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EN
2′,4′,6′,4-Tetra-O-acetylphloretin (TAPHL) is a prodrug of phloretin (PHL) in which the OH groups are protected by acetylation. A validated liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) method for the determination of PHL in rat biological matrices was developed and applied to investigate and compare the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and excretion of PHL and TAPHL in rats following a single oral administration. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, linearity, range, selectivity, lower limit of quantification (LLOQ), recovery, and matrix effect. All validation parameters met the acceptance criteria according to regulatory guidelines. The mean pharmacokinetic parameters of tmax, Cmax, AUC(0 − t), CL/F, and t1/2 were observed after oral administration in rats. The data showed that PHL was absorbed and eliminated rapidly from plasma after oral administration. The pharmacokinetic properties are improved, such as the tmax has been prolonged and the area under the curve (AUC) has been enhanced after oral administration of TAPHL to rats. Tissue distribution results indicated that PHL could be rapidly and widely distributed into tissues but could not effectively cross the blood–brain barrier in rats. After oral administration of TAPHL to rats, its tissue distribution to rats was similar as that after oral administration of equimolar PHL. In addition, higher recoveries of PHL following administration of TAPHL indicated that TAPHL might reduce the excretion of PHL from the body by reducing the first pass effect.
EN
You-Gui-Yin (YGY), a famous traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used in clinics for the treatment of kidney-yang deficiency, yang deficiency caused by excessive yin, and osteoporosis. A rapid and sensitive ultraperformance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry (UPLC–ESI–MS) method for simultaneous determination of six Aconitum alkaloids including aconitine (AC), hypaconitine (HA), mesaconitine (MA), benzoylaconine (BAC), benzoylhypaconine (BHA), and benzoylmesaconine (BMA) in rat plasma after oral administration of YGY was developed in this study. Chromatographic separation was performed on an ACQUITY UPLC™ BEH C18 column (2.1 × 100 mm, 1.7 μm) using gradient elution with the mobile phase consisting of 2 mmol/L ammonium formate in 0.05% formic acid aqueous solution and 0.05% formic acid methanol solution, at a flow rate of 0.20 mL/min. MS detection was performed in the positive ion mode. The calibration curves were linear in the concentration range of 0.04160–41.60 ng/mL, 0.1070–107.0 ng/mL, 0.07358–73.50 ng/mL, 0.03228–32.28 ng/mL, 0.01809–18.09 ng/mL, and 0.1320–132.0 ng/mL for AC, HA, MA, BAC, BHA, and BMA, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions (relative standard deviation [RSD]) were less than 11.6% and 12.6%, respectively. The accuracies Relative Error (RE) ranged from −10.2% to 5.6%, while the recoveries ranged from 70.4% to 99.3%. The method for simultaneous quantitation of Aconitum alkaloids of You-Gui-Yin in rat plasma is accurate and repeatable, and this method was successfully applied to investigate the pharmacokinetics of the six Aconitum alkaloids in rat plasma after oral administration of YGY. For the pharmacokinetic study, the pharmacokinetics of the six Aconitum alkaloids were best described by a two-compartment open model.
EN
Objectives: A simple, rapid, selective, and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of levocetirizine dihydrochloride and montelukast sodium in human plasma using fexofenadine hydrochloride as an internal standard. Method: Liquid–liquid extraction of both drugs and internal standard from plasma into ethyl acetate was used for sample preparation and analysis. Separation of both drugs and internal standard was achieved on an Inertsil ODS-3 (4.6 mm × 50 cm, dp 5 μm, particle size) column using an isocratic mobile phase of acetonitrile and 10 mM ammonium formate adjusted to pH 8 with 50 μL ammonium hydroxide in composition of 73:27 (v/v) at a flow rate of 0.7 mL/min. The LC–MS/MS was operated under the multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM) using an electrospray ionization technique. Mass parameters were optimized to monitor transitions at m/z [M + H]+ 389.0 → 200.8 for levocetirizine dihydrochloride, m/z [M + H]+ 586.2 → 422.2 for montelukast sodium, and m/z [M + H]+ 502.2 → 466.0 for fexofenadine hydrochloride. Results: The method was found to be linear in the range of 1–500 ng/mL for both drugs. The intra-day and inter-day precision were in the range of 0.96–1.92% and 1.03–1.55%, respectively. Matrix effect was acceptable with %RSD < 15. Conclusion: The proposed method was validated and successfully applied for a pharmacokinetic study of both drugs in human plasma after oral administration of their pharmaceutical preparation.
EN
Atractylodis exerted a variety of pharmacological effects such as anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and anti-aging effects etc. The major ingredients of Atractylodis are atractylenolide I and II that exhibited activities in anti-inflammatory and anticancer. In this work, a sensitive and selective ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) method for determination of atractylenolide I and II in rat plasma was developed. The UPLC–MS/MS method was validated for selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, and stability with a total run time of 4.0 min. After addition of atractylenolide III as an internal standard (IS), protein precipitation by acetonitrile was used to prepare samples. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.7 μm) with 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile as the mobile phase with gradient elution. An electrospray ionization source was applied and operated in positive ion mode; multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode was used for quantification using target fragment ions m/z 231.1 → 185.1 for atractylenolide I, m/z 233.1 → 91.0 for II, and m/z 249.0 → 231.1 for IS. Calibration plots were linear throughout the range 1–1000 ng/mL for atractylenolide I and II in rat plasma. Mean recoveries of atractylenolide I and II in rat plasma ranged from 86.2% to 96.3%. Relative standard deviation (RSD) of intra-day and inter-day precision was both less than 12%. The accuracy of the method was between 91.0% and 109.0%. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of atractylenolide I and II after intravenous administration in rats.
5
Content available remote Pharmacokinetics of 8-O-acetylharpagide in mouse blood by UPLC–MS/MS
EN
8-O-Acetylharpagide is the main active component of the herb Ajuga decumbens, which possesses anti-tumor, anti-virus, and anti-inflammation properties. In this study, ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) was used to measure the concentration of 8-O-acetylharpagide in mouse blood, with subsequent investigation of the pharmacokinetics of the drug after intravenous or oral administration. Shanzhiside methyl ester was used as an internal standard, and the acetonitrile precipitation method was used to process the blood samples. Chromatographic separation was achieved using an ultra-performance liquid chromatography ethylene-bridged hybrid (UPLC BEH) column (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.7 μm) with a gradient methanol–water mobile phase (containing 0.1% formic acid). The flow rate was 0.4 mL/min, and the elution time was 5.0 min. 8-O-Acetylharpagide was quantitatively measured using electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with positive ionization. The result indicated that, within the range of 5–500 ng/mL, the linearity of 8-O-acetylharpagide in mouse blood was satisfactory (r > 0.995), and the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 5 ng/mL. Intra-day precision relative standard deviation (RSD) of 8-O-acetylharpagide in blood was lower than 9%, and the inter-day precision RSD was lower than 13%. The accuracy range was between 94.3% and 107.1%, average recovery was higher than 91.3%, and the matrix effect was between 100.8% and 110.8%. This analytical method was sensitive and fast with good selectivity and was successfully applied to perform pharmacokinetic studies of 8-O-acetylharpagide in mice. The bioavailability of 8-O-acetylharpagide was 10.8%, and the analysis of the primary pharmacokinetic parameters after oral and intravenous administration indicated that 8-O-acetylharpagide had a significant first pass effect after oral administration.
6
Content available remote Pharmacokinetic study on hirsutine and hirsuteine in rats using UPLC–MS/MS
EN
An ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) method was established to determine hirsutine and hirsuteine in rat plasma. Pharmacokinetics of hirsutine and hirsuteine in rats after intravenous or oral administration has been investigated using this developed UPLC–MS/MS method, and bioavailability of the two drugs was calculated. Diazepam was used as internal standard, and UPLC BEH column (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.7 μm) was used at temperature of 40 °C. The mobile phase was composed of acetonitrile and water (containing 0.1% formic acid) at a gradient elution flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. Nitrogen was used as desolvation gas (800 L/h) and conical gas (50 L/h). The multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) model was applied to quantitatively analyze hirsutine m/z 369 → 226, hirsuteine m/z 367 → 169.9, and diazepam (internal standard) m/z 285.1 → 193.3. Rat plasma samples were deproteinized using acetonitrile prior to UPLC–MS/MS analysis. Within the concentration range of 1–200 ng/mL, the linearity of hirsutine and hirsuteine in plasma was good (r > 0.995), and the lower limit of quantitation was 1 ng/mL. Relative standard deviations of intra-day precision for hirsutine and hirsuteine were ≤6.1% and ≤5.9%, respectively, and those of inter-day precision were ≤6% and ≤7.7%. Accuracy for hirsutine and hirsuteine ranged between 92.3% and 104.8%. Bioavailability of hirsutine and hirsuteine was 4.4% and 8.2%, respectively. The method is sensitive and fast with good selectivity and was successfully applied in the pharmacokinetic studies after intravenous and oral administration of hirsutine and hirsuteine.
EN
Atractylenolide III is one of the major bioactive compounds in Atractylodes japonica rhizome; it has been used clinically for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. In the present study, a simple, rapid, and selective analytical method was developed and validated for the quantification of atractylenolide III in rat plasma samples using ultra-performance liquid chromatography–ion trap mass spectrometry (UPLC–ion trap MS). Liquid–liquid extraction with ethyl acetate was used for plasma sample preparation. Bergapten was used as an internal standard (IS). The separation of compounds was carried out on a C18 column, with isocratic elution of 0.1% formic acid in water–acetonitrile (45:55, v/v) at 35 °C. Mass detection was performed in the positive ion mode, under optimized conditions for an electrospray ionization source at m/z 249.1 for atractylenolide III and m/z 217.0 for the IS. The methods of instrumental analysis and plasma sample extraction were validated in terms of precision, accuracy, matrix effect, and extraction recovery, with acceptable values. The present method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of atractylenolide III in rat plasma samples after oral administration of A. japonica rhizome extract.
EN
RKI-1447 is an effective ROCK1 and ROCK2 inhibitor, having anti-invasion and anti-tumor activity. In this study, we used ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) to detect RKI-1447 in rat plasma and investigated its pharmacokinetics in rats. Diazepam was utilized as an internal standard, and an acetonitrile precipitation method was used to process the plasma samples. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a UPLC ethylene bridged hybrid (BEH) column (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.7 μm) with a gradient acetonitrile–water mobile phase (containing 0.1% formic acid). Flow rate was set at 0.4 mL/min. Electrospray ionization (ESI)–tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with positive ionization was applied: m/z 327.1 → 204.0 and 285.1 → 193.3 for RKI-1447 and internal standard, respectively. The results indicated that within the range of 10–2000 ng/mL, the linearity of RKI-1447 in rat plasma was acceptable (r > 0.995), and the lowest limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 10 ng/mL. Intra-day precision RSD of RKI-1447 in rat plasma was lower than 8%, and inter-day precision RSD was lower than 11%. Accuracy range was between 91.6% and 107.1%, and the matrix effect was between 85.1% and 87.0%. The analysis method was sensitive and fast with suitable selectivity, and was successfully applied in the pharmacokinetics of RKI-1447 in rats. The bioavailability of the RKI-1447 was 7.3%.
EN
The aim of this study was to establish a rapid, sensitive, and selective ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) method to quantify the concentrations of licochalcone A and applicate the technique to its pharmacokinetic study. Analytes were separated on an UPLC ethylene bridged hybrid (BEH) C18 column (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.7 μm). The mobile phase was consisted of acetontrile and 0.1% formic acid with a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min in a gradient elution mode. Multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) was carried out in a negative mode for licochalcone A (m/z 337.2 → 119.7) and the internal standard (IS) (m/z 609.0 → 300.9). The linearity of licochalcone A was great from 0.53 to 530 ng/mL. The lower limit of quantification and the lower limit of detection were 0.53 ng/mL and 0.26 ng/mL, respectively. The intra-day precision was less than 14%, and the inter-day precision was no more than 11%. The accuracy was from 91.5% to 113.9%, the recovery was over 90.5%, and the matrix effect was between 84.5% and 89.7%. The results of stability were in an acceptable range. The bioavailability was only 3.3%, exhibiting poor absorption. The developed method was successfully applicable for determining the concentrations of licochalcone A and its pharmacokinetic study.
EN
In this study, a precise, rapid, and accurate ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometer (UPLC–MS/MS) method for the quantitation of O-demethyl nuciferine in mouse blood was developed, and pharmacokinetics of O-demethyl nuciferine was studied for the first time after sublingual injection and gavage. The study was performed with an UPLC ethylene bridged hybrid (UPLC BEH) (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.7 μm) column at 30 °C, using diazepam as the internal standard (IS). The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile–10 mmol/L ammonium acetate (containing 0.1% formic acid), with a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min for 4 min run time. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) modes of m/z 282.1→219.0 for O-demethyl nuciferine and m/z 296.2→265.1 for IS were utilized to conduct quantitative analysis. Protein in mouse blood was directly precipitated with acetonitrile for sample preparation. The linear range was 1–500 ng/mL with r > 0.995, and the lower limits of quantification (LLOQ) was 1 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision of O-demethyl nuciferine in mouse blood were RSD < 14% and RSD < 15%, respectively.r The accuracy ranged from 89.0% to 110.7%, with a recovery higher than 88.9%, while the matrix effect was between 103.1% and 108.7%. We further applied this UPLC–MS/MS method to the pharmacokinetic study on O-demethyl nuciferine after sublingual injection and gavage and determined the bioavailability to be 6.4%.
11
Content available remote A UHPLC–MS/MS method for the quantitation of olmutinib in rat plasma
EN
Olmutinib (Olita™) is an oral third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) which is used to treat non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A simple, rapid, and sensitive method based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC–MS/MS) has been developed for the determination of olmutinib. Sample preparation was performed following simple one-step protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Olmutinib and internal standard (dasatinib) were separated on an Eclipse Plus C18 RRHD (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.8 μm) column. The mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile–0.1% formic acid in water with gradient elution. A total run time of 1.7 min was achieved. Detection was performed on a positive-ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometer in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, using transitions of m/z 487.2 → 402.1 for olmutinib and m/z 488.2 → 401 for dasatinib (IS), respectively. The calibration curve (R2 = 0.999) was linear over the range of 1–500 ng/mL. The recovery of olmutinib ranged from 85.8% to 95.5%. This method can be applied to pharmacokinetic studies of olmutinib.
EN
Eupatilin, mainly derived from Artemisia asiatica (Asteraceae), is an O-methylated flavone with various bioactivities. In the present study, a validated ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) method was established for the quantification of eupatilin in rat plasma with the internal standard (IS) of tussilagone and the protein precipitation of plasma samples was performed using acetonitrile–methanol (9:1, v/v). The eupatilin and IS were eluted separately on a UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μm) with the gradient mobile phase consisted of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile. The protonated analytes were quantified by multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source operated in positive ion mode. The calibration plots were found to be linear over the range from 2 to 1000 ng/mL for eupatilin in rat plasma. Both of the intra-day and inter-day precision variations (RSDs) were ≤13%. The recoveries of eupatilin in rat plasma were between 83.7% and 94.6%, and the accuracy of the method ranged from 95.8% to 107.6%. In addition, the validated method was applied to pharmacokinetic study of eupatilin after an intravenous dose of 2 mg/kg to rats.
13
EN
In this work, a sensitive and selective ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) method was developed and fully validated for determination of jaceosidin in rat plasma. Avicularin was used as the internal standard (IS), and protein precipitation by acetonitrile was used to prepare samples. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μm) with 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile as the mobile phase with gradient elution. An electrospray ionization (ESI) source was applied and operated in positive ion mode; multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used for quantification. Calibration plots were linear throughout the range 2–500 ng Ml-1 for jaceosidin in rat plasma. Relative standard deviation (RSD) of intra-day and inter-day precision was less than 12%. The accuracy of the method was between 88.7% and 109.7%. Mean recoveries of jaceosidin in rat plasma ranged from 65.4% to 77.9%. The developed UPLC–MS/MS method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of jaceosidin after intravenous administration of 2 mg kg-1 in rats. We could find that the jaceosidin rapidly eliminated, the t1/2 was 0.7 ± 0.3 h, and clearance (CL) was 22.4 ± 3.0 L h-1 kg-1.
14
Content available remote Determination and pharmacokinetic study of dauricine in rat plasma by UPLC–MS/MS
EN
Dauricine is the major bioactive component isolated from the roots of Menispermum dauricum D.C., a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid derivative, and has shown multiple pharmacological properties. In this work, a sensitive and selective ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) method was developed for determination of dauricine in rat plasma and its application to pharmacokinetic study of dauricine after intravenous and oral administration in rats. After addition of daurisoline as an internal standard (IS), protein precipitation by acetonitrile was used to prepare samples. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.7 μm) with 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile as the mobile phase with gradient elution. An electrospray ionization source was applied and operated in positive ion mode; multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode was used for quantification. Calibration plots were linear throughout the range 2–600 ng mL−1 for dauricine in rat plasma. Relative standard deviation (RSD) of intra-day and inter-day precision was less than 13%. The accuracy of the method was between 95.8% and 105.9%. Matrix effect of dauricine in rat plasma ranged from 88.0% to 90.3%. Mean recoveries of dauricine in rat plasma ranged from 91.5% to 95.1%. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of dauricine after intravenous and oral administration in rats. The bioavailability of dauricine was found to be 55.4% for the first time.
EN
A liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) method was developed for the quantification of an anticancer drug, supinoxin (RX-5902), in rat plasma. Following precipitation pretreatment using 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile, separation was performed using a reverse phase liquid chromatography column packed with C18 (3.5 μm, 2.1 × 50 mm) along with a mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid in distilled water and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.3 mL min-1. Detection was achieved using MS/MS by multiple reaction monitoring via an electrospray ionization source at mass/charge transitions of m/z 442.30 → 223.30 for supinoxin and m/z 430.08 → 223.20 for the internal standard DGG-200064. This method demonstrated a linear standard curve (r = 0.9980) over a supinoxin concentration range of 0.0005–1 μg Ml-1, as well as intra- and inter-assay precisions below 7.08% and 13.74%, respectively, and an accuracy of 1.15–4.50%. The matrix effect, recovery, and process efficiency were 93.63%, 99.70%, and 93.33%, respectively. Thus, a sensitive and reliable LC–MS/MS method was developed and validated for the quantification of supinoxin in rat plasma. This method was successfully applied to the evaluation of pharmacokinetic studies after single intravenous and oral administration of 1 mg kg-1 supinoxin in rats.
EN
A fast, simple, and sensitive reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method has been developed and fully validated for the determination of moxifloxacin (MXF) in rat plasma. MXF and gatifloxacin (internal standard, I.S.) were extracted from plasma by single-step protein precipitation with acidified acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation was accomplished in less than 8 min on an Atlantis ® T3 column with 0.4% aqueous triethylamine–methanol–acetonitrile (60:35:5, v/v/v) solution as mobile phase. Detection was achieved by fluorescence (λexcitation = 295 nm, λemission = 500 nm), and the calibration curves were found to be linear over the plasma concentration range of 10–2,500 ng mL−1 with a mean correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9946 (n = 6). The intra- and inter-assay imprecision (% CV) was less than 2.4 and 3.3%, respectively, and the accuracy was >90%. The mean extraction recoveries for MXF and I.S. from plasma were 77 and 82%, respectively. The method was also validated for specificity, sensitivity, and stability; all the results were within the acceptable range. The proposed method was then successfully applied to the quantitative analysis of MXF in rat plasma samples, being a valuable and high-throughput assay to support ongoing pharmacokinetic studies on this promising anti-infective agent.
PL
Do wyzwań stawianych ICP MS w farmakologii i diagnostyce medycznej, poza oznaczaniem metali toksycznych i pochodzących od metaloleków, powinno należeć także wyznaczanie zawartości mikroelementów koniecznych do prawidłowego funkcjonowania organizmu.
EN
A rapid, accurate, and sensitive reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination and quantification of glibenclamide and thymoquinone in rat plasma in the presence of internal standard (thymol). Chromatograms were developed with methanol, acetonitrile, and buffer (50:20:30, v/v/v) solvent system on a Symmetry® C18 (5 μm, 3.9 × 150 mm) column, and pH was adjusted to 4.5 with orthophosphoric acid. Mobile phase was pumped at a flow rate of 1.5 mL min-1 with 254 nm ultraviolet (UV) detection. Validation of the method was performed in order to demonstrate its selectivity, linearity, precision, accuracy, limits of detection, and quantification (LOD and LOQ). Standard curves were linear (r2 = 0.996 and 0.999 for glibenclamide and thymoquinone) over the concentration range 0.5–50 μg Ml-1. The coefficient of variation (CV) of < 6% and accurate recovery of 87.54–105.19% for glibenclamide and CV of <5% and accurate recovery of 86.08–103.19% for thymoquinone were found to be in the selected concentration range of 0.5–50 μg Ml-1. The lower limits of detection and quantitation of the method were 0.109 and 0.332 μg Ml-1 for glibenclamide and 0.119 and 0.361 μg Ml-1 for thymoquinone, respectively. The within and between-day coefficients of variation were less than 7%. The validated method has been successfully applied to measure the plasma concentrations in a drug interaction study of glibenclamide with thymoquinone in an animal model to illustrate the scope and application of the method.
EN
A sensitive validated high-performance liquid-chromatographic method for analysis of cilostazol in human plasma (in vitro) has been developed, and it was applied to determine pharmacokinetics of cilostazol in male albino rabbit. Cilostazol was extracted from human plasma (in vitro) by acetonitrile, and efficient chromatographic elution was achieved on a C18 column (250 × 4.60 mm i.d., 0.5 μm particle size) with an isocratic mobile phase [acetonitrile-50 mM acetate buffer (pH 5.0, glacial acetic acid)-water (50:20:30)] at flow rate of 1.5 mL min−1. Quantification was carried out by photo-diode array (PDA) detection at 248 nm. The linearity of the method was excellent over the range 0.2–2 μg mL-1 with low limits of detection (0.005 μg mL-1) and quantification (0.05 μg mL-1). The extraction recovery of the drug from plasma was consistently good (73.45–78.64%), with low relative standard deviation (0.44–1.65%). Robustness studies confirmed that peak area was unaffected by small changes in temperature, mobile phase (composition and pH). The maximum concentration (Cmax) in rabbit (in vivo) was determined 1.620 μg mL-1 at tmax (0.51 h) with 0.63% RSD by validated bioanalytical method.
20
Content available remote Numeryczne modelowanie leczenia przeciwzakrzepowego
EN
A number of patients requiring anticoagulation therapy are growing. Experts estimated worldwide number of these patients at seven million, in Europe about two million. Reasons for the use of anticoagulant therapy is not only therapeutic (treatment of blood clots), but also prevention (prevention of formation of blood clots). However the treatment can be followed by serious side-effects caused by an elevated or diminished international normalized ratio (INR). The paper deals with possibilities of computer modelling of pharmacokinetics of warfarin during anticoagulation treatment.
PL
Liczba pacjentów wymagających leczenia przeciwzakrzepowego ciągle wzrasta. Eksperci oceniają, że liczba takich pacjentów na świecie sięga 7 milionów, a w Europie – 2 milionów. Potrzeba leczenia przeciwzakrzepowego wynika nie tylko terapii ale i profilaktyki. Niestety, stosowanie leków przeciwzakrzepowych wiąże się z poważnymi efektami ubocznymi. W artykule opisano numeryczne modelowanie farmakokinetyki Warfarinu stosowanego w czasie leczenia przeciwzakrzepowego.
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