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EN
Borehole K-1 is an exploratory well that was drilled in the North Makassar Basin (West Sulawesi) in 2011. Gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass chromatography (GC-MS) analyses have been conducted on extracts from well cuttings from the Paleogene to Neogene interval in order to investigate the characteristics of biomarkers present. Although the well was drilled with oil-based mud and gas chromatographic analysis reveals that the alkane fractions are heavily contaminated, detailed investigation of biomarkers in these rock extracts and comparison with biomarkers in the oil-based mud has revealed that, while there are hopane and sterane biomarkers in the mud, there are also a discrete set of biomarkers that are indigenous to the rocks. These include oleanane, bicadinanes, taraxastane and other higher-plant-derived triterpanes. The presence of these compounds in environments that range from bathyal to marginal marine and even to lacustrine, shows the extent of reworking of terrestrial material into aquatic settings in this region during the Paleogene and Neogene and provides further evidence of a predominance of terrestrial material, even in deep-marine settings, with little ‘in-situ’ material noted. These findings have important implications for the use of biomarkers as indicators of palaeoenvironment in both source rocks and oils.
2
Content available remote Zastosowanie analiz kopalnego DNA w badaniach osadów czwartorzędowych
EN
During the past few decades genetic research has been developed in parallel with paleogenetics. A dynamic progress in this field of studies is possible due to the advance in laboratory and computer technologies. Today, scientists have the Next Generation Sequencing methods at their disposal, which enable them to read millions ofsequences at the same time, thus furthermore significantly reducing time needed for laboratory procedures. Concurrently, costs of analysis and equipment have been decreasing, which makes paleogenetical analyses widely available. They are commonly used in medicine, biotechnology, genetic engineering, food industry and forensics, as well as in life sciences like biology, paleobiology, archeology, geology and environmental protection sciences. This paper presents seda DNA (sedimentary ancient DNA) analyses and their use in Quaternary research, as well as describes sources of DNA in sediments and main processes contributing to its degradation or preservation.
EN
The decapod fauna from the Badenian (middle Miocene) deposits of western Ukraine comprises in total 31 taxa: 20 species, 9 taxa left in open nomenclature, and 2 determined at family level. Thirteen of these taxa are reported for the first time from the territory of Ukraine. Among them are the first records of Trapezia glaessneri Müller, 1976 in the Fore-Carpathian Basin and Pachycheles sp. in Paratethys. One taxon (Petrolisthes sp. A) probably represents a new species. The occurrence of this significant decapod fauna is restricted almost exclusively to the Upper Badenian (i.e., early Serravallian) coralgal reefs of the Ternopil Beds. The taxonomic composition of the decapods indicates that the Late Badenian depositional environment was a shallow marine basin dominated by reefs that developed in warm-to-tropical waters of oceanic salinity. The decapod assemblage from the Ternopil Beds is similar in its taxonomic composition to numerous decapod faunules from fossil reefs of Eocene to Miocene age from the Mediterranean realm and of Miocene age from Paratethys. In contrast, decapod remains are very scarce in Badenian siliciclastic deposits (Mikolaiv Beds) and are represented by the most resistant skeletal elements, i.e., dactyli and fixed fingers. This scarcity was caused by the high-energy environment, with frequent episodes of redeposition, which disintegrated and abraded the decapod remains. The decapod fauna from the Badenian (middle Miocene) deposits of western Ukraine comprises in total 31 taxa: 20 species, 9 taxa left in open nomenclature, and 2 determined at family level. Thirteen of these taxa are reported for the first time from the territory of Ukraine. Among them are the first records of Trapezia glaessneri Müller, 1976 in the Fore-Carpathian Basin and Pachycheles sp. in Paratethys. One taxon (Petrolisthes sp. A) probably represents a new species. The occurrence of this significant decapod fauna is restricted almost exclusively to the Upper Badenian (i.e., early Serravallian) coralgal reefs of the Ternopil Beds. The taxonomic composition of the decapods indicates that the Late Badenian depositional environment was a shallow marine basin dominated by reefs that developed in warm-to-tropical waters of oceanic salinity. The decapod assemblage from the Ternopil Beds is similar in its taxonomic composition to numerous decapod faunules from fossil reefs of Eocene to Miocene age from the Mediterranean realm and of Miocene age from Paratethys. In contrast, decapod remains are very scarce in Badenian siliciclastic deposits (Mikolaiv Beds) and are represented by the most resistant skeletal elements, i.e., dactyli and fixed fingers. This scarcity was caused by the high-energy environment, with frequent episodes of redeposition, which disintegrated and abraded the decapod remains.
EN
The upper lower Cenomanian through middle Santonian (Upper Cretaceous) of the Boquillas Formation in the Big Bend Region of Trans-Pecos Texas consists of a marine carbonate succession deposited at the southern end of the Western Interior Seaway. The Boquillas Formation, subdivided into the lower, c. 78 m thick limestone-shale Ernst Member, and the upper, c. 132 m thick limestone/chalk/marl San Vicente Member, was deposited in a shallow shelf open marine environment at the junction between the Western Interior Seaway and the western margins of the Tethys Basin. Biogeographically, the area was closely tied with the southern Western Interior Seaway. The richly fossiliferous upper Turonian, Coniacian and lower Santonian parts of the Boquillas Formation are particularly promising for multistratigraphic studies.
EN
Two dinosaur footprints: Eubrontes cf. giganteus and Grallator tenuis, both attributed to theropods, have been found in the Lower Jurassic Thaiat Member of the Lathi Formation at the Thaiat ridge, near Jaisalmer in western Rajasthan, India. The footprints were left in sediments of a tidal origin, located in profile a few meters above a marked transgressive/flooding surface. They show different states of preservation – the smaller Grallator tenuis represents a well-preserved concave epirelief footprint on the upper surface of a sandstone containing nerineid gastropod shells, while the bigger Eubrontes cf. giganteus footprint shows a rare state of preservation as a positive epirelief on the top of a calcareous sandstone bed, where recent erosion exposed the footprint cast by removing the mud above and around the footprint. The Thaiat ridge section has been amended in its lower part, to indicate the marked transgressive surface. Geochemical analyses and calculated weathering indices (such as CIA) show that the hinterland climate was seasonal to semi-arid during deposition of that part of the succession.
6
PL
Praca stanowi pierwsze kompleksowe opracowanie biostratygrafii utworów permu górnego i triasu niecki Nidy. Wyróżniono dziesięć poziomów palinologicznych. Wyniki badań mikroflorystycznych potwierdziły problematyczną dotychczas obecność utworów późnego anizyku i wczesnego ladynu. Pozwoliły także na sprecyzowanie granic między indem i olenkiem oraz norykiem i retykiem. Wyniki zastosowanych w badaniach palinologicznych analiz paleośrodowiskowej i paleoklimatycznej wykazały dominację form sucholubnych w zespołach miosporowych. Wskazują również na przewagę klimatu suchego w późnym permie i triasie na badanym obszarze. Zwiększoną ilość mikroflory wilgotnolubnej obserwuje się w olenku, ladynie, noryku i retyku. Przeważająca w późnym permie i triasie kontynentalna sedymentacja w środowiskach rzecznych, jeziornych, playi i sebki była przerywana przez transgresje morskie, które miały miejsce w późnym wuchiapingu, wczesnym indzie, anizyku i ladynie.
EN
Ten miospore zones are identified in the Upper Permian and Triassic succession of the Nida Basin. This is the first complete biostratigraphical study of these sediments. The palynological investigation confirmed the presence of the late Anisian and early Ladinian. In addition, they allowed determining more precisely the boundaries between Induan and Olenekian as well as Norian and Rhaetian. Xeromorphic elements dominate the Upper Permian and Triassic palynomorph spectra from the Nida Basin and reflect a mainly dry palaeoclimate. Significant numbers of hygromorphic elements indicating temporarily humid phases, occur in the Olenekian, Ladinian, Norian and Rhaetian. Continental sedimentation in fluvial, lacustrine, coastal, playa and sabkha environments prevailed during most of the Late Permian and Triassic but was interrupted by marine transgressions in the late Wuchiapingian, early Induan, Anisian as well as Ladinian.
EN
The following trace fossils have been recognised in the Lower Muschelkalk of Raciborowice Gorne (North Sudetic Synclinorium, SW Poland): Archaeonassa fossulata, Balanoglossites triadicus, ?Gastrochaenolites isp., Lockeia isp., Palaeophycus tubularis, Palaeophycus isp., ?Planolites beverleyensis, P. montanus, Planolites isp., ?Protovirgularia isp., Rhizocorallium commune var. auriforme, R. commune var. irregulare, R. jenense, Skolithos linearis, Thalassinoides suevicus and Trypanites weisei. Coprolites and an unidentified trace fossil A are also described. The trace fossils allow the discrimination of five ichnoassociations in the Raciborowice G1) Rhizocorallium- Pholeus, (IA 2) Rhizocorallium-Palaeophycus, (IA 3) Thalassinoides, (IA 4) Trypanites-Balanoglossites and (IA 5) Planolites-Palaeophycus. The Lower Muschelkalk succession was deposited on a shallow carbonate ramp affected by frequent storms. Deposition commenced with sedimentation in a restricted lagoon on the inner ramp with a short episode of sabkha formation. It continued on the middle and outer ramp and then on a skeletal shoal of the outer ramp and in an open basin. Ichnoassociation IA 5 is related to a maximum transgression that commenced with the deposition of the Spiriferina Bed and which probably marked the opening of the Silesian-Moravian Gate. The basin underwent two shallowing episodes, as evidenced by ichnoassociations IA 3-IA 4, resulting in the formation of hardgrounds. Bathymetric changes in the Raciborowice Gorne section correspond well with a general transgressive trend in the Germanic Basin.
8
Content available remote Polskie Solnhofen
EN
We briefly report on recent discovery of a new Fossil-Lagerstätte at Owadów-Brzezinki quarry (central Poland), where Upper Jurassic (Upper Tithonian = Middle Volgian) shallow water carbonates are exposed. Th section includes a richly fossiliferous horizon of lithographic-type limestones, formed in a lagoonal depositional environment. Numerous organic and phosphatic remains of wide range of both marine and terrestrial creatures, including horseshoe crabs and decapods, disarticulated fish skeletons, remains of marine reptiles, ammonites, dragonflies, beetles, and rare isolated pterosaur bones and teeth, were found in association with an extremely abundant small bivalves Corbulomima obscura. The richly fossiliferous horizon at Owadów-Brzezinki is stratigraphically closely related to one of the world's most famous Fossil-Lagerstätte sites – Solnhofen (Bavaria, south-central Germany).
EN
The biostratigraphic investigation included the Menilite–Krosno Series of the Skole Unit overlying the Globigerina Marls. Seven calcareous nannoplankton zones (sensu Martini, 1971) were distinguished in these sediments: NP23, NP24, NP25, NN1, NN2, NN3? and NN4. Based on the species diversity of the assemblage, their abundances and preservation, as well as palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic conditions that controlled the basin during deposition of the Menilite and Krosno Beds have been identified. The Skole region was located at the periphery of the Paratethys basin during Late Oligocene–Early Miocene times. Based on the calcareous nannoplankton assemblage, the phase of isolation of the Paratethys (NP23) from the Mediterranean was documented. The restoration of normal marine conditions (NP24–NP25), sea-level fluctuations (sea-level fall?) at the Oligocene–Miocene boundary (uppermost part of the NP25–NN1), a phase of relative sea-level rise (NN2, NN3?, NN4) and the end of flysch sedimentation in the Skole Unit in the NN4 Calcareous Nannoplankton Zone were also identified.
PL
Badaniami biostratygraficznymi objęto utwory serii menilitowo-krośnieńskiej jednostki skolskiej położone w profilu powyżej poziomu margli globigerynowych. W obrębie utworów tej serii wyróżniono siedem poziomów nanoplanktonowych sensu Martini (1971): NP23, NP24, NP25, NN1, NN2, NN3? i NN4. Na podstawie składu zespołu nanoplanktonu wapiennego, jego zróżnicowania gatunkowego, liczebności i stanu zachowania podjęto próbę określenia warunków paleośrodowiskowych i paleoklimatycznych w czasie osadzania warstw menilitowych i krośnieńskich jednostki skolskiej. Są one ściśle związane z warunkami, jakie panowały w późnym oligocenie–wczesnym miocenie w basenach Paratetydy i z położeniem rejonu skolskiego na peryferiach tego basenu. Udokumentowano etap odizolowania basenu Paratetydy (NP23) od innych jego rejonów, etap warunków normalno-morskich, a więc odzyskania połączeń z otwartym morzem (NP24–NP25), wahania poziomu morza na pograniczu późnego oligocenu i wczesnego miocenu (najwyższa część NP25–NN1), etap względnego podniesienia poziomu morza, transgresji (NN2, NN3?, NN4) i końca sedymentacji fliszowej w basenie skolskim w poziomie NN4.
EN
Iron carbonate concretion horizons are characteristic features of the Bathonian (Middle Jurassic) claystone-mudstone succession at Gnaszyn. They occur in single horizons, which generally represent the same genetic type. The siderite concretions are the main type of iron carbonate concretions at Gnaszyn; a second type is represented by phosphate-siderite concretions. On the basis of the fieldwork, and their petrographical and mineralogical characteristics, the genesis of the concretions and their palaeoenvironmental significance is discussed. The results of this study (based on the localization, mode of occurrence, mineralogy of iron carbonate concretions and also the textural relationship between the concretions and host sediment layers) suggest an early diagenetic origin of the concretions. The preferential occurrence of the concretion horizons in single layers in the ambient sediments was associated with particular conditions of their deposition and early diagenesis, favored by a slower sedimentation rate and more intense bioturbation, and related primarily to the greater availability of reactive iron ions. From the viewpoint of physicochemical conditions the horizons with iron carbonate concretions in the study area reflect the redox boundary between oxic/bioturbated and anoxic/non-bioturbated zones. The conditions favoring the formation of such horizons was possibly due to longer periods of diminished sedimentation rate when the redox boundary remained in the same position within the sediment.
EN
Multidisciplinary studies of the Middle-Upper Bathonian ore-bearing clays at Gnaszyn revealed variable palaeoenvironmental conditions during the deposition of this seemingly monotonous sequence. We interpret the conditions in the bottom environment and the photic zone, and also evaluate the influence of the adjacent land areas, based on sedimentology, geochemistry, sporomorphs and palynofacies composition, benthic (foraminifera, gastropods, bivalves, scaphopods, echinoderms), planktonic (calcareous nannoplankton, dinoflagellate cysts), and nektonic (sharks) fossils. The Gnaszyn succession originated relatively close to the shore, within reach of an intense supply of terrestrial fine clastic and organic particles. The latter are mainly of terrestrial origin and range from 1.5 to 2.5 wt.%. The precise water depth is difficult to estimate but most likely ranges from several tens of metres to a few hundred metres. All fossil groups show minor changes throughout the succession. As the climate seems to have been quite stable during this period we consider sea-level fluctuations to have been the main factor responsible for the changes. The terrestrial input, including freshwater and land-derived clastic and organic particles (sporomorphs and cuticles), increased during periods of sea-level lowstand. As a consequence, stress conditions (lower salinity, higher nutrient availability, lower water transparency) in the photic zone caused blooms of opportunistic planktonic taxa. Furthermore, a faster sedimentation rate led to oxygen depletion and deterioration of the living conditions in the bottom environment due to an increased accumulation of organic matter. As a result, the benthic biota became taxonomically impoverished and commonly dominated by juvenile forms. During periods of high sea level, the source areas were shifted away from the basin, resulting in a decrease in the terrestrial influx, increase in the salinity of surface waters, the appearance of more diverse phytoplankton assemblages, a lower sedimentation rate, and an improvement of living conditions at the bottom.
EN
This paper presents the results of an investigation into the variability of echinoderm assemblages from Bathonian ore-bearing clays from Gnaszyn. Remains of Crinoidea, Asteroidea, Ophiuroidea, Echinoidea, and Holothuroidea have been studied from 38 rock samples. The most common echinoderms represented are the crinoids Balanocrinus berchteni and Chariocrinus andreae and a few species of the holothurian genera Priscopedatus, Calclamna, Staurocaudina, Eocaudina, Achistrum, Theelia and Hemisphaeranthos. The echinoderms from Gnaszyn show various life strategies: benthic or epibenthic forms, sessile sestonophages (Crinoidea), motile macrophages (Asteroidea) and detritivores (Asteroidea, Ophiuroidea, Echinoidea), infaunal and epifaunal detritus feeders, sediment feeders or rake-feeders (Holothuroidea). Their presence suggests well oxygenated and presumably relatively cold bottom marine waters. The parts of the Gnaszyn section around concretion horizons and characterized by the ubiquitous occurrence of the holothurian Theelia and echinoids were deposited during phases of optimal living conditions with sufficient influx of plant detritus and good oxygenation of the sea bottom. These parts commonly host echinoderm associations dominated by crinoid remains, which occasionally are still articulated (or disarticulated but remaining intact) - this points to a quiet environment with normal oxygenation of the bottom waters but anaerobic/dysaerobic conditions in the sediment.
EN
A succession of Middle-Upper Bathonian (Subcontractus.Retrocostatum zones) ore-bearing clays exposed at Gnaszyn has been investigated for the presence of dinoflagellate cysts. The assemblages are dominated by Ctenidodinium. However, analysis of diversity shows some subtle differences throughout the succession, possibly related to the palaeoenvironmental conditions in the photic zone. Impoverished assemblages, dominated by Ctenidodinium, occur mainly in monotonous muddy intervals. More diverse assemblages, albeit also dominated by Ctenidodinium, occur in intervals which contain siderite concretion levels. The taxonomic composition of the former assemblage seems to reflect slightly restricted conditions in the photic zone, possibly related to a minor reduction in salinity and/or increase in nutrient availability. More diverse dinoflagellate cyst assemblages reflect periods of less intense terrigenous influx and relatively higher, possibly normal, salinity. These changes were possibly caused by variable intensity of freshwater influx into the basin, controlled by sea-level fluctuations. Sea-level changes may be related to migrations of Tethyan water masses, which were probably partly responsible for the composition of the dinoflagellate cyst assemblages.
EN
Qualitative and quantitative studies on calcareous nannofossils have been carried out on the Middle-Upper Bathonian succession of Gnaszyn (Kraków-Silesia Homocline, Częstochowa region). The nannofossil assemblages are moderately or well-preserved and are dominated by Watznaueria britannica; also common are Staurolithites lumina and Zeugrhabdotus erectus. The presence of delicate nannofossil forms together with dissolution-resistant taxa shows that the changes in composition of some of the nannoplankton assemblages reflect original variations. The frequency and diversity changes of the calcareous nannofossil assemblages have been interpreted in relation to fluctuations of sedimentation rate versus changes in trophic conditions within the photic zone. The highest diversity assemblages contain a high percentage of palaeofertility indicators, and are impoverished in the genus Watznaueria. This is interpreted as a reflection of a lower sedimentation rate and more stable, possibly mesotrophic conditions within the photic zone. On the other hand, W. britannica-dominated assemblages with low species diversity may represent more unstable environments with a high influx of terrestrial material related to a high sedimentation rate and a high nutrient influx, i.e. eutrophic conditions in the photic zone.
EN
Samples collected from Late Pleistocene varved clays of the Vistulian (Weichselian) glaciation exposed at Lębork and Złocieniec (Gardno and Pomeranian phases, respectively) yielded palynological contents that are related to the different lithologies composing the varves. The dark-coloured clay units contain very small amounts of palynological material. The lighter-coloured, much thicker coarser units yielded large amounts of organic particles consisting of predominantly palynodebris of terrestrial plants, sporomorphs and aquatic palynomorphs. The latter include fresh-water and marine phytoplankton. All particles were presumably washed out from the pre-Quaternary basement or from erratic material. This is indicated by the dinoflagellate-cyst assemblages, which represent Cretaceous and Palaeogene taxa. The large amounts of organic particles in the light-coloured layers indicate high-energy meltwaters streams, which washed them out, transported them and deposited them in ice-dammed lakes. The barren layers and those with lower amounts of organic particles were deposited during calm, presumably winter, periods, when the energy of the meltwater streams was much lower.
PL
W artykule podsumowano wyniki ponad 220 badań dyfraktometrycznych, wykonanych we frakcji o śr mniejszej 0,002 mm triasowych i jurajskich kompleksów ilastych w basenie polskim. W przypadku niektórych próbek przeprowadzono także obserwacje w mikroskopie elektronowym. Skład detrytycznych minerałów ilastych warstw zbąszyneckich (noryk), warstw wielichowskich (retyk dolny–środkowy), formacji zagajskiej (retyk górny i hetang dolny), przysuskiej formacji rudonośnej (hetang górny), formacji ciechocińskiej (toark dolny) i częstochowskiej formacji iłów rudonośnych (bajos górny–baton) był przeważnie kontrolowany przez reżim wietrzenia i pośrednio warunki klimatyczne. Przerabianie i resedymentacja osadów starszych (spowodowana przez procesy tektoniczne i/lub wahania poziomu morza), jak również sortowanie hydrauliczne, mogły modyfikować skład mineralny i nieco zacierać sygnał paleoklimatyczny. Zmiany składu minerałów ilastych we frakcji <0,002 mm potwierdziły długookresową ewolucję od klimatu suchego lub półsuchego do wilgotnego. Główna zmiana paleoklimatyczna zachodziła w retyku. Chlorytowo-illitowa asocjacja noryku została zastąpiona we wczesnym–środkowym retyku przez zespół illitowo-smektytowy (lub kaolinitowo-smektytowy). W późnym retyku dominowała już asocjacja illitowo-kaolinitowa. W trakcie jury ustaliła się asocjacja chlorytowo-illitowo-kaolinitowa, odpowiadająca warunkom klimatu umiarkowanego, ciepłego. Wahania temperatury, a zwłaszcza wielkości opadów, zapisywały się tylko w zmianach proporcji kaolinitu i illitu. Odcinki profilu zubożone w kaolinit występowały w późnym pliensbachu, najwcześniejszym toarku oraz w bajosie i batonie, odpowiadając fazom klimatu chłodniejszego i mniej wilgotnego. Mniejsze, cykliczne zmiany składu minerałów ilastych były najprawdopodobniej kontrolowane astronomicznie, głównie przez cykle ekscentryczności orbity ziemskiej. Niektóre warstwy z retyku górnego, początku hetangu i toarku dolnego, wykazujące bardzo wysoki stosunek kaolinit/illit, sugerują ekstremalne wietrzenie chemiczne w klimacie tropikalnym lub subtropikalnym wilgotnym, w następstwie silnego efektu cieplarnianego.
EN
This paper summarizes over 220 results of XRD research carried out on <0.002 mm fraction of Triassic and Jurassic clay successions from the Polish Basin. SEM observations of some samples were also performed. The composition of detrital clay minerals of the Zbąszynek Beds (Norian), Wielichowo Beds (Lower–Middle Rhaetian), Zagaje Fm. (Upper Rhaetian and Lower Hettangian), Przysucha Ore bearing Fm. (Upper Hettangian), Ciechocinek Fm. (Lower Toarcian) and Częstochowa Ore-bearing Clay Fm. (Upper Bajocian and Bathonian) was controlled mostly by a weathering regime and, indirectly, by climatic conditions. Reworking and redeposition of ancient sediments (caused by tectonic processes and /or sea-level changes) and differential settling might have modified the mineral composition and partly erased the palaeoclimatic signal. A long-term evolution from arid or semi-arid to humid climatic conditions was confirmed by changes in the clay mineral composition of the <0.002 mm fraction. The major change of palaeoclimate took place during the Rhaetian. The Norian chlorite-illite association was replaced by the Early–Middle Rhaetian illite-smectite (and kaolinite-smectite) assemblage. Next, in the Late Rhaetian the illite-kaolinite association predominated. In the Jurassic, the chlorite-illite-kaolinite association was established due to a warm-temperate climate. Only changes in the kaolinite/illite ratio recorded the fluctuations in temperature and especially rainfall. Kaolinite-depleted intervals occurred in the Late Pliensbachian, Earliest Toarcian and Bajocian–Bathonian, due to cooler and less humid climatic phases. Minor cyclic variations in the clay mineral composition were most probably astronomically controlled, mainly due to the orbital eccentricity cycles. Some levels of the very high kaolinite/illite ratio in the Upper Rhaetian, at the beginning of Hettangian and in the Lower Toarcian suggest extreme chemical weathering in a humid-subtropical to tropical climate in the aftermath of a powerful greenhouse effect.
EN
Trace fossils of the Olenekian clastic deposits (Fatricum domain) in the Tatra Mts. include Rhizocorallium isp., Palaeophycus striatus, cf. Palaeophycus isp. and cf. Chondrites isp., while Planolites isp., Thalassinoides isp., Rhizocorallium isp. and Balanoglossites isp. occur in the Anisian carbonates. The Anisian trace fossil assemblage is less diverse and abundant than in the coeval carbonates of the Tatricum domain. Both, the Olenekian and Anisian trace fossils represent the impoverished Cruziana ichnofacies influenced by the increased salinity. Bioturbational structures are much less abundant than in the Anisian of the Tatricum. They are partly obliterated by diagenetic processes.
EN
Pollen analysis of 16 samples of coaly sediments taken from one of sinkholes developed within the Triassic limestones cropping out at Tarnów Opolski, Upper Silesian Upland has been done. The study revealed a taxonomically rich assemblage of excellently preserved sporomorphs (pollen grains and spores) as well as microfossils of fresh-water algae (mainly Chlorophyta). The pollen analysis made it possible to reconstruct a vegetation growing during sedimentation of deposits filling the studied sinkhole and clear facies succession, from open aquatic (with abundant fresh-water algae) to marshy one (e.g. swamp forests composed of Taxodium, Nyssa and Alnus). Riparian forests dominated by deciduous trees, e.g. Pterocarya, Carya and Liquidambar, grew on wet terrains surrounding the water body. Drier elevated terrains were overgrown by mixed mesophytic forests with small admixture of thermophilous plants. Results of the pollen analysis indicate that during the sedimentation of the sinkhole filling the climate was warm temperate and moderately wet. Recorded sporomorphs and a mutual ratio of arctotertiary and palaeotropical taxa point at a Middle Miocene age of the studied deposit.
EN
Crustacean ichnofossils are most abundant in the stratigraphic record of Portugal. In this paper is presented a study on crustacean ichnoassemblages from the Sinemurian to middle Cenomanian, during the opening and subsequent filling of Atlantic occidental margin basins (Lusitanian Basin and western part of Algarve Basin). Thalassinoides dominates the lagoonal and inner shelf facies from the late Sinemurian at least to the Turonian, generally defining all of the carbonate sequence with its dense, "nodular" ichnofabric since the Late Jurassic. Asequence is described in the lower Barremian of Cabo Espichel in which burrow mazes of Thalassinoides suevicus occur, containing hundreds of Mecochirus rapax as an obrution lagerstatte. The Cretaceous of the Lusitanian Basin is rich in marly limestones mottled with Thalassinoides but almost devoid of Rhizocorallium. Fairly common in dark marls and biomicrites from the Jurassic, Rhizocorallium irregulare locally occurs in dense monospecific fabrics. Slipper-shaped and oblique forms (Rhizocorallium jenense) as well as spiral and lobate forms are rhizocoralliid foraging modifications usually developed in deeper tiers than Thalassinoides and sometimes evidencing bioimprints in Glossifungites preservation. Siliciclastic facies related to rifting subsidence along major fault scarps and fan deltas/braided river depositional systems show pervasive bioturbation with Psilonichnus tubiformis.Another crab-style behaviour ascribed to Macanopsis plataniformis is described for the first time in Portugal, associated with a coarse-grained sandstone episode in a tidal flat setting from the Kimmeridgian, where monospecific brachyuran burrows were developed in a firmground.
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Content available remote Małe otwornice "eocenu numulitowego" Tatr-stratygrafia i paleośrodowisko
EN
Shallow-water carbonate sediments of the so called "Nummulitic Eocene" of the Tatra Mts. yield numerous large foraminifera as well as abundant and diversified assemblages of small foraminifera. Both benthic and planktic species indicate the late Bartonian-Priabonian age of the "Nummulitic Eocene". Paleoenvironmental analysis of the identified assemblages demonstrated their correlation with the Arni’s sedimentological model of the shallow-water carbonate sediments. The affiliations of foraminiferal faunas with the bioprovince of the Mediterranean Tethys have also been indicated.
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