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1
EN
The purpose of the experiment was to obtain a response whether the electromagnetic field at the frequency of 50 Hz and magnetic induction of 2.5 mT affect the viability, proliferation and ability to migrate of MCF-7 cell line(the human breast adenocarcinoma cells) The viability of cells was assessed by trypan blue staining. The degree of cells proliferation was determined based on the cells density in culture, and the cells' ability to migrate was determined using plate clone assay and scratch adhesion test..The obtained results indicate the different effect of the EMF with the frequency of 50 Hz and magnetic induction of 2.5 mT on the viability, proliferation and the ability to migrate of the MCF-7 cell line in a manner depending on the time of exposure during the day (30 min, 10 min) as well as number of EMF exposure days (3 days, 6 days, 9 days).
PL
Celem doświadczenia było uzyskanie odpowiedzi czy pole elektromagnetyczne o częstotliwości 50 Hz i indukcji magnetycznej 2,5 mT wpływa na żywotność, proliferację oraz zdolność do migracji komórek linii MCF-7 (komórki ludzkiego gruczolaka piersi). Przeżywalność komórek oceniano za pomocą barwienia błękitem trypanu. Stopień proliferacji komórek określano na podstawie gęstości komórek w hodowli a, zdolność komórek do migracji ustalano wykorzystując plate clone assay oraz scratch adhesion test. Otrzymane wyniki wskazują na różny wpływ pola elektromagnetycznego (50 Hz, 2.5 mT) na żywotność, proliferację i zdolność do migracji linii komórkowej MCF-7 w sposób zależny od czasu ekspozycji w ciągu dnia (30 minut, 10 minut), jak również od liczby dni ekspozycji (3 dni, 6 dni, 9 dni).
PL
Mimo iż Rzeczpospolita Polska nie doświadczyła jeszcze ataków ze strony islamistów, ze względu na sojusz z USA, członkostwo w NATO, Unii Europejskiej oraz udział w operacjach wymuszania i utrzymywania pokoju w krajach gdzie islam jest religią powszechną, narażona jest nieustannie na ich odwet. W kraju istnieją ekstremistyczne organizacje o profilu skrajnie prawicowym i skrajnie lewicowym, lecz ryzyko przeprowadzania przez nie akcji terrorystycznych jest znikome. W obliczu zdecydowanego wzrostu zamachów dzihadystycznych od 2014 roku, w ostatnich latach nastąpiła intensyfikacja działań władz w celu budowy efektywnego systemu antyterrorystycznego. Mimo pewnych osiągnięć znajduje się on wciąż w fazie realizacji. Należy go nieustanie doskonalić, czerpiąc z dorobku osiągniętego w tej dziedzinie przez państwa bardziej doświadczone przez terroryzm. Aktualnie problemem jednak są różnice w podejściu poszczególnych państw do niektórych zagadnień związanych z zagrożeniem dżihadystycznym. Ujawniło się to ostatnio w kwestii uchodźców, gdy Polska wraz z innymi krajami Grupy Wyszehradzkiej zajęła stanowisko odmienne niż zdecydowana większość państw członkowskich UE.
EN
Evan thou Poland has not experienced any islamist attacks, because of its alliance with United States, NATO and EU membership as well as participation in combat missions and antiterror operations, the country is exposed to jihadist retaliation. In Poland exist extremist far right and far left organizations, however the danger of them engaging in terrorist activities is highly unlikely. In the face of huge upsurge of jihadist attacks since 2014, the last years saw huge intensification of creating national antiterror system. Despite some achievements, it is still in early stages. It has to be constantly streamlined, drawing on track record of countries affected by terrorism. Currently there is a problem with respect to different countries positions on solving issues related to threat posed by jihadist. It has been the case recently, with regard to refugee issue, when Poland alongside other Visegrad Group states have taken a different stance than the overwhelming majority of other UE countries.
EN
The article presents the results of studies on the influence of electromagnetic field with a frequency of 50 Hz and a magnetic induction of 2.5 mT on morphology, viability and proliferation, and the changes in the biochemical profile of cells of the GC-1 spg (mouse spermatogonia B) in vitro. Giemsa staining was used to evaluate the morphology of the cells. Cell viability was assessed by trypan blue staining. The degree of cell proliferation was determined by the cell density in the culture. On the other hand, changes in the biochemical profile of cells were determined using FTIR spectroscopy in infrared. Based on the results of the study, the effect of EMF on cell viability was determined according to the exposure time.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań nad wpływem pola elektromagnetycznego o częstotliwości 50 Hz i indukcji magnetycznej 2.5 mT na morfologię, żywotność i proliferację, a także zmianę profilu biochemicznego komórek linii GC-1 spg (mysie spermatogonia typu B) w warunkach in vitro. Metodą oceny morfologii komórek było barwienie metodą Giemsy. Przeżywalność komórek oceniano za pomocą barwienia błękitem trypanu. Stopień proliferacji komórek określano na podstawie gęstości komórek w hodowli. Natomiast, zmiany w profilu biochemicznym komórek ustalono wykorzystując spektroskopię FTIR w podczerwieni. Na podstawie przeprowadzonych badań wykazano wpływ pola elektromagnetycznego na przeżywalność komórek w zależności od czasu ekspozycji.
PL
Niniejszy artykuł opisuje genezę i rozwój międzynarodowych inicjatyw dotyczących kontroli proliferacji broni masowego rażenia, jak i podstaw prawnych tej kontroli. Omówione zostaną takie traktaty międzynarodowe, jak Układ o nieproliferacji broni jądrowej z 1968 roku, Grupa Australijska, Reżim Kontrolny Technologii Rakietowych, Porozumienie z Wassenaar, Konwencja o zakazie broni chemicznej, Proliferation Security Initiative. Zostaną opisane zarówno zapisy tych konwencji, jak i ich realny wpływ na kontrole międzynarodowej proliferacji broni. W dalszej części artykułu przedstawione zostaną prawne podstawy polskiego systemu kontroli proliferacji zbrojeń, między innymi ustawia z dnia 29 listopada 2000 r. o obrocie z zagranicą towarami, technologiami i usługami o znaczeniu strategicznym dla bezpieczeństwa państwa, a także dla utrzymania międzynarodowego pokoju i bezpieczeństwa. Wymienione zostaną również instytucje, takie jak Agencja Bezpieczeństwa Wewnętrznego (ABW) oraz Ministerstwo Gospodarki, których działanie ma na celu kontrolę proliferacji broni masowego rażenia oraz walkę z jej nielegalnym handlem.
EN
This article describes the origin and the development of international initiatives to control the proliferation of weapon of mass destruction and legal basis for this control. There are presented international treaties such as the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons from 1968, the Australia Group, the Missile Technology Control Regime, Wassenaar Arrangement, the Chemical Weapons Convention and Proliferation Security Initiative. The article discusses the provisions of these agreements and their real influence on the weapon’s proliferation control. Later the article presents the legal basis for the polish system of control of the proliferation of mass destruction weapon, including the Law of 29 November 2000 concerning international trade in goods, technologies and services of strategic significance for state security and maintenance of international peace and security, and amending selected laws. There are also mentioned such institutions as The Internal Security Agency (ABW) and Ministry of Economy, which function is to control the proliferation of the weapon of mass destruction and the fight against its illegal trade.
PL
Dokonano oceny cytotoksyczności oleju lnianego i estrów etylowych wielonienasyconych kwasów tłuszczowych, wytwarzanych z oleju lnianego, w badaniach in vitro, z zastosowaniem ludzkich mezenchymalnych komórek macierzystych izolowanych z tkanki tłuszczowej hASCs (human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells). Ocenę tempa proliferacji przeprowadzono w pierwszym, drugim oraz piątym dniu hodowli. Wpływ oleju lnianego oraz estru lnianego w stężeniach 2% i 4% na żywotność i proliferację hASCs badano w teście kolorymetrycznym z użyciem barwnika Alamar Blue a morfologię, adhezję i architekturę wzrostu komórek oceniano metodami mikroskopowoelektronowymi. Otrzymane wyniki wskazują na wyższą aktywność biologiczną estru lnianego w stężeniu 2%.
EN
Linseed oil and Et esters of the fatty acids from the oil were added (2% or 4%) to a culture of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells to study cytotoxicity of the additives for 5 days. Viability, proliferation, morphol., adhesion and architecture of cells were evaluated. The linseed oilderived Et ester showed the highest biological activity at the concn. 2%.
EN
Lactoferrin, a glycoprotein found in milk, has stimulated osteoblast proliferation and differentiation, but has remained relatively unexplored as a biomaterial component. In this study, artificial extracellular matrices consisting of fibrils of collagen type I containing lactoferrin were used as coatings for the biocompatible polymer poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). The numbers of cells, their viability and proliferation rate were evaluated in various time intervals. Additionally, cell initial spreading area on day 1 was measured. The results show that lactoferrin accelerates fibril-logenesis, leads to increased osteoblast cell numbers 1 and 3 days post-seeding, and encourages their proliferation in each of the tested time intervals.
EN
PCL (poly-ε-caprolactone) is a biocompatible and biodegradable polymer of aliphatic polyester group. However, PCL does not effectively bind to the bone in contrast to bioactive inorganic compounds such as wollastonite. For this wollastonite (WS) is regarded as a potential bioactive material for bone tissue engeenering although its main drawback is brittlennes. Therefore we synthesized polymer nanocomposite materials composed of poly-ε-caprolactone and wollastonite (PCL/wollastonite) containing either 0.5% or 5% of the latter modifying filler. And we aimed to verify biological properties of the nanocomposite PCL/WS materials, in comparison to the pure PCL, on cultures of osteoblast-like cells MG-63. The study revealed that the adherence of the osteoblast-like cells to the tested materials was enhanced by the PCL modification (PCL/5WS > PCL/0.5WS > PCL) while cell viability/proliferation was not altered. Furthermore, the activity of alkaline phosphatase indicative of osteoblast differentiation (maturation) was enhanced when the cells were cultured with either PCL/5WS or PCL/0.5WS. Overall, our results indicate that PCL-modified wollastonite improves biological properties of the basic biomaterial suggesting its potential usefulness/application for the bone tissue regeneration.
EN
In this paper we investigate a mathematical model of cancer invasion of tissue, which incorporates haptotaxis, chemotaxis, proliferation and degradation rates for cancer cells and the extracellular matrix, kinetics of urokinase receptor, and urokinase plasminogen activator cycle. We solve the model using spectrally accurate approximations and compare its numerical solutions with laboratory data. The spectral accuracy allows to use low-dimensional matrices and vectors, which speeds up the computations of the numerical solutions and thus to estimate the parameter values for the model equations. Our numerical results demonstrate correlations between numerical data computed from the mathematical model and in vivo tumour growth rates from prostate cell lines.
EN
Bioactive glass was supposed as a biodegradable material and designed as a scaffold to be used for bone reconstruction or regeneration. Bioactive glass scaffold with pore sizes ranged in 100-400µm in diameter was fabricated by sol-gel method, and the biocompatibility evaluation of bioactive glass scaffolds was also performed by culture in vitro models. Cells cultured in the extracts of bioactive glass appeared to show normal morphology. The scaffolds supported osteoblast growth and induced differentiation within the 21 day culture period. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) demonstrated the normal cell distribution and proliferation on porous biomaterials. Osteoblasts attached and proliferated on the scaffold as demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Nodule formation and multilayer structures were observed on the scaffold surface and in the pores of the glass. The relationship between seeding density and viability of human osteoblasts cultured on the porous bioactive glass were measured.
EN
The tested materials were represented by a pure terpolymer of polytetrafluorethylene-polyvinyldifluoride-polypropylene (PTFE-PVDF-PP), pure polysulphone (PSU) and PSU modified with single- or multiwalled carbon nanotubes in concentrations of 0.5, 1 or 2 wt%. As control samples, a polystyrene cell culture dish and microscopic glass coverslips were used. The number and viability of human osteoblast-like MG 63 cells in cultures on these materials was detected with a Cell Viability Analyzer (Vi-CELL XR, Beckman Coulter) on 1, 3 and 7 days after seeding. On all tested samples, the cell number was similar or lower than that detected on the control polystyrene dishes. The cell viability on day 1 after seeding was relatively low on PTFE-PVDF-PP and some nanotube-containing samples, ranging from 10 to 100% of living cells, but on day 7 after seeding, it reached at least 90% on all tested samples. The cell spreading area was detected in cells after immunocytochemical staining of beta-actin on day 3 after seeding. In nanotube-containing samples, especially those with multi-walled nanotubes, this area was similar or even larger than that on the control materials. The beta-actin cytoskeleton was well developed in cells on all nanotube-containing materials and similar to that in cells on control surfaces. Thus, it can be concluded that nanotube-containing PSU supports the adhesion and growth of osteoblast-like cells and could be used for construction of bone implants in which the anchorage in the surrounding bone tissue is desirable.
EN
A series of metallic materials with different surface treatments were prepared: pure machined titanium (T), titanium polished by diamond paste (TL), machined Ti6Al4V alloy (TS), Ti6Al4V alloy polished by diamond paste (TSL), Ti5Al2.5Fe alloy treated by electro-erosion (A) and Ti5Al2.5Fe plasma-sprayed with Ti (PL). The materials were seeded with human osteoblast-like cells MG 63. One day after seeding, the highest cell numbers were obtained on the samples of medium surface roughness (T and TS; Ra 0.63-0.30 um and 0.89-0.57 um, respectively). From day 1 to 4, the cell proliferation was the quickest on the samples with the lowest surface roughness (TL and TSL; Ra 0.17-0.13 for both materials). The cells on TL also contained the highest concentration of integrin adhesion molecules with alpha V chain, i.e. receptors for vitronectin and fibronectin. One day 8 after seeding, the cell on all metallic samples as well as tissue culture polystyrene reached similar population densities. The cells on electro-eroded Ti5Al2.5Fe (samples A; Ra 15.27-0.74 um) contained the highest concentration of osteocalcin and osteopontin, i.e. markers of osteoblastic differentiation. Thus, the latter newly developed material could be considered as promising for construction of bone implants well anchored in the surrounding bone tissue.
13
PL
Podjęliśmy próbę wyjaśnienia, w jaki sposób silne impulsowe pole magnetyczne oddziałuje na aktywność proliferacyjną izolowanych limfocytów na stymulacje mitogenami. Wykazano, że ekspozycja limfocytów na pole magnetyczne znacząco hamowała ich aktywność proliferacyjną.
EN
We aimed to find out how the exposure of isolated lymphocytes to a pulsed magnetic field (MF) affected their in vitro proliferative response to mitogenic stimulation. We found that the exposure of lymphocytes to the MFprofoundly inhibited their proliferative response to mitogens.
EN
The aim of the study was to investigate the changes in proliferation rate, cell cycle and apoptosis of normal skin fibroblasts during fractionated irradiation with a fraction dose of 2 Gy. Fibroblasts were irradiated 5 days per week for 12 days using gamma irradiation. Twenty four hours after each fraction, and for three days after finishing experiment the cells were harvested, fixed, and BrdUrd labelling index (BrdUrdLI), cell cycle and level of apoptosis and debris were assessed. It was found that fractionated irradiation caused disturbances in the proliferation rate and the cell cycle. Irradiation caused also constant, statistically significant increase in the number of G2M cells and level of apoptosis and debris, which was observed even during 3 days after irradiation. Data indicate non equal biological effect of each fraction dose. Block at G2/M phase suggests accumulation of sublethal damage and increased radiosensitivity, which was manifested by elevated level of cell death (apoptosis and debris).
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