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1
EN
In this study, Ca4−xLa2+xTi5−xBxO17(B = Al, Ga; x = 0, 1) ceramics were processed via a mixed oxide solid state sintering route and characterized using XRD, SEM, EDS and Vector Network Analyzer. Phase analysis of the samples showed single phase formation for the sample x = 0 while secondary phases formed for Ca4−xLa2+xTi5−xBxO17 (B = Al, Ga; x = 1) ceramics. Ca4La2Ti5O17 exhibited ∈r = 74, Q×fo = 14,116 GHz and τf = 157 ppm/°C. The substitution of Ga or Al for Ti at the B-site of Ca4La2Ti5O17 ceramics significantly improved the microwave dielectric properties i.e. Ca3La3Ti4GaO17 and Ca3La3Ti4AlO17 have ∈r = 44, Q×fo = 16,128 GHz and τf = 7.3 ppm/°C and ∈r =46, Q×fo= 13,754 GHz and τf = −2 ppm/°C, respectively. The microwave dielectric properties of these materials are suitable for high frequency microwave applications.
EN
A SrTiO3 electroceramic with perovskite structure was produced by the calcination of a mixture of SrCO3 and TiO2 intensively grounded by high energy milling. For this purpose, raw materials were mixed in stoichiometric amounts in a planetary type mill; the obtained powder mixture was calcined for 2 h at temperatures between 800 and 1300°C. Samples resulting from the calcination were characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM analysis and electrical measurements. From XRD, it was determined that the SrTiO3 formed presents the cubic structure of perovskite. The complete reaction for SrTiO3 compound formation occurs at 1200°C. Micrograph observations indicate the presence of a homogeneous microstructure with tiny grain size. The measured values of electrical resistivity were within the typical range of insulating materials.
EN
Perovskite is able to sequester simultaneously, in its structure, both actinides and alkaline-earth elements. This study is an attempt to synthesize a complex perovskite Ca0.91-xCe0.09Rb0.04Csx [(Zr0.50Ti0.45)Al0.05]O3 (0.2≤x≤0.4), doped in the same time, with Ce, Cs and Rb. The synthesis is conducted by sintering at 1150°C during 16h. XRX analysis confirms the perovskite formation. SEM observations show a less porous microstructure. FTIR analysis reveals TiO6, Ti-O-Ti, Ti-O and Zr-O vibrations. Raman spectroscopy indicates many orthorhombic perovskite active modes, as: Ti-O6 and Ti-O3 torsions, ZrO7, CaO8 vibrations, the totally symmetric oxygen, and the O-octahedron cage rotation.
EN
The world economy needs new breakthrough in the technological and material efficiency and costs in the manufactured solar cells. The authors present new studies on triple junction photo voltaic structures using nano-technological solutions. The system of the amorphous a-Si:H sandwich with the scattered light particles, the plasmonic nano Si in the a-Si:H matrix structure and the silicon-germanium sandwich on the multi ZnO layer electrode- reflector was made and studied in detail.
PL
Perowskity La1-xPdxFeO3 (x = 0-0,25) wytworzono przez wysokotemperaturową kalcynację (750°C) mieszaniny azotanów lantanu, żelaza i palladu. Przedstawiono charakterystykę katalizatorów zawierających różne ilości Pd (powierzchnia właściwa BET, XRD, SEM). Otrzymane perowskity zastosowano jako warstwę aktywną katalizatorów monolitycznych do utleniania metanu i n-heksanu. Częściowe zastąpienie La w perowskicie przez Pd zwiększało aktywność katalizatora w procesie utleniania obydwu węglowodorów. W utlenianiu metanu i heksanu wzrost aktywności katalizatora z perowskitem LaFeO3 następował przy zastąpieniu 0,15 mola i 0,1 mola La przez Pd. Aktywność perowskitu La1-xPdxFeO3 rosła ze wzrostem zawartości Pd.
EN
La, Fe and Pd nitrates were mixed together in various proportions and calcinated at 750°C to obtain La1-xPdxFeO3 (x = 0-0.25) perovskites supported on a steel substrate and then used as an active catalyst layer for oxidn. of MeH and hexane. A partial replacement of La with Pd in the perovskite resulted in an increase in their catalytic activity. The activity increased with increasing Pd content in perovskite.
6
Content available remote Kompozytowe elektrody dla ogniw SPCFC
PL
Celem niniejszej pracy było opracowanie kompozytowych elektrod dla ogniw SPCFC (ang. symmetrical proton ceramc fuel cell). W pracy zaprezentowano wyniki badań strukturalnych dwóch związków zsyntezowanych metodą wysokotemperaturowej reakcji w fazie stałej: materiału elektrolitowego Ba0,9La0,1Zr0,25Sn0,25In0,5O3−δ oraz elektrodowego SrFe0,75Mo0,25O3-δ. Niezależnie od warunków syntezy, oba tlenki przyjęły strukturę krystaliczną perowskitu prostego (grupa przestrzenna Pm-3m). Na drodze wysokotemperaturowych pomiarów dyfrakcyjnych wykazano również, że symetria Pm-3m dla obu związków utrzymuje się w całym analizowanym zakresie temperatur, tj. od 25 °C do 900 °C. Wartości współczynników rozszerzalności termicznej wyniosły dla elektrolitu i elektrody odpowiednio 12,4(2)∙10-6 K-1 i 18,5(4)∙10-6 K-1. Przedstawione zostały również wyniki elektrochemicznych pomiarów przewodnictwa gęstego spieku materiału elektrolitowego (ponad 95% gęstości teoretycznej) oraz ogniwa z kompozytowymi elektrodami w układzie symetrycznym, skonstruowanego w oparciu o badane materiały ceramiczne. Badania przeprowadzono w atmosferach nawilżonego powietrza syntetycznego i mieszaniny
EN
The main aim of this work was to develop composite electrodes for SPCFC (Symmetrical Proton Ceramic Fuel Cell). The paper presents the results of structural studies of two compounds synthesized by the solid state high-temperature reaction: electrolyte Ba0.9La0.1Zr0.25Sn0.25In0.5O3-δ and electrode SrFe0.75Mo0.25O3-δ. Regardless of the synthesis conditions, both oxides adopted the cubic perovskite crystalline structure (space group Pm-3m). By means of high-temperature diffraction measurements, it was also shown that Pm-3m symmetry for both compounds is maintained throughout the analyzed temperature range, i.e. from 25 °C to 900 °C. The values of coefficients of thermal expansion were calculated to be 12.4(2)∙10-6 K-1 and 18.5(4)∙10-6 K-1 for the electrolyte and the electrode, respectively. The results of electrochemical measurements of conductivity of dense electrolyte material sinter (above 95% of theoretical density) and a cell with composite electrodes in a symmetrical system constructed on the basis of studied ceramics are also presented. The tests were carried out in atmospheres of humidified synthetic air and Ar/H2 mixture. The total cell conductivity was 3.80•10-4 S•cm-1 at 500 °C.
EN
Natural radioactive elements such as uranium and thorium restrict the use of red mud as building materials or additives, and may cause environmental problems. The distribution features of U and Th in red mud was studied from micro and macro analysis, using EPMA, LA-ICP-MS, and methods of mineralogy and beneficiation. Based on the micro-area scanning analysis, main chemical compositions in red mud, such as Ca, Al, Si, Na, and K are dispersive while Fe and Ti mainly tend to concentrate in granular phases. Based on the in-situ analysis, the distribution of main elements and most trace elements in micro-zone of red mud was homogeneous. In micro-zone area, the variation tendency of thorium content was similar with Y in red mud samples. By means of the methods of mineralogy and beneficiation, red mud samples were separated into different fractions. U and Th tend to be enriched in the low density fraction of the red mud. Th presented a high concentration in the finest particle size fractions of the red mud. Neither U or Th was regularly distributed in various magnetic red mud fractions. Thorium fingerprint peaks were determined in perovskite by EDX under TEM, which is proposed to be one of the radioactivity sources in Bayer red mud.
EN
In this work, two thermal- and air-stable, hole transporting materials (HTM) in perovskite solar cells are analyzed. Those obtained and investigated materials were two polyazomethines: the first one with three thiophene rings and 3,3’-dimethoxybenzidine moieties (S9) and the second one with three thiophene rings and fluorene moieties (S7). Furthermore, presented polyazomethines were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV–vis spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) experiments. Both polyazomethines (S7 and S9) possessed good thermal stability with a 5% weight loss at 406 and 377°C, respectively. The conductivity of S7 was two orders of magnitude higher than for S9 polymer (2.7 × 10⁻⁸ S/cm, and 2.6 × 10⁻¹⁰ S/cm, respectively). Moreover, polyazomethine S9 exhibited 31 nm bathochromic shift of the absorption band maximum compared toS7. Obtained perovskite was investigated by UV–vis and XRD. Electrical parameters of perovskite solar cells (PSC) were investigated at Standard Test Conditions (STC). It was found that both polyazomethines protect perovskite which is confirmed by ageing test where Voc did not decrease significantly for solar cells with HTM in contrast to solar cell without hole conductor, where Voc decrease was substantial. The best photoconversion efficiency (PCE = 6.9%), among two investigated in this work polyazomethines, was obtained for device with the following architectures FTO/TiO₂/TiO₂ + perovskite/S7/Au. Stability test proved the procreative effects of polyazomethines on perovskite absorber.
EN
Microstructure and dielectric properties of La2O3 doped Ti-rich barium strontium titanate ceramics, prepared by solid state method, were investigated with non-stoichiometric level and various La2O3 content, using XRD, SEM and LCR measuring system. With an increase of non-stoichiometric level, the unit cell volumes of perovskite lattices for the single phase Ti-rich barium strontium titanate ceramics increased due to the decreasing A site vacancy concentration V″A. The unit cell volume increased and then decreased slightly with the increasing La2O3 content. Relatively high non-stoichiometric level and high La2O3 content in Ti-rich barium strontium titanate ceramics contributed to the decreased average grain size as well as fine grain size distribution, which correspondingly improved the temperature stability of the relative dielectric constant. The relative dielectric constant єrRT, dielectric loss tanδRT and the maximum relative dielectric constant єrmax decreased and then increased with the increasing non-stoichiometric level. With the increase of La2O3 doping content, the relative dielectric constant єrRT increased initially and then decreased. The maximum relative dielectric constant єrmax can be increased by applying low doping content of La2O3 in Ti-rich barium strontium titanate ceramics due to the increased spontaneous polarization.
EN
Complex layered perovskite-like oxides ALnTiO4, A2Ln2Ti3O10, ALnNb2O7, ALnTa2O7 (A - Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, H; Ln - La, Nd) are crystalline compounds where layers of the perovskite structure are alternating with layers having different type of structure. Recently, the said phases have attracted significant attention due to their photo-catalytic properties [1, 2]. They can also be used as precursors to obtain other perovskite-like compounds by means of ion exchange or certain topochemical transformations. It was found that alkaline forms of such perovskites in the aqueous medium can perform replacement of cations by protons and hydration (rooting of water molecules in the interlayer space). These effects lead to substantial changes in physical and chemical properties of photo-catalysts. The composition of layered perovskite oxides may include several different metals [1-5], and depending on their nature and stoichiometry, these objects can display a wide range of physical and chemical properties. Normally, perovskite-like oxides are semiconducting materials.
EN
Na1-xLixNbO3 ceramics (for x = 0.08, 0.1, 0.2) were fabricated by the conventional solid state reaction method. The influence of LiNbO3 on the microstructure, electric, thermal properties of Na1-xLixNbO3 ceramics was studied and a significant influence of doped Li ions on the electrical properties was observed. The electrical properties were improved and are described as the best for x = 0.1 (near a morphotropic phase boundary) Na1-xLixNbO3 solid solutions. After crossing the morphotropic phase boundary for x = 0.2, the electric properties are getting worse. These types of solid compounds show some interesting properties suitable for practical applications.
12
EN
The aim of the study was to characterize the 0.8CaZrO3-0.2CaFe2O4 composite structure with particular emphasis on the role and position of iron in the function of sintering temperature. The paper presents the results of 57Fe Mössbauer effect at room temperature. It was found that the increase of sintering temperature causes an increase in the amount of incorporated iron ions in the CaZrO3-crystal structure. Based on Mössbauer spectroscopy analysis, it was found that three different environments of Fe3+ ions were observed in the obtained materials. Two of them corresponded to CaFe2O4 phase and one was associated with the substitution of Zr4+ by Fe3+ in the CaZrO3 structure.
EN
Gadolinium aluminum perovskite (GdAlO3, GAP) is a promising high temperature ceramic material, known for its wide applications in phosphors. Polycrystalline gadolinium aluminum perovskites were synthesized using a precursor of co-precipitate gel of GdAlO3 by employing hydrothermal supercritical fluid technique under pressure and temperature ranging from 150 to 200 MPa and 600 to 700 degrees C, respectively. The resulted products of GAP were studied using the characterization techniques, such as powder X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive analysis of X-ray (EDX). The X-ray diffraction pattern matched well with the reported orthorhombic GAP pattern (JCPDS-46-0395).
EN
A study has been conducted on the effects of partial, 10 % Co substitution by Fe in the perovskite Sr0.775Y0.225CoO3-δ compound. The XRD data show that the resulted samples of Fe-free and Fe-doped compounds exhibit good 314 single phase quality with a tetragonal I4/mmm crystal structure. The measured M-T curves display the typical feature of ferromagnetic (FM) transition at 335 K for the Fe-free sample, while showing significantly degraded FM ordering for the 10 % Fe-doped sample. The oxygen deficiency determined from our 10 % Fe doped sample is found to decrease by only 0.025. Further detailed analysis of the XRD data also reveals distinctly different structural changes in the Co–O slabs compared to the 50 % Fe-doped sample which exhibits a complete suppression of FM order. The results of this study, thus, have revealed the close relations among the changes induced by Fe doping in the magnetic ordering of crystal, and its oxygen content as well as the associated local structure in the Co–O layers responsible for the magnetic properties in the compound.
PL
Badano aktywność katalityczną mieszanych tlenków La-Mn i La-Co o strukturze typu perowskitu w spalaniu rozcieńczonego metanu. Stwierdzono, że materiały nieosadzone charakteryzowały się wysoką aktywnością katalityczną, podczas gdy odpowiadające im próbki osadzone na La-Al22O3 wykazywały mniejszą aktywność w tym procesie. Materiały La-Mn wykazywały lepiej rozwiniętą powierzchnię właściwą oraz większą aktywność katalityczną niż materiały La-Co. Największą aktywność wykazywały materiały, w których część lantanu zastąpiono strontem. Określono korelację pomiędzy aktywnością katalityczną badanych materiałów a udziałem tlenu sieciowanego na ich powierzchni.
EN
Six perovskite type oxides (both bulk and supported) were synthesized by the citrate-assisted sol-gel method and examd. by X-ray diffraction anal., N adsorption at low temp., X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and temp.-programmed redn. with H2, and then used as catalyst in dild. Methane combustion. All oxides showed surface area 7.3-79.3 m2/g and were catalytically active. The chem. compn. of the prepd. oxides and their oxidn. state showed the presence of the lattice, adsorbed and hydroxyl or carbonate oxygens. A correlation between the CH4 conversion at 520°C on the studied oxides and share of lattice oxygen on the surface was found.
EN
In order to find a relationship between structural and electrical properties, niobium and yttrium doped SrTiO3 ceramics were prepared via solid-state reaction. The samples were sintered in hydrogen and air conditions. The samples were also fabricated with a pore-former to obtain highly porous specimens. The electrical properties of Nb-doped SrTiO3 samples and yttrium and niobium co-doped SrTiO3 were compared. The comparable electrical properties were observed and discussed according to previous literature reports. It was noticed that the synthesis in a reducing hydrogen atmosphere can increase the solubility of dopants. Moreover, the samples sintered in air presented lower conductivity level and worse structural properties than the samples sintered in hydrogen. The explanation of obtained results was also suggested and discussed.
17
Content available remote Influence of vanadium dopping on dielectric properties of barium titanate ceramics
EN
The purpose of this article is to present the impact of vanadium substitution on the dielectric properties of barium titanate. Doping barium titanate (BaTiO3) by different ions such as vanadium V5+ provides the possibility of changing its dielectric properties. SEM images indicate the differences between pure BaTiO3 (BT) and Ba(Ti0.98V0.02)O3 (BTV2). Using dielectric measurements, the Curie temperatures (Tc) were calculated – they were found to be equal to 403 K and 396 K, respectively. Moreover, for BTV2 the Curie - Weiss temperature and the Curie constant (C) were determined (T0 = 368 K and C = 1.46 ×105 K, respectively).
PL
Domieszkowanie tytanianu baru BaTiO3 (BT) jonami innych pierwiastków, jak wanad V5+, umożliwia zmiany jego właściwości dielektrycznych. Obserwacje z wykorzystaniem SEM wskazują na różnice w strukturze mikrokrystalicznej między BaTiO3 (BT) a Ba(Ti0.98V0.02)O3 (BTV2). Z pomiarów dielektrycznych wyznaczono temperaturę Curie (Tc). Dla BT wynosi ona 403 K, a dla BTV2 396 K. Dla BTV2 określono również temperaturę Curie-Weissa oraz stałą Curie (T0 = 368 K and C = 1.46 ×105 K).
EN
0.94Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-0.06BaTiO3 ceramics were fabricated by sol-gel technique. The XRD results revealed the formation of a single phase perovskite structured Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-BaTiO3 at 600 °C. The SEM images showed dense microstructure and the optimum density of the ceramics sintered at 1100 °C was 5.2 g/cm3. The saturation polarization (P s ) was found to be increased with increasing temperature while the remnant polarization (P r ) was found to be increased gradually and then decreased abruptly near 85 °C, which could be attributed to the phase transformation. The coercive electric field (E c ) was found to be decreased gradually with increasing temperature. The maximum value of dielectric constant (ɛ r ) at room temperature was 800 and dielectric loss at 1 MHz was 0.07.
PL
Wytworzono monolityczny katalizator perowskitowy (LaMn03) i jego aktywność przebadano w reakcji utleniania wybranych lotnych związków organicznych. Badania prowadzono w reaktorze przepływowym przy obciążeniu 10000 h-1 i stężeniu utlenianych związków - 1 g/m3. Najwyższą aktywność katalizatora uzyskano w utlenianiu połączeń tlenopochodnych - etanolu i acetonu, oraz węglowodoru alifatycznego - heptanu, nieco niższą w utlenianiu octanu etylu, najniższą natomiast w utlenianiu związków aromatycznych - toluenu i ksylenów
EN
Monolithic perovskite catalyst LaMnO, was manufactured and tested for activity in the oxidation of selected volatile organic compounds. Tests were conducted in a quartz cross-flow reactor for the space velocity equal to 10 000 h-1 and the concentration of each oxidized compound - 1 g/m3. Prepared catalyst Showed high activity in the oxidation of oxy-derivatives - ethanol and acetone* and aliphatic hydrocarbon - n-heptane, lower in the oxidation of ethyl acetate. The lowest activity of catalyst was found for aro¬matic hydrocarbons oxidation - toluene and xylenes.
PL
W artykule opisano rozwój innowacyjnych materiałów ceramicznych stosowanych jako membrany do separacji tlenu z powietrza, wspierających procesy separacji CO2 w „czystych” elektrowniach węglowych, pracujących w technologii oksyspalania. Przedstawiono główne koncepcje wychwytu CO2 ze spalin (CCS, ang.: Carbon Capture and Storage), ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem procesu oxyspalania. Przybliżono zasadę działania oraz rolę membran separujących tlen w procesach CCS. Szczegółowo opisano perowskit Ba0,5Sr0,5Co0,8Fe0,2O3−δ (BSCF 5582), posiadający jeden z najwyższych współczynników przenikalności tlenu i przedstawiono badania mikrostruktury tego materiału.
EN
This article describes development of innovative ceramic materials to be applied as oxygen separating membranes in “zero-emission” fossilfuel power plants, operating in the oxyfuel technology. Main concepts of CO2 capture and storage (CCS) are presented. The principle of operation and the role of oxygen transport membranes (OTM) in the CCS processes are described. The perovskite-structured Ba0,5Sr0,5Co0,8Fe0,2O3−δ (BSCF 5582) is the most promising candidate for OTM material featuring one of the highest oxygen permeation rates. The degradation of permeation processes in BSCF 5582 and an example of unstable material microstructure is presented.
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