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PL
Artykuł przestawia zmiany poziomu wód gruntowych na wybranych torfowiskach Słowińskiego Parku Narodowego (SPN) w kontekście uwarunkowań geograficznych (w tym stosowanych zabiegów ochronnych). Do badań wytypowano dwa torfowiska wysokie: Żarnowska i Kluki. Postępowanie badawcze opierało się na wykonaniu zdjęć hydrograficznych w celu określenia typu i zasięgu zmian antropogenicznych w strukturę sieci hydrograficznej i obiegu wody oraz inwentaryzację urządzeń hydrotechnicznych. Przede wszystkim jednak skoncentrowano się na interpretacji zmian poziomu wód gruntowych na podstawie monitoringu prowadzonego przez SPN.
EN
The article presents groundwater level changes in selected peat bogs of the Słowiński National Park (SNP) in the context of geographical conditions (including the applied protective measures). Two raised peat bogs were selected for the study: Żarnowska and Kluki. The research consisted of taking hydrographic photographs in order to determine the type and scope of anthropogenic changes in the structure of the hydrographic network and water circulation patterns, as well as taking inventory of hydrotechnical structures. However, the authors focused mainly on interpretation of changes in the groundwater leveis based on the monitoring carried out by SNP.
EN
Despite its ecological importance, little information is available regarding spatial and seasonal changes in the testate amoebae community in peat bogs. The objectives of this study were to examine the structure of communities and horizontal distribution of testate amoebae fauna, to improve the understanding of factors affecting the distribution of moss testate amoebae communities and to analyze the seasonal changes in testate amoebae communities in a Sphagnum-dominated peat bog (eastern Poland). A total of 45 testate amoebae species were identified in the samples. The highest species richness occurred in hollows dominated by Sphagnum angustifolium, much lower numbers of taxa were observed in hummocks dominated by Sphagnum magellanicum and Polytrichum. The Monte Carlo permutation test showed the significance of Ntot, temperature, pH, and the depth to the water table for the variability of testate amoebae in all microhabitats. Species found in spring samples were associated with the increased Ntot content. Species occurring in summer samples were associated with the increasing pH gradient and species developing in late spring and autumn preferred a greater depth to the water table.
EN
An assessment of morphogenetic conditions and forming the hydrological regime of wetlands of theVolyn Polesie Ukraine were carried. Ukraine is the most swampy/wettest region of the country. At first some bogs within an area exceeding 1 ha were selected. Then the Author determined the importance of terrain form/shape and water supply conditions in the formation of the hydrological regime. The location of wetlands were characterized in reference to the shape of base/subsoil and its lithology. The typical structure of postlakes, paludification, riverine and spring-fed peatlands of Volyn Polesie were shown and their development were also discussed. According to the origin and water flow/supply four types of wetland were extracted: ombrogenous, topogenous, soligenous and fluviogenous. On the basis of water balance the role/part of groundwater supply of wetlands (ombrogenous, topogenous, soligenous and fluviogenous) was determined. It was found that the reasons of the high swampy areas (21%) in Volyn Polesie are the geological and geomorphological conditions retaining/stopping the runoff and also local groundwater circulation system.
EN
An account is given of chrysophycean stomatocysts and algae occurring together with the carnivorous plants known as bladderworts, Utricularia intermedia, U. minor and U. australis, in the peat bog of Jeleniak-Mikuliny Nature Reserve. Eleven chrysophycean stomatocyst morphotypes were found, all reported for the first time from this nature reserve. Among them, two are new records for Europe (stomatocysts 330 and 208) and another two are new for Poland (stomatocysts 112 and 387). Descriptions are provided together with SEM illustrations. General data about cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae occurring with these stomatocysts are enumerated.
EN
Late Holocene deposits containing abundant and well-preserved malacofauna were exposed within the Spa Park in Busko-Zdrój. Molluscan shells were found in sand, dark muds and calcareous muds. Dark and calcareous muds are intercalated by fine-grained sand and peat devoid of malacofauna. Ali these deposits were accumulated on swampy, flat bottom of wide river valley. The result of radiocarbon dating has shown that the formation of the deposits started in the upper part of the Subboreal Phase. Numerous Late Medieval portery shards were found in several topmost profile sections. The identified malacofauna suggests that similar climatic and habitat conditions prevailed throughout the entire sedimentation period. Snails typical of open habitats, accompanied by hygrophilous taxa, play a dominant role. Mesophilous and aquatic taxa occur in accessory proportions, while shadow-loving forms are virtually absent.
PL
Park Narodowy Jasmund na wyspie Rugia obejmuje obszar leśny Stubnitz, leżącą przed nim plażę wraz z pasem wód Bałtyku oraz nieczynny kamieniołom kredy. Cała powierzchnia parku podzielona jest na dwie strefy. Strefa ochrony ścisłej zajmuje 2600 ha (86.6%). zaś strefa buforowa 403 ha (13.4%). Kreda na Rugii powstała przed około 90 milionami lat jako osad szelfowy. W epoce lodowcowej lądolód przesuwał i wypiętrzał złoża kredy i pozostałe materiały, m.in. glina, margle i piaski. W ten sposób powstało wzniesienie, które stopniowo wypłukiwane jest przez wody Bałtyku. Materiał osadowy zawiera wiele skamieniałości, które łącznie pochodzą od ponad 1000 różnych gatunków roślin i zwierząt. Geologiczne właściwości podłoża są jednym z najważniejszych czynników decydujących o warunkach życia. Spowodowały one powstanie na tym obszarze kilku charakterystycznych biotopów. Jednym z nich jest las porastający kredowe podłoże. Występuje tam buczyna z wyraźną dominacją Fagus sylvatica. W zależności od zróżnicowania warunków siedliska, rosną tam również Acer plataiwides, Sorbus lorminalis. Taxus baccata. Aínassp., Fraxxnus sp.. Ulmiis glabra. Acer pseudoplatanus oraz gatunki dzikich drzew owocowych. Kolejnym biotopem są torfowiska z warstwą torfu o grubości dochodzącej do ponad 11 metrów. Ze względu na ubóstwo pokarmowe liczba żyjących tam gatunków jest niewielka. Na nieco bardziej zasobnych pokarmowo wilgotnych łąkach, występujących w sąsiedztwie torfowisk, bogactwo gatunkowe jest o wiele większe. Znacznie bardziej zróżnicowana jest roślinność runa leśnego. Zależnie od warunków siedliskowych oraz okresu w sezonie wegetacyjnym, występują lam m.in. Anemone nemorosa. A. ranunculoides. A. hepática. Dentaria bulbifera. Harpagopliytum pro cumbens. Cephalanthera sp.. Neotlia nidus-avis i Monotropa hypophegea. Ta wielka różnorodność gatunkowa flory gwarantuje odpowiednie warunki życiowe dla zwierząt. Występują tam ni.in. Dania dama Capreolus capreolus. Sus strofa. Ovis aries musimon. Vulpes vulpes, Meies meles. Mustela putorius. M. niinilis, Martes martes i Nyctereutes procyonoides. W nieczynnych kamieniołomach żyją liczne gatunki nietoperzy, zaś spośród ptaków na uwagę zasługuje Haliaeetus albicUla. Można tam spotkać również relikty glacjalne. np. Rana dalmatina, Crenobia alpina oraz Boloria aquilonaris. Zaprzestanie na terenie parków narodowych gospodarczej ingerencji człowieka umożliwia rozwój przyrody według jej własnych praw i mechanizmów. Tylko w ten sposób będziemy w stanie zachować te obszary dla przyszłych pokoleń w stanie niezmienionym.
EN
The Jasmund National Park on Rugia Island covers the Stubnitz forest area, the beach stretching before it including a strip of Baltic waters and an inoperative chalk quarry. The entire area of the park is divided into two zones. The strict protection zone covers 2600 ha while the protected zone covers 403 ha. Chalk was created on Rugia around 90 million years ago in the form of shelf sediments. In the Ice Age the inland ice moved and uplifted chalk deposits and other materials like clay, marl and sand. In this way an elevation was formed that was gradually washed out by Baltic waters. The sediment material contains many fossils which combined come from over 1000 different plant and animal species. The geological properties of the substratum are one of the most important factors that decide about living conditions. They resulted in the creation of a few characteristic biotopes in this area. One of them is the forest that grows on chalk substratum. Beech woods with a clear dominance of Fagus sylvatica grow there. Depending on the differentiation of settling conditions Acer plalcuioides, Sorbus torminalis, Taxiis baccata. Alnus sp.. Fraxinus sp.. Ulmus glabra. Acer pseudoplatanus also grow there as well as wild fruit tree species. The next biotope is peat with a peat layer of over 11 meters. Because of nutritional poverty only a modest number of species inhabit this area. On slightly nutrition richer damp meadows that exist in the neighborhood of the peats, there is a much larger richness of species. The flora of forest undergrowth is much more diverse. Depending on living conditions and the time of the vegetative season, one of the species that can be found there are i.e. Anemone nemorosa. A. ranunculoides, A. hepatica. Dentaria bulbifera. Harpagophytum procumbens. Cephalanihera sp., Neottia nidus-avis and Monolropa hypophegea. This great diversity of flora species guarantees adequate living condition for animals. Dania dama. Capreolus capreolus. Sus strofa. Ovis aries musimon. Vulpes uulpes. Meies meles. Mustela pulorius. M. nivalis. Martes martes and Nyctereutes procyonoides are one of the examples of species that live there. Inoperative chalk quarries sustain many bat species and among birds Haliaeetus albicilla deserves attention. Glacial relicts like Rana dalmalina. Crenobia alpma or Boloria aquilonaris can be seen there. Halting the economic interference of man in areas belonging to national parks, we allow for the development of nature according to its own laws and mechanisms. Only in this way can we keep these areas in an unchanged slate for future generations.
PL
Omówiono realizację obiektu mostowego w obszarze wiszącego torfowiska, tzw. wiszaru. Ze względu na ochronę cennego przyrodniczo torfowiska, zaszła konieczność opracowania, zamiast proponowanej wcześniej jednoprzęsłowej konstrukcji długości 17,3 m, pięcioprzęsłowego obiektu długości około 180 m oraz szczegółowej technologii jego wykonania, eliminującej ingerencję w obszar wiszaru.
EN
The article presents the problem related to PZ-39 building and the newly constructed bridge of S3 express road near hanging peat bog or the so-called wiszar. Under the pressure of ecologists' protestation, related to the protection of naturally valuable peat bog, instead of the earlier suggested single-span 17,3 m long construction, it was necessary to draw up a new five-spanned bridge about 180 m long with a detailed working technology without any interference into the area of the peat bog.
EN
Two chemical treatments for lead-210 measurement were compared on the sub-surface samples of a core from an ombrotrophic bog from East Belgium. The classical procedure involves a concentrated acid extraction of polonium. However, this treatment represents substantial health risks together with unknowns regarding both the degree of cleanliness and the Po extraction rate, and most importantly, is rather time consuming. We developed here an improved procedure involving an ashing step prior to acid extraction. This allows substantial improvements such as: 1/ the use of a relatively small amount of acid compared to the classical procedure and 2/ the substantial reduction of a total sample digestion time. Measurements of 210Pb concentrations were conducted by alpha spectrometry. Results show a good agreement of unsupported 210Pb activity obtained for both procedures, although some unknowns remain concerning the adsorption of 210Po on the plastic test tube, the volatilization of a small amount of ash, or the absorption of alpha particle at the alpha source surface. This however should not affect the 210Pb measurement as all the samples are spiked prior to ashing (i.e. the recoveries are fully monitored). Through this study, we are suggesting researchers to follow this new procedure in order to increase safety, cleanliness, better recovery and substantial time gain.
EN
The survival and establishment of tree seedlings represents a critical step in the process of forest stand regeneration. In this study, we evaluated the effect of peat mining and vegetation scarification (removal of understorey vegetation and peat moss layer up to depth of 15 cm) on seedling survival and establishment of two congenerous tree species, P. rotundata and P. sylvestris, under different moisture and light conditions. Two long-term experiments with planted and sown seedlings were conducted on three peat bogs in the Bohemian Forest and the Trebon Basin (Czech Republic). Significant differences in seedling survival and establishment for both pine species were found. The positive effect of lower groundwater level and shading was the best predictor for survival and establishment of planted seedlings of both pine species in a mined peat bog, especially for P. rotundata. Nevertheless, low groundwater level and vegetation scarification had negative effect on P. rotundata seedling survival and establishment in pristine peat bogs. P. rotundata seems to be more adaptable to newly appearing conditions in both environments of abandoned mined peat bog and of vegetation scarification. Our results suggest that it is more reasonable to use seedlings of P. rotundata than seedlings of P. sylvestris to restore mined peat bogs.
EN
The composition and dynamics of zooplankton (Rotifera, Crustacea) communities were studied in a dystrophic lake (Drawieński National Park, northern Poland). The investigated lake was a typical mid-forest lake of a small area (ca. 0.65 ha) but relatively deep (Z[max] = 6.8m) and covered with a peat (Sphagnum sp.) mat. The study was made in the shallow part of the lake (Z = 0.5 m). Zooplankton was collected twice in August 2004, in triplicate subsamples, taken from three stations (1. under the peat mat, 2. the transitional zone between the peat mat and open water area and 3. open water zone) from two different sites within the same lake. The distance between sampling stations within a transect was ca. 1.5 m. The whole area under study was not greater than 10 m[^2]. Therefore the results concern the very small-scale distribution of zooplankton. The aim of the study was to find out whether spatial segregation of the zooplankton community and the dominating species between the Sphagnum mat and open water zone as well as in the transitional zone between both zones takes place in a dystrophic lake and whether the moss mat can be considered as an anti-predator refuge. Both the species number and zooplankton densities differed between the stations along a transect, being the highest (40 zooplankton species and mean 150 ind 1[^-1] for the whole zooplankton community) in the peat mat and lowest (12 species and 72 ind 1[^-1]) in the open water zone. Humic-water species constituted 24% of the species composition of rotifer and 14% of the crustacean community. Cladocerans prevailed numerically over rotifers. Dominating species - Bdelloidae, Keratella cochlearis Gosse, Polyarthra vulgaris (Carlin), Synchaeta pectinata Ehrenberg, Trichocerca insignis Carlin, Alonella excisa (Fischer), Ceriodaphnia quadrangula (O.F. Muller) - revealed a differentiated pattern of spatial distribution. The mean Shannon-Weaver biodiversity index of zooplankton was not notably high and amounted to 1.45. The highest values were found in the peat mat (mean - 1.76 for rotifers and 0.67 for crustaceans), while the lowest values were found in the open water (0.99 and 0.36 respectively). These results suggest that in the site connected with Sphagnum moss in a humic lake more diverse and abundant zooplankton occurs in relation to other habitats. The differences in zooplankton distribution between the peat mat and the open water zone of the dystrophic lake seems to be affected by biological interactions which relate to predator presence, both vertebrate and invertebrate, and competition between large cladocerans and smaller rotifers. Due to the dominance of larger forms of zooplankton it may be supposed that invertebrate predators may have a more pronounced effect. The habitat within the Sphagnum moss can be considered as a predictable refugium.
PL
Oznaczono zawartości metali ciężkich metodą WD-XRF w wodzie z torfowiska Wąpiersk Welski Park Krajobrazowy), Najwyższe zawartości badanych metali (Fe, Zn. Cu, V. Mn. Cr) stwierdzono w listopadzie, najniższe w kwietniu. Stwierdzono, że stężenia niektórych pierwiastków (Cr i V) w wodzie były stałe, podczas gdy innych (Fe. Zn. Cu, Mn) zmieniały w trakcie sezonu wegetacyjnego.
EN
Heavy metals contents in water from Wąpiersk peat bog (Welski Landscape Park) by WD~XRF method were determined. The highest contents of determined metals (Fe. Zn. Cu. V. Mn. Cr) were in November. the lowest in April, It was found that concentrations of some elements (Cr and V) in water were constaiit. while others (Fe. Zn, Cu. Mn) were changing during vegetation season.
PL
Głównym celem badań prowadzonych w rejonie rezerwatu Czerwone Bagno było ustalenie budowy geologicznej dla hydrogeologicznego modelu zasilania wodą występujących tam torfowisk. Model będzie wykorzystany w takim kreowaniu gospodarki wodnej obszaru, aby stabilizować aktualny stan cennych pod względem przyrodniczym siedlisk hydrogenicznych. Kluczowe znaczenie dla zasilania torfowisk ma na badanym terenie charakter przypowierzchniowego poziomu wodonośnego, w tym także obecność w jego obrębie ciągów form wydmowych blokujących przepływ w stropowej części strumienia.
EN
The main purpose of the research conducted in the area of Czerwone Bagno Reserve was to determine the geological structure of the area for a hydrogeological model of water supply of the peat bogs. This model will be used to manage the water balance of the area in such a way that the current state of environmentally valuable hydrogenic habitats is stabilized. The properties of the near surface water-bearing layer are of primary importance for water supply of the peat bogs. The presence of rows of dune forms, in the layer blocking the flow of the upper part of the stream, is one of those properties.
EN
The composition and abundance of microorganisms (testate amoebae and ciliates) dwelling in the water in the patches of Sphagnum palustre L. in three peatbogs with different pH values of the Poleski National Park (Eastern Poland) and their relationship to chemical parameters were studied. From April to October 2005 from each peatbog twice a month, eight samples were collected by washing 10 g of a wet mass of plant material in 50 ml of distilled water. A total of 11 testate amoebae taxa and 32 ciliate taxa occurred among Sphagnum palustre. Testate amoebae and ciliates richness and abundance were significantly greater (33 taxa and> 15 ind. g[^-1], respectively) in low pH (4.5) peatbog. Generally, the moss dwelling testacean fauna was dominated by cosmopolitan and ubiquitous taxa. Only four testate amoebae taxa (Arcella vulgaris, Assulina muscurum, Hyalosphenia sp. and Euglypha sp.) showed a clear preference for a low pH. Ciliate communities were dominated by Colpodea, Cyrtophorida, Scuticociliatida and Suctorida. In all peatbogs bacterivorous protozoa occurred in the highest numbers (up to 60%), while algivorous and mixotrophic in the lowest (range from 3 to 10%). Moisture conditions appeared to play a key role in determining the distribution pattern of testacean communities, while pH and the content of total organic carbon in water correlated positively with the total numbers or biomass of testate amoebae and ciliates.
EN
In this paper, the history of Durne Bagno, i.e. the largest peat bog in the Lublin Polesie, is shown. Peat bogs are a unique element of the Polesie landscape. They occur mostly in the subregion of the Łęczna-Włodawa Lake District occupying 1.07% of its area. They fill basin-shaped depressions without outflow, often in the immediate vicinity of dystrophic lakes. Based on interdisciplinary research, the changes of vegetation cover and the Durne Bagno lake-mire ecosystem in the Late Glacial and Holocene are presented. The environmental conditions are reconstructed from pollen analysis, detailed identification of algae of Pediastrum genus and chemical composition of deposits, together with the results of Cladocera analysis. The distribution of archaeological artefacts in the surroundings of Durne Bagno peat bog gives the view on the intensity of settlement in this area. The duration of the limnic and mire stages during the development of the ecosystem was different in different parts of the examined depression. In its central part the limnic stage lasted about 8000 years and included the period from the Late Glacial to the middle Holocene (to about 6000 BP). It is represented by 7 pollen zones and 6 chemical zones. The mire stage contained a part the Atlantic period and on the Subboreal and Subatlantic periods. It is represented by 4 pollen zones and 5 chemical zones. Limnic and mire deposits differ widely in the concentrations of chemical elements. The contents of mineral material and almost all analyzed elements in limnic deposits are high. These deposits are characterized by positive correlation between the contents of Zn and Cr and the frequency of Cladocera fauna. Peat contains very low amount of mineral material. The contents of Ca, Sr and Ba are rather high in sedgemoss peat. The concentrations of these elements decrease upwards due to oligotrophic processes and sedentation of sedge-Eriophorum-Sphagnum peat. Peat succession was modified by pastoral economy of prehistoric man.
EN
The Durne Bagno peat bog is the eastern, peripheral part of a large marshland complex in the Lublin Polesie. Limnic biogenic deposits occurring directly on mineral deposits are up to 8.5 m thick. They exhibit great vertical facial variability and small lateral differentiation. This indicates that the conditions of sedimentation/sedentation were similar in the whole basin in particular time intervals. The chronostratigraphically-correlated sequence of sediments allows reconstruction of the geosystem evolution in recent 13 ka BP. In its entire Late Glacial and Holocene history two basic stages may be distinguished: lacustrine (OD — middle AT) and mire (middle AT — present time)
PL
Obiektem badań było torfowisko "Broduszurki", położone na Pogórzu Dynowskim, reprezentujące typ torfowiska wysokiego, przejściowego i niskiego. W latach 50. XX w. zmeliorowano je i od tamtej pory przez wiele lat użytkowano łąkowo i eksploatowano torf. W latach 1978-1979 szata roślinna wskazywała na znaczne przesuszenie torfowiska. Inwentaryzacja roślinności dokonana w tamtym okresie była punktem wyjścia do badań przeprowadzonych w latach 1996-1997, w celu ustalenia kierunków zmian, jakie zaszły w zbiorowiskach po zaniechaniu konserwacji urządzeń melioracyjnych i eksploatacji torfu oraz rezygnacji z użytkowania rolniczego. Torfowisko podlega renaturalizacji. W stosunku do stanu sprzed 20 lat, w dołach potorfowych znacznie zmniejszyła się powierzchnia lustra wody. Następuje ekspansja mszarnych zespołów wysokotorfowiskowych: Sphagnetum magellanici i Eriophoro-Sphagnetum recurvii. Na nieużytkowanych łąkach rozprzestrzenia się zespół Salici-Franguletum. Zwiększenie uwilgotnienia siedlisk spowodowało ekspansję zespołu Vaccinio uliginosi-Pinetum na tereny zajęte wcześniej przez zespół Calluno-Vaccinietum i Pino-Quercetum.
EN
The object of the study was the "Broduszurki" peatland situated on Dynów Plateau and representing raised bog and lowland bog types. In the fifties the peatland was drained and from that time utilized as meadow and peat excavation for many years. In 1978-1979 the vegetation cover indicated remarkable desiccation of the peatland. Plant inventory which took place in this time was a starting point to the study carried out in 1996-1997 in order to establish directions of changes, which occurred in plants communities after the maintenance of reclamation equipment, peat-digging and crop cultivation had been abandoned. The peatland has been renaturalised. In comparison with the state 20 years ago the water surface in peat pits has decreased. Consequently, the expansion of Sphagnetum magellanici and Eriophoro-Sphagnetum recurvii is observed. Uncultivated meadows become overgrown by Salici-Franguletum. Increased moistening of habitats results in the expansion of Vaccinio uliginosi-Pinetum on areas formerly occupied by Calluno-Vaccinietum and Pino-Quercetum.
EN
On the southern slope of the pass located between Kotoń Mt. and Pękalówka Mt. (Beskid Makowski Mts), a colluvial vast landslide surrounded by two wedge-shaped niches occurs. At the foot of one of these niches, a longitudinal depression (gutter pipe type) filled up with a fen type peat bog was formed. The maximum depth of these deposits is about 4.7 m. At the bottom there occurs silt with gravel and a thin layer (10 cm) ofstrongly decomposed peat (dated at 12I40 š70 BP by a 14C method) and covered with clayey silt (4.18-3.85 m). This is overlain by moss fen and sedge-moss fen type peat (3.85-1.2 m) covered, in turn, bv a thick mineral laver (1.2-0.2 m) composed of clay and silty clay. The profile ends with a thin level of sedge peat. Mineral cover was deposited in some stages; the first was ascribed to a wet period of the Boreal-Atlantic phase boundary, whereas the main was assigned to the Early Subboreal, and the Subatlantic phase. The radiocarbon datings, confirmed by a pollen analysis, indicate that the landslide depression formed during the Bfiling Interstadial. The peat accumulation started with the Older Dry as and the Allerfd Interstadial. The deposition of mineral (non-organic) layers that underlie the peat bog was linked to the wet phases recorded in the Early Atlantic. Early Subboreal. and Early Subatlantic.
EN
In the water of a humic lake, and in the peat-bog surrounding it, there were recorded 70 taxa of algae: Cyanophyta, Pyrrophyta, Cryptophyta, Chrysophyta, Euglenophyta and Chlorophyta. In the peat-bog water a higher variety of species and algal biomass was observed than in the lake water. The relatively low biomass of algae in the lake water, was produced by few nanoplanktonic species, i.e. mixotrophic flagellates from Cryptophyta, Pyrrophyta and Chrysophyta.The comparatively higher biomass was formed by peat-bog algae, both in the nearest neighbourhood of the lake and in the bog pine forest. Community of algae from the peat-bog differs also according to the distance from the lake.
EN
Water blooms caused by desmids are very rare. In the mid-forest Lubiec peat bog (pH 4.7-6.8) Desmidium grevillei (Kutz. ex Ralfs) de Bary blooms were observed in the period 1986-1996. They occurred at water temperature of 13-18oC. When temperature rose to 20oC, D. grevillei filaments changed colour into olive and broke up into single cells.
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