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EN
Purpose: Among the technologies that play a crucial role in the current stage of development of Industry 4.0 conventional powder engineering technologies are of great importance. Based on a comprehensive literature review, conventional technologies using the powders of metals, their alloys and ceramics are described. Development perspectives of the most widespread among them were indicated. Design/methodology/approach: Extensive literature studies on conventional powder engineering technologies have been carried out. By using knowledge engineering methods, development perspectives of individual technologies were indicated. Findings: In addition to the presentation of conventional sintering technological methods, sintering mechanisms in solid-state and liquid phase sintering which accounts for 90% of the commercial value of sintered products are presented. Originality/value: According to augmented holistic Industry 4.0 model, many materials processing technologies and among them conventional powder engineering technologies play a key role in current industry development. For this reason, these technologies have been characterized in detail on the basis of available literature sources.
EN
The aim of the study was to indicate the influence of consolidation processes on microstructure and selected mechanical properties of powder metallurgy Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr alloy, which was produced by blending of elemental powders method. Morphology of the mixture and its ingredients were examined using scanning electron microscopy. The consolidation of powders mixture was conducted using two approaches. The first consisted of the uniaxial hot pressing process, the second included two steps – uniaxial cold pressing process and sintering under argon protective atmosphere. Microstructural analysis was performed for both as-pressed compacts using light microscopy. Additionally, computed tomography studies were carried out, in order to examine the internal structure of compacts. Chosen mechanical properties, such as Vickers hardness and compression strength was also determined and compared. The conducted research proves that the proposed production method leads to obtain materials with no structural defects and relatively low porosity. Moreover, due to the proper selection of manufacturing parameters, favorable microstructures can be received, as well as mechanical properties, which are comparable to conventionally produced material with the corresponding chemical composition.
EN
In the present paper, elemental Fe, Cr and Ni powders were used to fabricate nano-structured duplex and ferritic stainless steel powders by using high energy planetary ball milling. We have studied the effect of milling atmosphere like wet (toluene) and dry (argon) milling of elemental Fe-18Cr-13Ni (duplex) and Fe-17Cr-1Ni (ferritic) powders for 10 h in a dual drive planetary mill. Stearic acid of 1wt.% was added during milling to avoid agglomeration. The dry and wet milled duplex and ferritic stainless steel powders were characterized by XRD, SEM and particle size analysis techniques. We have found that both the milling atmospheres have great influence in controlling the final particle morphology, size and phase evolution during milling. It was reported that dry milling is more effective in reducing particle size than the wet milling. The Nelson-Riley method of extrapolation was used to calculate the precise lattice parameter and Williamson-Hall method was used to calculate the crystallite size and lattice strain of both the stainless steel milled in argon atmosphere. Dry milled duplex and ferritic stainless steel were then consolidated by conventional sintering method at 1100, 1200 and 1300°C temperatures under argon atmosphere for 1 hour.
EN
The Nb-Si based in-situ composite was produced by resistive sintering (RS) technique. In order to identify present phases, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was used on the composite. XRD analysis revealed that the composite was composed of Nb solid solution (Nbss) and α-Nb5Si3 phases. The microstructure of the composite was characterized by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) was performed for the micro-analysis of the chemical species. SEM-EDS analyses show that the microstructure of composite consists of Nbss, Nb5Si3 and small volume fraction of Ti-rich Nbss phases. The micro hardness of constituent phases of the composite was found to be as 593±19 and 1408±33 Hv0.1, respectively and its relative density was % 98.54.
EN
The influence of boron carbide and tungsten carbide on the apparent porosity, density, coercive force, hardness and micro-structure of metal matrix composite of the Ferro-TiC type, is presented in this paper. The samples of investigated steel/titanium carbide composite were produced by powder metallurgy process, i.e. by powders mixing and compacting followed by sintering in the vacuum furnace. According to the results, steel/titanium carbide composite materials with addition up to 11.9 vol.% of boron carbide are interesting to detailed investigation as well as materials having more than 17.2 vol.% of tungsten carbide because these compositions show significant changes in hardness and coercive force values.
EN
Traditional press and sinter processes have gained in the last decades more and more importance in the manufacturing of high volume and precise mechanical components especially in the field of iron based powders. In recent years, the reductions of processing times and temperatures were spotted as critical targets to increase productivity and reduce energy consumption. Electric current assisted sintering (ECAS) technologies have always been seen as an alternative to traditional furnace based sintering techniques and have been the target of different researches with the specific purpose of reducing both operational times and costs. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of an innovative process called Electro Sinter Forging (ESF) applied to CuSn15 powders. Thanks to a very short processing time (less than 1 second to densify loose powders), this process is able to retain a very small grain size, thus enhancing mechanical properties of the processed materials. Furthermore, to the authors knowledge, cold – rolled electro – sinter – forged alloys has never been investigated before. First of all, bars were electro – sinter – forged and subsequently characterized in the as sinter – forged condition. The observation of microstructure evidenced an extremely fine microstructure and a reduced degree of porosity. Afterwards, bars were cold rolled after different reduction ratios; macrostructural integrity of the rolled bars was assessed before evaluating the effects of cold rolling on the sinter – forged microstructure.
EN
Nowadays, titanium is one of the most popular materials for aeronautical applications due to its good corrosion resistance, formability and strength. In this paper, rutile reinforced titanium matrix composites were produced via powder metallurgy. The steps included high energy ball milling of raw titanium and rutile powders in a planetary ball mill, which was followed by cold-pressing and sintering without external pressure. For the characterization of the milled powders and the sintered composites, scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and compressive strength examinations were carried out. The results showed that the rutile has a strengthening effect on the titanium matrix. 1 wt% rutile increased the compressive strength compared to the raw titanium. Increasing the milling time of the metal matrix decreased the compressive strength values.
EN
In this work the structure and properties of composite rollers with surface layer made of hard alloy were studied. The rollers were made by the powder metallurgy method with sintering during pressing and the presence of a certain liquid phase during sintering (semi-liquid sintering). WC-Co and TiC-Ni-Fe materials were used as hard alloys. Iron-carbon and iron-nickel materials were used as soft base. All of the composite layers were formed in one process. The structure of base materials and border layer of these composites were studied. Investigations of thermocycling sustainability of these composite samples were carried out.
EN
The paper presents the results of research on the production and application of sintered copper matrix composite reinforced with titanium-copper intermetallic phases. Cu- Ti composites were fabricated by powder metallurgy. The starting materials for obtaining the sintered composites were commercial powders of copper and titanium. Experiments were carried out on specimens containing 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 % of titanium by weight. Finished powders mixtures containing appropriate quantities of titanium were subjected to single pressing with a hydraulic press at a compaction pressure of 620 MPa. Obtained samples were subjected to sintering process at 880°C in an atmosphere of dissociated ammonia. The sintering time was 6 hours. The introduction of titanium into copper resulted in the formation of many particles containing intermetallic phases. The obtained sinters were subjected to hardness, density and electrical conductivity measurements. Observations of the microstructure on metallographic specimens made from the sintered compacts were also performed using a optical microscope. An analysis of the chemical composition (EDS) of the obtained composites was also performed using a scanning electron microscope. Microstructural investigations by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) showed that after 6 hours of sintering at 880°C intermetallic compounds: TiCu, TiCu2, TiCu4, Ti2Cu3, Ti3Cu4 were formed. The hardness increased in comparison with a sample made of pure copper whereas density and electrical conductivity decreased. The aim of this work was to fabricate copper matrix composites reinforced with titanium particles containing copper- titanium intermetallic phases using powder metallurgy technology and determine the influence of the titanium particles on the properties of the sintered compacts and, finally, analyse the potentials application for friction materials or electric motors brushes.
EN
Ba0.85(La,Y)0.15Fe12O19 hexaferrite magnets were produced using the powder metallurgy method. The phase analysis of the ferrite magnets was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. A single hexaferrite phase was present in both samples as revealed by XRD patterns. The microstructural evolution in the hexaferrite samples was examined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The grain morphology altered with the sintering temperature. Room temperature ferrimagnetic hysteresis curves were obtained by Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). The crystallite size and the lattice parameters (a,c) were also calculated after sintering at 1150ºC and 1250ºC. Saturation magnetizations, Ms were determined to be 48.60 emu/g and 52.95 emu/g for the samples sintered at 1150ºC and 1250ºC, respectively whereas the remanent magnetizations, Mr were 29.26 emu/g and 31.17 emu/g. The coercivity, Hc decreased from 3.95 kOe to the value of 2.44 kOe with the sintering temperature due to the increase of the crystallite size. The squareness ratios (Mr/Ms) of the ferrimagnetic samples were different because the uniaxial anisotropies altered after sintering at 1150ºC and 1250ºC. The maximum energy product, (BH)max dropped from 35.81 kJ/m3 to 27.38 kJ/m3 when the sintering temperature increased. This result can be attributed to a combination of higher magnetization and the lower coercivity.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono proces konsolidacji dyfuzyjnej i plastycznej na drodze prasowania, spiekania, wyciskania i ciągnienia materiału stykowego na bazie srebra z dodatkiem azotku chromu. Określono także wpływ zastosowanej metody oraz ciśnienia prasowania na właściwości wyprasek oraz spieków. Zaproponowano technologię wytwarzania materiału stykowego Ag(CrxN)10 do postaci styków elektrycznych oraz porównano właściwości półfabrykatów na wybranych etapach technologicznych z ich odpowiednikami wykonanymi z materiału stykowego AgNi10.
EN
The work reports the process of diffusion and plastic consolidation of silver-based contact material with chromium nitride additive by means of pressing, sintering, extrusion and drawing. The influence of the method and applied pressure on the properties of the compacts and sinters is described. This allowed to develop a technology for production of Ag(CrxN)10 material in a form of electrical contacts. For each step during the technological process, the properties of half-products were compared with the equivalent electrical contacts made of AgNi10.
EN
The article presents the results of preliminary research into the feasibility of copper-graphene composite application in the production of shaped charge liners in HEAT ammunition from graphene-coated copper grain powders by powder metallurgy techniques. Copper powder grains were coated with graphene with a machine and process developed at the Institute of Precision Mechanics in Warsaw (Poland). The characteristics of the applied powdered materials (including particle size distribution) were determined in this work. The paper discloses the result of graphene identification by Raman spectroscopy. The presence of graphene was confirmed in the processed copper powder. The paper discusses the preparation of copper powder by grinding (refinement) and reduction for consolidation. Powder mixtures of pure copper and graphene powder were applied at different component ratios. P/M compacts and sinters (agglomerates) for the test specimens were made from the proposed mixtures by die pressing and sintering in dissociated ammonia gas. Examples of microstructures and selected test results of material properties are shown for the produced sinters. The paper shows a selection of test results for the copper-graphene composites produced by PPS (Pulse Plasma Sintering) from 100% graphene-coated copper powder. The properties of the produced composite materials were determined, including their density, porosity, and a selection of mechanical properties identified by DSI (Depth Sensing Indentation). It was found that the copper-graphene composite met the primary design criteria applied to shaped charged liners for HEAT munitions. In “traditional” powder metallurgy processes, high-density products can be produced if the composite material features a low content of graphene-coated copper powder; PPS, however, makes the production viable with 100% graphene-coated copper powder.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki wstępnych badań dotyczących możliwości zastosowania kompozytu miedź-grafen, jako materiału przeznaczonego do wytwarzania wkładek kumulacyjnych amunicji przeciwpancernej technologią metalurgii proszków z proszków miedzi pokrytych grafenem. Grafenowanie proszków realizowane było w oparciu o urządzenie i technologię opracowaną w InstytucieMechaniki Precyzyjnej w Warszawie. W pracy określono charakterystyki zastosowanych proszków (np. rozkład granulometryczny) oraz pokazano wyniki dotyczące identyfikacji grafenu na podstawie analiz wykonanych metodą spektroskopii Ramanowskiej. Potwierdzono obecność grafenu na proszkach miedzi. Przedstawiono informacje dotyczące przygotowania proszku do procesu konsolidacji, obejmujące jego rozdrabnianie i redukcję. Zastosowano mieszanki proszków czystej miedzi z proszkiem grafenowanym o różnych proporcjach. W celu wytworzenia wyprasek i spieków (w postaci próbek badawczych) z zaproponowanych składów mieszanek zastosowano prasowanie matrycowe oraz piekanie w atmosferze zdysocjowanego amoniaku. Przedstawiono przykładowe obrazy mikrostruktury oraz wybrane wyniki badań właściwości otrzymanych spieków. W pracy przedstawiono również wybrane wyniki badań kompozytów miedźgrafen wytwarzanych metodą PPS (Plasma Puls Sintering) z grafenowanego proszku miedzi (zaw. 100%). Określono podstawowe właściwości otrzymanych kompozytów, tj. m.in. gęstość, porowatość oraz wybrane właściwości mechaniczne wyznaczone metodą DSI (Depth Sensing Indentation). Stwierdzono, że kompozyt miedź-grafen spełnia główne wymagania stawiane materiałowi na wkładki kumulacyjne. W przypadku „tradycyjnych” technologii metalurgii proszków uzyskanie wyrobu o wysokiej gęstości możliwe jest w przypadku kompozytu o ograniczonej zawartości grafenowanego proszku miedzi, natomiast dla technologii PPS również dla 100% zawartości proszku grafenowanego.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono metody metalurgii proszków wykorzystywane do wykonywania wyrobów z proszków metalicznych i ceramicznych w Sieci Badawczej Łukasiewicz – Instytucie Obróbki Plastycznej. Do wytwarzania zaawansowanych materiałów metalicznych, ceramicznych oraz kompozytowych zastosowano nowoczesną metodę spiekania iskrowo-plazmowego z wykorzystaniem urządzenia SPS HP D 25-3. Urządzenie to pozwala na realizację procesów spiekania w temperaturze do 2200°C z jednoczesnym prasowaniem z siłą do 250 kN w próżni, atmosferze azotu, argonu lub wodoru. Z kolei do wykonywania wyrobów z proszków na bazie żelaza stosowana jest konwencjonalna metoda prasowania jednoosiowego na zimno i następującego po nim spiekania swobodnego w atmosferze azotowo-wodorowej zdysocjowanego amoniaku z wykorzystaniem gniazda badawczo-doświadczalnego GSMP-75 wyposażonego w piec wgłębny retortowy PSF-12/75. Maksymalna temperatura spiekania wynosi 1200°C. Ponadto omówiono przykładowe prace naukowo-badawcze zrealizowane w ramach zarówno projektów międzynarodowych finansowanych z 7 PR UE oraz Horyzontu 2020, jak i projektów krajowych realizowanych we współpracy z przemysłem. Zaprezentowano wybrane wyniki badań dotyczące kompozytowych sektorów tnących stosowanych w piłach do cięcia kamieni, kompozytowych elektrod nasadkowych stosowanych w zrobotyzowanych stanowiskach zgrzewania punktowego oraz płytek skrawających wykonanych z węglików spiekanych stosowanych w obróbce mechanicznej metali. Poza tym wskazano gałęzie przemysłu, na potrzeby których ŁUKASIEWICZ – INOP wykonuje prace naukowo-badawcze oraz realizuje wdrożenia. Zaprezentowano także ofertę współpracy dla przemysłu.
EN
The article presents the powder metallurgy methods used to make products from metallic and ceramic powders in the Łukasiewicz Research Network – Metal Forming Institute. To produce advanced metallic, ceramic and composite materials, the method of spark plasma sintering employing an SPS HP D 25-3 was used. This device allows sintering processes to be performed at temperatures up to 2200°C with simultaneous compaction with a force of up to 250 kN in vacuum, and in a nitrogen, argon or hydrogen atmosphere. On the other hand, to make products from iron-based powders, the conventional method of cold uniaxial pressing and subsequent free sintering in a nitrogen-hydrogen atmosphere of dissociated ammonia employing a GSMP-75 research and testing socket equipped with a PSF-12/75 retort furnace is used. The maximum sintering temperature is 1200°C. In addition, examples of scientific and research work carried out as part of international projects financed from EU FP7 and Horizon 2020, as well as national projects executed in cooperation with industry are discussed. Selected research results concerning composite cutting sectors used in saws for cutting stones, composite cap electrodes used in robotic spot welding stations and cutting inserts made of cemented carbides used in metal machining were presented. In addition, the branches of industry were identified for which the Łukasiewicz Research Network – Metal Forming Institute performs scientific and research works and executes implementations. A cooperation offer for industry was also presented.
EN
The paper presents the results of research on the Al-V2O5 composite manufactured by means of the mechanical alloying and powder metallurgy method. Observation of the microstructure and X-ray chemical composition (XRD) analysis of the composite after extrusion were carried out. One of the most desirable features of metallic composites – apart from mechanical properties – is their resistance to increased impact temperature. It was observed that the formation of intermetallic phases due to the chemical reaction between strengthening particles and the composite matrix depends primarily on the annealing conditions of the material. The hardness of the annealed samples, depending on the annealing temperature, were discussed with respect to the material microstructure transformation. Despite the high-temperature, annealing at 473–773K, the material hardness did not change significantly, and remained approx.125 HV. However, at higher annealing temperatures, i.e. 823K, the chemical reaction between the components leads to the formation of the Al10V particles and increases hardness.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań kompozytu Al-V2O5, który wytworzono metodą mechanicznej syntezy. Przeprowadzono obserwację mikrostruktury oraz rentgenowską analizę składu chemicznego (XRD) kompozytu po procesie wyciskania. Jedną z najbardziej pożądanych cech kompozytów metalicznych – oprócz własności mechanicznych – jest ich odporność na oddziaływanie podwyższonej temperatury. Powstawanie faz międzymetalicznych na skutek reakcji chemicznej pomiędzy cząstkami umacniającymi a osnową kompozytu zależy przede wszystkim od warunków wyżarzania materiału kompozytowego. W pracy przedstawiono zależność twardości od temperatury wyżarzania (473–823 K). Twardość materiału nie zmienia się znacząco w dość wysokiej temperaturze wyżarzania jak w przypadku aluminium (473–773 K), a jej wartość osiąga średni poziom 125HV2. Stwierdzono, że reakcja chemiczna między składnikami podczas wyżarzania w temperaturze 823 K prowadzi do powstania fazy międzymetalicznej Al10V, co powoduje wzrost twardości kompozytu.
15
Content available remote Cechy mikrostruktury i właściwości narzędzi grawerskich z węglika wolframu
PL
W pracy badano narzędzia grawerskie w kształcie ściętych stożków o kątach wierzchołkowych 10°, 15°, 20° i 30°, wykonane z węglika wolframu w osnowie kobaltu. Badane narzędzia tzw. rylce, produkowane są z przeznaczeniem do obróbki materiałów takich jak: drewno, wosk, szkło akrylowe, PVC, MDF, miękkie metale, kompozyty wzmocnione włóknem szklanym, itp. Narzędzia poddano badaniom stanu powierzchni i krawędzi w obszarze około wierzchołkowym z użyciem skaningowej mikroskopii elektronowej. Dodatkowo, określono wymiary wierzchołków narzędzi. Mikrostrukturę narzędzi zobrazowano metodą mikroskopii świetlnej, a występujące w niej fazy zidentyfikowano metodą dyfraktometrii rentgenowskiej. Właściwości mechaniczne narzędzi scharakteryzowano w pomiarach twardości oraz statycznej próbie ściskania z przeciwpróbką z zahartowanej stali C20. W badaniach wykazano silnie porowatą mikrostrukturę narzędzi, charakterystyczną dla materiałów spiekanych z proszków.
EN
In the work, engraving tools in the shape of truncated cones with apex angles 10°, 15°, 20° and 30° made of tungsten carbide in the cobalt matrix were studied. Test tools called cutters are produced for the purpose of machining materials such as: wood, wax, acrylic glass, PVC, MDF, soft metals, glass fiber reinforced composites, etc. The tools were subjected to surface and edge condition testing in the apical area using scanning electron microscopy. In addition, the dimensions of tool tips have been specified. The microstructure of tools was visualized by means of light microscopy, and the phases present in it were identified by X-ray diffractometry. The mechanical properties of tools were characterized in the measurement of hardness and static compression test with counter-sample made of hardened C20 steel. The research showed a highly porous microstructure of tools, characteristic of materials sintered from powders.
EN
Titanium alloys are mainly used in the automotive, aviation, shipbuilding and military industries. Their main advantages are low specific gravity, resistance to cracking and corrosion, high strength as well as fatigue strength. The most important disadvantages of titanium alloys include low thermal conductivity, difficulties in their machining and high cost of manufacturing. For the latter reason, titanium alloys are primarily used for the manufacturing of highly responsible components, such as implants and aviation structures, while the remaining products are produced in limited series. In the appropriate conditions, many titanium alloys can be formed in hot working processes. At present, in the processes of manufacturing structural elements of titanium alloys, a semi-finished products obtained by the casting method are commonly used. However, more and more research is being carried out on the use of powder metallurgy based material in this field. This approach opens up the possibility of decreasing production costs. As initial material, the alloy powders or mixtures of elemental powders can be used. The properties of alloy powder products are usually high and stable, however, the cost of powder production is high. Obtaining product from titanium alloys based on a powders mixture is relatively simple and significantly cheaper. The disproportion of prices causes, that a great number of research projects realized in recent years in the field of implementation of powder metallurgy for manufacturing titanium-based products is directed towards the use of powder mixtures since this approach gives real chances for the successful implementation of cost effective titanium alloys processing technology.
EN
Hot Isostatic Pressing elaboration of Norem02, an austenitic-ferritic hypereutectoid stainless steel, leads to the formation of an austenitic matrix with a mixture of acicular M7 C3 and globular M23 C6 carbides. The sintering tests, carried out by using an AISI 304L container, showed that the final microstructure and the carbides’ distribution of the HIPed Norem02 are strongly influenced by the process parameters (heating and cooling rate, sintering time, holding temperature and pressure) and by the particles’ size, microstructure and phase distribution of the initial powder. The morphological, crystallographic and chemical analysis of the sintered samples were completed by comprehension of the diffusion phenomena at the Norem02/304L interface, enabling the establishment of a correlation between elaboration process and final microstructure.
EN
The computational intelligence tool has major contribution to analyse the properties of materials without much experimentation. The B4 C particles are used to improve the quality of the strength of materials. With respect to the percentage of these particles used in the micro and nano, composites may fix the mechanical properties. The different combinations of input parameters determine the characteristics of raw materials. The load, content of B4 C particles with 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% will determine the wear behaviour like CoF, wear rate etc. The properties of materials like stress, strain, % of elongation and impact energy are studied. The temperature based CoF and wear rate is analysed. The temperature may vary between 30°C, 100°C and 200°C. In addition, the CoF and wear rate of materials are predicted with respect to load, weight % of B4 C and nano hexagonal boron nitride %. The intelligent tools like Neural Networks (BPNN, RBNN, FL and Decision tree) are applied to analyse these characteristics of micro/nano composites with the inclusion of B4 C particles and nano hBN % without physically conducting the experiments in the Lab. The material properties will be classified with respect to the range of input parameters using the computational model.
19
Content available Copper infiltrated high speed steel skeletons
EN
Purpose: This article is a monographic summary of the most important research results from the last 10 years regarding HSS based materials. This materias were produced with powder metallurgy technology using spontaneous infiltration. The presented results answer the question of how iron, tungsten carbide and copper additives influence the final properties of these materials and present additional microstructural phenomena revealed during their manufacture. Design/methodology/approach: Materials were produced by spontaneous infiltration. Porous skeletons for infiltration were produced by pressing and pressing and sintering of mixed powders. Copper was used as the infiltrant. Findings: The molten copper was drawn into the porous skeletons, through a capillary action, and filled virtually the entire pore volume to get the final densities exceeding 97% of the theoretical value. Research limitations/implications: As part of further research, microstructures of M30WC composites obtained by direct infiltration of copper into as-sintered porous skeletons using TEM are planned. Practical implications: Efficiant mechanical strength, high hardness, adequate heat resistance and good wear resistance of M3 type 2 HSS powder produced by woter atomisation make it an attractive material for manufacture of valve train components, for example valve seat inserts. Originality/value: The novelty in the article are the results of research on the microstructure made using TEM, the results of testing materials after heat treatment, untypical for highspeed steels. The article attempts to explain the influence of iron addition on properties - such a slight loss of mass as a result of its addition. The second aim of this work is to analyse the microstructural changes during sintering porous skeletons made from HSS with WC additions.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań nad możliwościami wytwarzania i zastosowania kompozytu żelazo-zeolit otrzymanego za pomocą technologii metalurgii proszków. Dokonano także oceny jakości połączenia zeolitu z osnową i wpływu cząstek zeolitu na własności spieku. Przed procesem wytwarzania spieków wykonano badania morfologii i składu chemicznego zeolitu, który pozyskano ze skały zwanej tufem zeolitowym, wydobywanej w kamieniołomie w Kucinie (VSK PRO-ZEO s.r.o, Slowacja). Skałę do badań dostarczono w postaci zmielonego proszku o frakcji 0,0–0,2 mm. Następnie wykonano powierzchniową analizę SEM EDS i rentgenowską analizę fazową XRD. Przed procesem spiekania zastosowano jednostronne prasowanie na prasie hydraulicznej przy ciśnieniu prasowania 400 MPa. Proces spiekania przeprowadzono w laboratoryjnym piecu rurowym w temperaturze 950°C w atmosferze zdysocjowanego amoniaku. Czas spiekania wynosił 60 min. Wytworzone spieki poddano następującym badaniom: pomiarowi gęstości, twardości, porowatości. Przeprowadzono również obserwacje mikrostruktury i analizę składu chemicznego EDS na zgładach metalograficznych wykonanych z badanych spieków z użyciem skaningowego mikroskopu elektronowego. Zeolit wprowadzono do żelaznej osnowy w ilości 5, 10, 15% wag. Wprowadzenie do osnowy cząstek zeolitu jako fazy umacniającej, spowodowało podwyższenie porowatości i twardości spieków oraz obniżenie gęstości.
EN
The paper presents results of research on manufacturing technology and application of iron - zeolite composite obtained by powder metallurgy technology. The quality of the zeolite bonding with the matrix and the influence of zeolite particles on the sinter properties were evaluated. Before the sintering process, morphology and chemical composition of the zeolite was investigated, which was obtained from a rock called zeolite tuff, extracted from the quarry in Kucin (VSK PRO-ZEO s.r.o, Slovakia). The test rock was supplied as a powdered fraction of 0.0–0.2 mm. Surface analysis of SEM EDS and XRD XRD was performed. Prior to the sintering process, one-sided pressing on a hydraulic press was applied at a press pressure of 400 MPa. The sintering process was carried out in a laboratory tubular furnace at 950°C under dissociated ammonia. The sintering time was 60 minutes. The sintered materials were subjected to the following tests: density, hardness, porosity. Compression test the microstructure and analysis of the EDS chemical composition on metallographic specimens made from the investigated sinterings using scanning electron microscope were also carried out. Zeolite was added to the iron matrix at 5, 10, 15% by weight.Introducing the zeolite particles into the reinforcing phase has increased the porosity and hardness of the sinter, while decreasing the density.
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