiego rzędu uzyskało lepsze dopasowanie do danych doświadczalnych, co świadczy o chemicznym charakterze sorpcji. W celu otrzymania nanokompozytu jony srebra zawarte w kompozycie poddano procesowi redukcji przy użyciu kwasu taninowego, charakteryzującego się właściwościami stabilizująco-redukujących. Otrzymano nanokompozyty bentonit/nAg o zawartości nanocząstek srebra 162÷266 mg/g.
EN
Taxi is an important part of urban passenger transportation system. The research and analysis of taxi trip behavior is the key to meet the demand of urban passenger transport and solve the traffic congestion problem. Based on the GPS data of taxis in Nanjing, the statistical method is used to analyze the taxi characteristics of the average number of passengers, the average passenger time, the no-load distance and the passenger distance. By using the double logarithmic coordinate, the trip distance and trip time of taxi passengers are analyzed, it is found that the average trip distance of taxi passengers is mainly concentrated in 3-20 km, and the average trip time of taxi passengers is mainly concentrated in 10-30 minutes. Using the information entropy theory to construct the equilibrium model of taxi passenger-carrying point, and analyze the spatial distribution of taxi, it is found that the distribution of urban taxi is unbalanced. The peak clustering algorithm is used to determine the location of passenger gathering points, and the hot spot of taxi trip is analyzed, it is found that the hot spots of taxi trip are mainly concentrated in the central city of Nanjing. Combined with the results of urban taxi trip analysis, from the perspective of taxi and passenger, we found that the number of urban taxis, the passenger carrying rate of taxis, the duration period of passenger trip, the duration and distance of passenger trip and the location of passenger trip points will have an impact on the urban taxi carpooling in Nanjing. By using the probability model of urban taxi carpooling, this paper discusses and analyzes the influence of these factors on urban taxi carpooling. The research in this paper can provide a reference for the effective implementation of urban taxi carpooling policy.
EN
The purpose of this work was to assess the differences of the values of body posture indices, measured with the Moire’s method, between girls and boys aged 13 and the relationships of these values with the results of the Y-Balance Test. Methods: The study involved a group of healthy volunteers attending junior high schools in Cracow. The group consisted of 20 girls and 35 boys. Basic somatic parameters were measured within this work: body height and weight. Body posture was assessed according to the general methodology of the Moire’s technique and 14 body posture indices were obtained as a result: 6 in the sagittal plane, 1 in the axial plane and 7 in the coronal plane. Postural stability was assessed with the Y-Balance Test (YBT). Results: The studied girls and boys had practically the same body posture – statistical differences were found only in 3 out of 14 assessed indices measured with the Moire’s technique. Scoliosis was found in as many as 51% of the subjects, however, mean values of deviations from the C7-S1 line were not large. Conclusions: In the group of girls, the set of blades (below – above) was statistically significantly correlated with the global YBT result for the right inferior extremity, and in the group of boys – the set of the waist triangles (below – above) was statistically significantly correlated with the global YBT results for the right and left inferior extremities.
EN
Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare and analyse of relationships between stability indices registered in two positions: standing and handstand in athletes practicing gymnastics at various levels of advancement. Methods: The study included 46 athletes practicing gymnastics. The research tool was posturograph CQ-Stab 2P. Results: In both standing position and handstand in the seniors there were statistically significantly lower values of such indicators as: sway area delimited by the center of pressure ( p = 0.004, p = 0.014), mean amplitude of COP ( p = 0.021, p = 0.017), mean displacement of the center of feet/hands pressure in medio-lateral direction ( p = 0.011, p = 0.003) and maximal displacement of the center of feet/hands pressure in mediolateral direction ( p = 0.036, p = 0.036). In the standing position, seniors also had statistically significantly lower values of the statokinesiogram path length, both total ( p = 0.000) as well as in anteroposterior ( p = 0.001) and mediolateral ( p = 0.002) directions. In the seniors group there were statistically significant correlations between variables obtained in standing position and handstand. Conclusions: The level of sport advancement significantly differentiates the stability of a body in standing position and handstand. The seniors practicing gymnastics, compared to juniors, are characterized by a better ability to control the position of the body in both positions. The lack of relationships between stability indices registered in standing and handstand in juniors suggests that the analysis of the values of stability indices obtained in a standing position does not provide the possibility of predicting the ability to maintain balance in the handstand during the recruitment of candidates for gymnastics.
EN
The aim of this study was to formulate a new balance disturbances coefficient enabling objective balance assessment on the basis of fast Fourier transform curves. The article presents the method of coefficient calculation and possible ways of its interpretation. Methods: 11 healthy participants took part in the experiment. There were four measurements: two in real environment with eyes open and eyes closed as well as two in virtual environment with scenery (surroundings) oscillating with frequency 0.7 Hz and 1.4 Hz. Scenery was displayed by means of the Oculus Rift system, whereas position of centre of pressure was measured with the use of Zebris FDM-S platform. Obtained centre of pressure positions were used to calculate fast Fourier transform, and then balance disturbances coefficient. Results: Comparisons of coefficient values obtained for the whole group and two selected participants were presented in order to explain how to interpret and use the coefficient. For better explanation of coefficient interpretation the most popular time domain stabilometric quantities and fast Fourier transform curves were presented as well. Conclusions: The balance disturbances coefficient makes it possible to quantitatively and objectively determine, on the basis of fast Fourier transform curves, the influence of the oscillating scenery on the tested person as well as show how the overall equilibrium of that person was disturbed.
DE
Die traditionelle Interpretation des ökonomischen Gleichgewichts ist nicht erfolgreich bei der Realisierung von Marktgleichgewichten. Das Hauptargument gegen die traditionelle Interpretation des ökonomischen Gleichgewichts ist die normalerweise getroffene Annahme einer unrealistischen reinen Konkurrenz. Eine realistische Idee ist die moderne Interpretation des ökonomischen Gleichgewichts. Diese Interpretation benötigt keine unrealistischen Annahmen und kein hohes mathematisches Verständnis. Die moderne Interpretation des ökonomischen Gleichgewichts führt zu totalen quantitativen und wertorientierten Marktgleichgewichten. Alle drei Teilmärkte (Waren, Geld und Arbeitsmarkt) befinden sich im Gleichgewicht, wenn alle auf diesen Märkten tätigen Wirtschaftseinheiten im Gleichgewicht sind. Der Vorteil der modernen Interpretation des ökonomischen Gleichgewichts ist, dass es keine Utopie, sondern eine „Topia“ ist. Die Erkenntnis führt zur Überwindung von Wirtschaftskrisen und zu einem stetig wachsenden Wohlstand trotz weltweit geringer Ressourcen. Die einzige Bedingung, um die moderne Interpretation des wirtschaftlichen Gleichgewichts zu realisieren, ist der Wille, etwas zu verändern. Es ist möglich, die moderne Interpretation des Gleichgewichts für Transport- und Logistikmärkte zu verwenden.
EN
The traditional interpretation of economic equilibrium is not successful in realizing market equilibria. The main argument against the traditional interpretation of economic equilibrium is the normally made assumption of unrealistic pure competition. A realistic idea is the modern interpretation of economic equilibrium. This interpretation needs no unrealistic assumptions and no high level of mathematic understanding. The modern interpretation of economic equilibrium leads to total quantitative- and valuebased market equilibria. All three partial markets (the goods, the money and the labor market) are in equilibrium, when all economic units acting on these markets are in equilibrium. The advantage of the modern interpretation of economic equilibrium is that it is no utopia but a “topia”. The realization leads to overcome economic crises and to steady growing welfare in spite of worldwide low resources. The only condition to realize the modern interpretation of economic equilibrium is the will to change something. It is possible to use the modern interpretation of equilibrium for transport and logistic markets.
EN
Purpose: Maintaining balance in humans involves continuous changes in parameters. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of hippotherapeutic exercises on development of the sense of balance in boys aged 15 to 17 years with mild intellectual disability. Methods: The study examined 50 randomly chosen boys aged 15 to 17 years with mild intellectual disability from the special education centre in Leżajsk, Poland. The study participants were divided into two groups: experimental group, who participated for 3 months in hippotherapeutic classes and the control group, with boys attending outdoor or indoor physical education classes. Before and after completion of the study, both experimental and control groups were diagnosed by means of Accu SwayPlus force plate. The force plate was used to determine alterations in the position of the centre of pressure (COP) on the platform in the frontal and sagittal planes in relaxed standing position with feet spread to the shoulder width and with eye control with respect to the base of support (BOS). The description was based on mean displacement of the centre of gravity (COG), mean velocity of displacements of the COG, mean radial displacement and total length of the COP pathway. Results: In the experimental group, equestrian exercises induced a series of significant changes that pointed to the improved balance reactions. The character of these changes in the positions analysed was similar: values of body sway in the sagittal plane and their range and mean displacements decreased statistically significantly after training. The same tendency was observed for mean radial displacements in the free open position and with closed support surface. Furthermore, the velocity of displacement and the length of the COP’s projection pathway on the support surface in the free open position was also reduced. All significant changes and trends found for the experimental group, which occurred after 3 month of hippotherapeutic classes, suggest improved parameters of balance. Conclusions: The lack of changes in balance parameters in the control group shows that the hippotherapeutic classes significantly develop balance abilities in boys aged 15 to 17 years with mild intellectual disability.
EN
The study objective was to evaluate the impact of a ten-day rehabilitation process on the change of the distribution of body mass and the load on the lower limbs, using the tandem balance test and the modified tandem balance test in a sitting position in stroke patients. The distribution of load on the lower limbs found its expression in the index, referred to as the Kwolek index, which was developed. It was calculated as the quotient of the greater value to the lesser one, both obtained in the tandem balance test; the normal limits ranged from 1.00 to 1.15. Material and methods. The test group comprised of 60 stroke patients. 30 people were qualified to the control group. The basis for the analysis was the measurements of the distribution of body mass and load on the lower limbs in the tandem balance test and in the modified tandem balance test. The distribution of body mass test was carried out on the first and last day of rehabilitation. The rehabilitation of ischaemic stroke patients involved comprehensive physiotherapy. Results. When analyzing the distribution of body mass symmetry before and after the therapy in both the control group and the test group, an increase in the number of people was observed in the groups with a lower Kwolek index, whereas a decrease was present in the number of people in groups with a higher Kwolek index. Conclusions. Comprehensive rehabilitation affects the improvement of the distribution of body mass.
PL
Celem badań była ocena wpływu dziesięciodniowej rehabilitacji na zmianę rozkładu masy ciała oraz obciążenie kończyn dolnych przy użyciu testu dwóch wag oraz zmodyfikowanego testu dwóch wag w pozycji siedzącej u pacjentów po udarze mózgu. Wykorzystano do tego między innymi indeks Kwolka, który obrazuje rozkład masy ciała w teście dwóch wag. Indeks Kwolka wyrażany jest jako iloraz wartości większej do mniejszej uzyskanej w standardowym lub zmodyfikowanym teście dwóch wag. Materiał i metoda. Badaniom zostało poddane 96 osób. Grupę badaną stanowiło 60 pacjentów po udarze mózgu. Do grupy kontrolnej zakwalifikowano 30 osób. Podstawą analizy były pomiary rozkładu masy ciała i obciążenia kończyn dolnych w teście dwóch wag oraz zmodyfikowanym teście dwóch wag (w pozycji siedzącej). Badanie rozkładu masy ciała wykonano w pierwszym oraz ostatnim dniu rehabilitacji. Rehabilitacja pacjentów po niedokrwiennym udarze mózgu polegała na kompleksowej fizjoterapii. Wyniki. Analizując rozkład symetryczności masy ciała przed oraz po terapii zarówno w grupie kontrolnej jak i badawczej zaobserwowano tendencję do wzrostu liczby osób w grupach o niższym wskaźniku Kwolka, a zmniejszeniu się liczebności grup o wyższym wskaźniku Kwolka. Wnioski. Kompleksowa rehabilitacja ma wpływ na poprawę rozkładu masy ciała.
PL
Usuwanie drzew jest procesem ciągłym, nieuniknionym i mającym wiele zróżnicowanych przyczyn.
EN
The survival of social groups depends on internal factors (the size of a group, its socio-diversity, inner organization, coherence and synergy of actions for the common good), external factors, mostly on a safe natural and social environment, and on sustainable interactions with this environment. In addition, the survival and development of groups is determined by their stability, which in turn depends on the homeostatic mechanisms that maintain a state of balance within groups and in their environments. People have an influence on the stability of social systems; their actions may lead to strengthening or weakening of this homeostasis. The implementation of the concept of sustainable development serves, among others, to strengthen the homeostasis of social systems and consequently, to prolong the existence of mankind. However, paradoxically enough, the more the system tends to equilibrium, the less stable it becomes reducing its chance of survival. But still, striving to achieve a state of equilibrium has become an imperative nowadays in view of the concept of sustainable development. Moreover, since the beginning of the Anthropocene era, people's interference in the homeostasis of natural and social systems has been growing, helped by the progress of science and technology. However, only a handful of the world's population, the financial elite, benefit from this. Driven by economic interests and ignoring ecological criteria, they weaken this homeostasis carelessly and irresponsibly. Focused on their own benefits here and now, they do not care much about the fate of future generations.
PL
Przetrwanie grup społecznych zależy od czynników wewnętrznych (liczebności, socjodywergencji, organizacji wewnętrznej, koherencji i synergii działań na rzecz dobra wspólnego), zewnętrznych – przede wszystkim od bezpiecznego środowiska przyrodniczego i społecznego oraz od zrównoważonych interakcji z otoczeniem. Oprócz tego o przetrwaniu i rozwoju decyduje ich stabilność, która zależy od mechanizmów homeostazy zachowujących równowagę w grupach i w środowisku, w jakim przebywają. O homeostazie systemów społecznych decydują ludzie. Ich działania mogą prowadzić do wzmacniania albo do osłabiania homeostazy. Wzmacnianiu homeostazy systemów społecznych, a w konsekwencji ekstensji czasu istnienia ludzkości, służy – między innymi – urzeczywistnianie idei rozwoju zrównoważonego. Tu jednak pojawia się paradoks: im bardziej system zmierza do równowagi, tym mniejszą osiąga stabilność i tym samym zmniejszą swoją szansę na przetrwanie. Nie zważając na to, dążenie do równowagi stało się nakazem chwili za sprawą koncepcji rozwoju zrównoważonego. Poza tym, od początku epoki antropocenu postępuje ingerencja ludzi w homeostazę systemów przyrodniczych i społecznych. A postęp wiedzy i techniki pomaga im w majsterkowaniu przy homeostazie. Korzysta z tego tylko garstka populacji świata – elity finansowe. Nie kierując się kryteriami ekologicznymi, lecz ekonomicznymi, beztrosko i nieodpowiedzialnie osłabiają homeostazę. Mają one na uwadze wyłącznie swoje korzyści osiągane teraz. Dlatego nie obchodzi ich, jaki los szykują wskutek tego przyszłym pokoleniom.
EN
The paper briefly presents a theory of games with finitely many infinite populations (types) each of whom has finitely many available strategies; the payoff of an individual player depends on the distribution of choices of strategies in all populations and his own particular choice. We give specific examples of applications of the theory in several areas: spatial allocation (of species), economic models – household economy and transportation networks. We also briefly discuss questions of computation of equilibria and relations of large games, as understood in the present paper, to ordinary matrix games, games with continuum of players and evolutionary game theory.
PL
Praca zawiera skrótowy opis gier ze skończoną liczbą nieskończonych populacji (typów), z których każda dysponuje skończoną liczbą strategii; wypłata pojedynczego gracza zależy od rozkładu wyborów strategii wszystkich populacji i jego własnego wyboru strategii. Podajemy konkretne przykłady zastosowań w kilku dziedzinach: alokacja przestrzenna (gatunków), modele ekonomiczne – model gospodarki drobnotowarowej i model ruchu drogowego. Dyskutujemy też krótko zagadnienia obliczeniowe i związki dużych gier, jak przedstawiono je w tym artykule, ze zwykłymi grami macierzowymi, grami z continuum graczy i z ewolucyją teorią gier.
PL
Sprawdzono, czy badanie równowagi na platformie dynamometrycznej pozwoli na różnicowanie wyników badań w grupie osób młodszych i starszych, użytkujących obuwie ochronne o różnej konstrukcji. Wykazano, że noszenie obuwia ochronnego z cholewką i usztywnieniem wokół stawu skokowo-goleniowego wpływa na poprawę równowagi statycznej i dynamicznej u osób starszych.
EN
It was determined whether balance tests conducted on a dynamometric platform reveal differences between younger and older subjects wearing protective footwear differing in terms of shoe collar height and heel support. It was showed that the protective footwear with a high collar and ankle support improved both static and dynamic balance in older persons.
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