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1
Content available remote Research of environmental and technological problems of cavitation
EN
The comparative analysis of systems of conversion of electric energy into mechanical and mechanical into thermal with realization of effect of cavitation in a stream of the liquid transported in a closed circuit is carried out. The optimal dimensions and relief of working surfaces of swirlers in tubular and rotary cavitators are determined. The regularities of the change of the coolant temperature depending on its nature, the intensity of cavitation, which is determined by the rotational-translational and rotational motion in cavitators of two types - tubular and rotary.
EN
Based on the mechanical properties of stretch fabrics and Laplace’s law, the mathematical models have been developed enabling one to determine the values of the relationship between the fabric strain and the circumferential stress depending on pressure and diameter of the body. The results obtained refer to the values of the parameters assessed for the initial phase of their exploitation, which allow us to preliminarily predict the values of these parameters.
EN
The mathematical model for calculating the response time of the compression ratio of the mechanism for compression ratio changing (MCRC) is presented in this article. This revealed the influence of various engine factors with the connecting rod and crank mechanism (CRCM) on the operation of the MCRC (for example, the rate of the compression ratio change). The results of the study of the operation of the MCRC indicate a strong influence of the values  (relative area of flow passage of channels) and р (pressure) on the response time τ in the field of their small values. This indicates that with insignificant changes of the area of flow passage of channel of the hydraulic lock and the minute oil pressure in the cavities, a significant response rate of the MCRC is ensured. The results demonstrate the possibility of speedy compression ratio change in the engine with the MCRC. Calculation studies showed that the mechanism full operation occurs quickly (0.02 s per unit εx), which indicates the expediency of using such a high-pressure pump in a four-stroke gasoline engine with CRCM. The mechanism movable body complete movement (S = 4 mm) at the oil temperature in the hydraulic system of 45°C and pressure on the body of p = 60 bar are stated to occur for 0.2 s.
EN
In recent years, the development of IT systems for fleet monitoring was observed. Tire pressure monitoring systems are constantly improved. Decreased values in tire pressure can cause deformation of tires. Monitoring of tire pressure is an important function in oversized transport trucks. Tire pressure and rolling resistant influence fuel consumption. The purpose of this paper was to determine the impact of tire pressure on fuel consumption in a fleet of trucks with tire pressure monitoring system installed and to determine the impact of other factors that may affect fuel consumption, such as the vehicle weight, brake usage and cruise control usage. The results of the research were developed using a multiple regression model describing the above dependence.
5
Content available remote Micro-bending sensor made from polydimethylsiloxane
EN
The article describes the process of manufacturing micro-bending sensors from polydimethylsiloxane and the checking of their function on the basis of damping behaviour. We tested three manufactured alternatives and from the results we determined coefficients for the calculation of the mass of weight on the assumption that the level of damping is known. We also tested the micro-bending sensors in practice as a walking detector, we can imagine similar uses for the sensor because it is compact, reliable, simple to produce, resistant to unfavorable conditions and cheap.
PL
W artykule opisano konstrukcję czujnika ugięcia wykonanego z polydimethylsiloxanu. Zbadano trzy alternatywne konstrukcje i określono masę obliczeniowoą przy założeniu że poziom tłumienia jest znany. Zbadano też praktyczne zastosowanie czujnika jako detektora kroków.
EN
The thermoelastic behavior of a bi-material with a gas-filled interface crack is investigated. The bi-material is subjected to a uniform tensile load and a uniform heat flow. The gas exerts pressure on the crack surfaces and offers thermal resistance proportional to the crack opening. The gas state is assumed to be described by the ideal gas law. The effects of gas mass, gas thermal conductivity and heat flux on the crack opening, interface temperature jump, gas pressure and stress intensity factors are analyzed. It is revealed that a bi-material with a heat-conducting crack exhibits the heat flow directional effect.
EN
Excessive soil compaction caused by agricultural tractors during plant production processes results in a considerable risk of reduced crop yields, increased erosion processes, greater input of energy in tillage and increased CO2 emission to the atmosphere. As a consequence we observe a threat of degradation in Luvisols found over a considerable area in the Polish Plain and the North European Plain. In-situ studies made it possible to identify and quantify selected factors determining soil density in loamy sand at a depth of max. 0.4 m in wheel tracks of tractors weighing from 19 to 72 kN with single standard wheels and with dual wheels. Analyses were conducted during the first passage over soil loosened during ploughing. It was generally shown that at a lower initial soil density in the topsoil tractors with both driving systems cause greater density increments and lower soil density than in the hardpan. Tractors with dual wheels exert much lesser pressure and cause soil density by approx. 0.1 g·cm-3 lower in the topsoil and by approx. 0.06 g·cm-3 in the hardpan than it is the case for tractors with single wheels. Tractors varying in their weight cause similar soil densities in the topsoil, while in the hardpan heavier tractors cause greater soil densities than light tractors. Generally, tractors with single wheels compress the soil in the topsoil layer to 45 up to 65% of compressibility, while tractors with dual wheels do it to approx. 26 up to 49% of compressibility, respectively.
PL
Nadmierne zagęszczanie gleb ciągnikami rolniczymi w produkcji roślinnej powoduje znaczne ryzyko obniżenia plonowania roślin uprawnych, wzmożenia procesów erozyjnych, wzrostu energii na uprawę i zwiększenia emisji CO2 do atmosfery. W konsekwencji występuje zagrożenie degradacją gleb Luvisol występujących na znacznym obszarze Niżu Środkowopolskiego i Niżu Środkowoeuropejskiego. W badaniach polowych dokonano identyfikacji i kwantyfikacji wybranych czynników determinujących gęstość gleby - piasek gliniasty - na głębokości do 0,4 m w koleinach ciągników o ciężarach od 19 do 72 kN z pojedynczymi kołami standardowymi i z kołami dodatkowymi. Badania wykonano podczas pierwszego przejazdu na glebie spulchnionej podczas orki. Wykazano ogólnie, że przy niższej początkowej gęstości gleby w warstwie ornej ciągniki z obydwoma systemami jezdnymi powodują wyższe przyrosty gęstości gleby i niższe gęstości gleby niż w podeszwie płużnej. Ciągniki z kołami dodatkowymi wywierają znacznie mniejsze naciski i powodują mniejsze gęstości gleby średnio o ok. 0,1 g·cm-3 w warstwie ornej i o ok. 0,06 g·cm-3 w podeszwie płużnej niż ciągniki z kołami pojedynczymi. Ciągniki o różnych ciężarach powodują podobne gęstości gleby w warstwie ornej, a w podeszwie płużnej ciągniki cięższe powodują większe gęstości gleby niż ciągniki lekkie. Ogólnie ciągniki z kołami pojedynczymi zgęszczają glebę w warstwie ornej od 45 do 65% potencjału zgęszczenia, a ciągniki z kołami dodatkowymi w ok. 26 do 49% tego potencjału.
EN
In the present work, a solution to the problem of viscous flow in a rectangular region with two moving parallel walls is obtained by using a hybrid finite volume scheme. The discretized governing equations are solved iteratively, and thereby the flow variables are computed numerically. The results for velocity and pressure in horizontal and vertical directions through the centre of a rectangular region are elucidated. The nature of velocity profiles and pressure for different Reynolds numbers in the horizontal and vertical directions through the geometric centre was analyzed with the help of pictorial representations. The present results are compared with the available benchmark results and we have found that they are not in disagreement.
9
Content available remote Temperature and pressure dependent creep stress analysis of spherical shell
EN
In the present paper, we have studied the temperature and pressure dependent creep stress analysis of spherical shell. The review is critical to enhance the warm resistance of spherical shells in high-temperature conditions. The effect of different parameters was studied and it was noticed that the parameter n has a significant influence on the creep stresses and strain rates. Creep stresses and strain rates are ascertained on the premise of summed up strain measures and Seth’s transition hypothesis. This investigation is completed to demonstrate the impacts of temperature on the creep stresses and strain rates in the spherical shell. The resulting quantities are computed numerically and depicted graphically. It has been watched that the spherical shell made of an incompressible material is on more secure side of configuration when contrasted with the shell made of a compressible material.
EN
To transport of the air in the pipeline, an analytical model is developed that takes into account the gas velocity, its kinematic and dynamic characteristics - density, viscosity depending on the pressure in a given space of the pipeline. The analytical model makes it possible to calculate the coefficient of friction of gas transportation in the pipeline at intervals of the absolute pressure from 220 to 2 kPa and M < 1 Mach numbers, depending on the diameter and length of the pipeline and physical and technological characteristics of the gas. The K1* aspect ratio is proposed, which characterizes in time the ratio of the dynamic force of movement of gas to the static pressure related to the diameter of the pipeline. The coefficient of air friction was modeled according to the vacuum pressure as a parameter of density and air flow. Air flow was taken from 1.917·10-3 m 3/s to 44.5·10-3 m 3/s respectively, diameters from 0.030 to 0.070 m and Mach number was M = 0.005-0.13. At the vacuum and excess pressures with increasing of Reynolds number and decreasing of Mach number the gas friction coefficient increased linearly. According to the simulation results as the pressure loss and the diameter of the pipeline are increased the friction coefficient increased as well. Analogically, at the vacuum metric pressure when the pressure loss and the diameter of the pipeline are increased the friction coefficient increased. At the pipeline internal diameters of 22, 30, 36 mm accordingly for pressure losses from 2 to 14 kPa the coefficient of air friction varies from 0.006 to 54.527 respectively.
EN
The article presents the results of tests carried out on a single-cylinder of spark-ignition engine. The charge exchange process in the combustion chamber is very important to determine the possibility of improving the overall efficiency of the engine. Describes of impact modifications engine on open indicator diagrams. Open indicator diagrams show that the higher compression ratio is assumed, the higher the pressure in the system is. First parts of the research describes analysis of charge exchange on not working engine. Results of research presents different open indicators diagrams. Then the pressure results were obtained on the working engine. The possibilities of improving the overall efficiency of the engine by reducing the pumping loss, associated with the replacement of the air fuel mixture, were presented. The article describes the modification of a spark-ignition engine that affects the pressure change in the combustion chamber. The use of innovative methods of regulating the compression pressure gives a lot of positive effects.
EN
Power cartridges are gas generators utilised to drive a liquid projectile for disruption of suspect improvised explosive devices (IED’s). The purpose of a water-jet disruptor is to destroy the suspected IED. A novel method was devised for pressure measurement at the exit of the cartridge for launching liquid projectile. An experimental test set-up was designed and fabricated for measurement of projectile velocity and the propellant gas pressure in a velocity test rig (VTR). In these experiments, double base propellants having different physical and chemical properties were utilised to drive the solid projectile. This projectile was made of nylon material. This projectile velocity measurement is an important parameter in the armament field. An experimental study is the unique design feature. It is responsible for the measurement of pressure at the exit of the cartridge and the projectile velocity at the muzzle end of the barrel. The projectile velocity was measured using high speed photography. The pressure was measured using a pressure sensor. The maximum projectile velocities for spherical ball powder and NGB 051 propellants have been experimentally measured as 384.23 m/s and 418.32 m/s, respectively. Experimentally the maximum pressures for spherical ball powder and NGB 051 propellants have been evaluated as 50.12 MPa and 63 MPa respectively from data gathered by the acquisition system. The standard deviation between the experimental and theoretical values for the projectile velocity varied from 12.57 to 13.88 for spherical ball powder whereas it was 5.33 to 7.09 for NGB 051 propellant. The percentage error between the experimental and the theoretical values of the projectile velocity was less than 10 for both propellants.
EN
Gas atmosphere at the sand mould/cast alloy interface determines the quality of the casting obtained. Therefore the aim of this study was to measure and evaluate the gas forming tendency of selected moulding sands with alkyd resins. During direct and indirect gas measurements, the kinetics of gas evolution was recorded as a function of the temperature of the sand mixture undergoing the process of thermal destruction. The content of hydrogen and oxygen was continuously monitored to establish the type of the atmosphere created by the evolved gases (oxidizing/reducing). The existing research methodology [1, 7, 8] has been extended to include pressure-assisted technique of indirect measurement of the gas evolution rate. For this part of the studies, a new concept of the measurement was designed and tested. This article presents the results of measurements and compares gas emissions from two sand mixtures containing alkyd resins known under the trade name SL and SL2002, in which the polymerization process is initiated with isocyanate. Studies of the gas forming tendency were carried out by three methods on three test stands to record the gas evolution kinetics and evaluate the risk of gas formation in a moulding or core sand. Proprietary methods for indirect evaluation of the gas forming tendency have demonstrated a number of beneficial aspects, mainly due to the ability to record the quantity and composition of the evolved gases in real time and under stable and reproducible measurement conditions. Direct measurement of gas evolution rate from the tested sands during cast iron pouring process enables a comparison of the results with the results obtained by indirect methods.
EN
In this Paper, a parametric study on pipes buried in soil was performed illustrating the results of blast loading. Effects of various parameters such as the physical properties of water, oil, gas, air, soil, pipes, and TNT have been investigated. The arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method was employed using LS-DYNA software. The maximum pressure in a buried pipe explosive was observed at an angle of about 0° to 45° and the minimum pressure occurred at an angle of about 45° to 90°. Therefore, all figures in this study illustrate that fluid pressure levels in buried pipes can help in their stabilization. In generally, by increasing the 1.23 times of liquid density under the explosion, the pressure levels in the soil decreased by 1.3 percent. The gas pressure has been increasing more than oil and water pipes 39.73 and 40.52 percent, respectively.
EN
The main purpose of this research was to analyse the distribution of plantar pressures and foot characteristics during walking between weeks 27 and 36 of pregnancy. The secondary purpose was to test the effect of the customized orthopaedic shoes that were worn by the experimental group. Methods: Pregnant women (n = 73) were divided into 2 groups, control group (n = 38) and experimental group (n = 35) which completed 5 gait trials on a walkway (1.55m) at a self-selected velocity of gait, where force, pressure and remaining foot characteristics were sampled and displayed by Novel database pro m (version 25.3.24). Results: Analysis of foot characteristics did not reveal important changes. Analysis of the distribution of plantar pressures revealed few changes in the pre- and post-measurement of the experimental and control groups between weeks 27 and 36 of pregnancy. In the last measurement, there is a significant increase of peak pressure only in the midfoot area of the left foot (151.1 ± 41.2 kPa) and in the hindfoot area of the right foot (346.3 ± 104.1) of the experimental group. The control group exhibits similar pressure development for both of foot. Conclusions: Monitored parameters demonstrated in certain areas notably development of force and contact area. Results of foot characteristics did not reveal a significant changes. As both groups registered similar values in certain areas in a comparison of pre/post measurement characteristics, the influence of specific orthopaedic shoes cannot be conclusively demonstrated in the experimental group.
EN
This current work investigates the effect of duct and number of blades on the hydrodynamic performance of the horizontal axis tidal stream turbine (HATST). The numerical method based on Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations is employed to compare the hydrodynamic performance for various cases of this device. For validation of the numerical results, a 3-blade HATST without-duct has been compared against experimental data. The analysis and comparison of the simulation results show that using duct for HATST has increased the power coefficient, the torque coefficient, the trust coefficient, and the force on the blade. In addition, the simulation results of the cases with a greater number of blades shows that the trust coefficient increased and the force on the blade decreased. Therefore, it is recommended to use ducted HATST with a great number of blades to extract more energy from the tidal stream.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono charakter zmian wybranych parametrów ilościowych i jakościowych wód termalnych ze złoża Cieplice w Jeleniej Górze. Scharakteryzowano warunki wypływu wód termalnych. Określono przyczyny i zakres zmian wydajności eksploatowanych ujęć oraz zmian ciśnienia na głowicy otworu C-1. Przeprowadzona analiza zmian parametrów ilościowych eksploatowanych ujęć potwierdziła, że wszystkie termalne ujęcia Cieplic ujmują wody z tego samego powiązanego hydraulicznie systemu szczelinowego. Omówiono zmiany wartości jonów fluorkowych w poszczególnych ujęciach wód termalnych Cieplic. Określono stopień nasycenia omawianych wód względem głównych minerałów skałotwórczych i prawdopodobnych produktów ich wietrzenia. Przedstawiono analizę zależności pomiędzy głównymi składnikami wód i jonami F–. Podjęto próbę określenia pochodzenia fluorków obecnych w wodach termalnych Cieplic. Najprawdopodobniej źródłem jonów fluorkowych oraz kwasu metakrzemowego w badanych wodach są rozpuszczające się krzemiany, glinokrzemiany oraz fluoryt.
EN
The article presents the nature of changes in selected quantitative and qualitative parameters of thermal waters from the Cieplice deposit in Jelenia Góra. The conditions of thermal water outflow and the characteristic of changes in the efficiency of exploited sources have been presented. Additionally, the causes of pressure changes on the head in the C-1 borehole were determined. All the thermal intakes in Cieplice capture water from the same hydraulically system in fractured rocks. This is confirmed by The analysis of changes in the quantitative parameters. The article describe the contents of fluoride ions in particular intakes of thermal waters in Cieplice. The degree of saturation of the discussed waters in relation to the main rock-forming minerals and probable products of their weathering was determined. An analysis of the relationship between the main water components and F– ions is presented. An attempt to determine the origin of fluorides present in thermal waters of Cieplice was made. The most probable source of fluoride and metasilicic acid are silicate, aluminosilicates and fluorite.
EN
In field research, the influence of factors determining soil compaction in an arable layer caused by agricultural tyres during the first pass was determined. The factors were the following: a normal load of tyres resulting from a static load of a tractor axle, dimensions of tyres: diameter, and width as well as pressure determined by a simplified method. The research was conducted on soil cultivated with ploughing – Luvisol loamy sand. It was generally shown that tyre load was the main determinant of soil compressing. A bigger tyre load leads to higher soil density only in a deeper arable layer. Higher soil density caused by bigger tyres is the result of their higher load rather than their higher external diameter. Wider driving tyres of a similar diameter caused only slightly lower soil density mainly at a greater depth in an arable layer. Pressure determined by a simplified method is not correlated with soil density changed by tyres. A soil density increment caused by the investigated tyres was from approx. 30% to approx. 65% of the whole growth potential.
PL
W badaniach polowych określono wpływ czynników determinujących zgęszczanie gleby powodowane w warstwie ornej oponami rolniczymi podczas pierwszego przejazdu. Czynnikami były: obciążenie normalne opon wynikające ze statycznych obciążeń osi ciągników, wymiary opon: średnica i szerokość oraz nacisk wyznaczony metodą uproszczoną. Badania dokonano na glebie Luvisol spulchnionej orką – piasek gliniasty. Wykazano ogólnie, że obciążenie opon jest głównym determinantem zgęszczania gleby. Wyższe obciążenia opon powodują większe gęstości gleby tylko na większej głębokości warstwy uprawnej. Większe gęstości gleby powodowane oponami większymi są rezultatem bardziej ich większego obciążenia niż większej średnicy zewnętrznej. Szersze opony napędowe o podobnej średnicy powodują tylko nieco mniejsze gęstości gleby głównie na większej głębokości warstwy uprawnej. Nacisk wyznaczany metodą uproszczoną nie jest skorelowany z gęstością gleby zmienianą oponami. Spowodowany przyrost gęstości gleby badanymi oponami wynosi od około 30 do około 65% całego potencjału wzrostu.
EN
One of the most important parameters specifying the usability of the miniaturised electrohydraulic servomechanism includes a static friction degree in its slide pairs, i.e. resistance of the slider’s movement from rest after some time of its staying at rest under pressure. Therefore, at the stage of designing and construction of the electrohydraulic servomechanism, it is important to determine the greatest static friction degree, which may arise in the slider hydraulic pair of this device during its operation. The objective of this article is to present a method for estimating the maximum static friction values in the slide pair based on the extreme value theory. The operation and loading conditions of the slide pair of the electrohydraulic servomechanism for the unmanned aircraft control system were described. The procedure for estimating the maximum static friction degree in the slide pair with the use of the extreme and probabilistic grid was presented. The extreme and probabilistic grid structure was based on the Gumbel probability graph. The graphic presentation of results of the static friction experimental studies in the slide pair on the extreme and probabilistic grid was discussed. By using the graphics method, the empirical dependence of the static friction force in the slide pair on the working fluid pressure in the hydraulic drive (loading conditions) was determined. A practical example of estimating the maximum values of the static friction force that may occur in the slider hydraulic pair of the miniaturized electrohydraulic servomechanism is shown.
EN
In this study, the influence of thermomechanical coupling effect - the effect of thermal expansion due to dissipation of the energy of plastic deformation, with and without taking into account the stored energy of plastic deformation (SEPD) for the distribution of stresses, strains, temperature, the applied pressure and the residual stresses is examined. The residual stresses remain in a thick-walled tube (a cylindrical thick-walled tank) after removing the internal pressure in the process of purely elastic unloading. The analysis is made on the example of an analitycal solution for a thick-walled tube subjected to a quasistatically increasing internal pressure for the case of adiabatic processes (without heat flow). Since the loading with internal pressure is quasi-static (monotonic), then neglecting the process of heat flow can lead to some different results in calculated stresses, deformations, temperature, internal pressure and residual stresses. The calculations for isothermal type of processes of deformations (without heat or ideal cooling) are also performed for the estimation of these differences. The results calculated for the process with heat flow should be intermediate between the values obtained for isothermal and adiabatic processes.
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