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EN
The study aim was determining gender-related differences of underwater undulatory swimming (UUS) kinematic indicators and their impact on UUS velocity. Methods: The study included 18 girls (F: age 16.71 ± 0.64 years, FINA points 551 ± 68) and 23 boys (M: age 16.79 ± 0.57 years, FINA points 533 ± 66) training swimming. After marking characteristic anatomical points, subjects performed approximately 7 meters of UUS. A filming device placed behind the underwater window registered the trial. Recordings were analysed using the SkillSpector programme. Results: Boys swam faster (F: 1.24 m/s, M: 1.35 m/s), overcame a greater distance during one cycle (F: 0.67 m, M: 0.74 m), performed movements with higher toes amplitude (F: 0.58 m, M: 0.63 m), obtained higher amplitude and frequency product (F: 1.05, M: 1.15) and smaller ankle joint range of motion (F: 64°, M: 57°). In both groups, relationships between velocity and: maximal ankle joint extension, distance covered during one cycle and backward toes shift during downward movement were found. The results were statistically significant ( p < 0.05). Conclusions: Girls and boys differed in kinematic indicator level, but UUS velocity depends on identical kinematic variables, meaning UUS technical training can be performed without gender-division.
PL
W artykule scharakteryzowano pojęcie komunikacji dydaktycznej oraz zweryfikowano przebieg procesu nauczania wybranych dyscyplin rekreacji wodnej, tj.: pływania (na poziomie techniki standardowej), manewrowania żaglówką w obrębie manewrów prostych oraz podstaw nurkowania. Jednocześnie dokonano przeglądu badań zarówno w obrębie eksperymentów prowadzonych w zakresie metod nauczania tych dyscyplin pod kątem skuteczności nauczania, jak i bezpieczeństwa i zdrowia uczestników oraz sposobów porozumiewania się w wodzie, na wodzie i pod wodą. Komunikacja dydaktyczna pomiędzy nauczycielem a uczniem w odmiennym środowisku ze względu na jego specyfikę jest utrudniona. Dodatkowo nauczanie umiejętności na wodzie, w wodzie czy pod wodą wymaga zachowania i przestrzegania restrykcyjnych zasad bezpieczeństwa. Brak gotowości ucznia do działania w odmiennym środowisku wodnym u podłoża, którego leżą lęk lub strach, może zakłócać lub nawet uniemożliwiać komunikację dydaktyczną. W konsekwencji spada skuteczność nauczania. Celem pracy jest wskazanie nowatorskich form przekazu informacji dydaktycznej, które umożliwią trwałą zmianę zachowania ucznia szczególnie podczas działania w sytuacji trudnej – na wodzie, w wodzie i pod wodą. Istnieją przesłanki by sądzić, że natychmiastowa werbalna informacja oraz uwypuklenie w niej funkcji metajęzykowej podniesie jakość i efektywność procesu nauczania czynności ruchowych w odmiennym środowisku wodnym.
EN
This paper describes the concept of didactic communication and verifies the course of teaching selected disciplines of water based recreation, i.e. swimming (at the standard technique level), handling a sailing boat whilst undertaking simple manoeuvres, and the basics of diving. At the same time, research in the area of experiments conducted in the field of teaching methods of these disciplines was reviewed in terms of teaching effectiveness, as well as the health and safety of the participants, and ways of communicating while in, on and under the water. Communication between an instructor and a student in any environment which is different from the norm, is difficult owing to its specificity. Additionally, teaching skills on, in or under water requires strict observance of safety rules. Lack of student's readiness to act in a different water environment, be that based on anxiety or fear, may interfere with or, even prevent didactic communication. Consequently, the effectiveness of teaching decreases. The aim of this work is to search for innovative forms of information transfer that will enable a permanent change in the student's behaviour, especially when acting in a difficult environment – on the water, in the water and under the water. There are premises to believe that immediate verbal instruction and emphasising the metalinguistic function in it should improve the quality and effectiveness of the process of teaching activities in various water based environments.
EN
The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of shoulder isometric strength assessment using the microfet 2™ dynamometer in adolescent swimmers. Methods: Twenty-nine participants (16.2 ± 1.2 years old; 59.05 ± 6.98 kg of body mass) were tested using the microfet 2™ dynamometer. Swimmers performed an isometric strength test (IST) in two distinct occasions with 7 days apart in order to calculate the reliability. All participants were asked to perform a maximal isometric contraction from the external and internal shoulder rotators in a prone body position. Results: The external and internal shoulder rotators showed an excellent intraclass correlation coefficients for both shoulders, with more than 0.90 and a low percentage of method error variation. The external/internal ratios reliability was good in dominant (ICC 0.80) and non-dominant (ICC 0.81) shoulders. The reliability using Bland–Altman method showed that systematic errors (mean difference between test-retest) were nearly zero and the 95% limits of agreement narrow, indicating a good reliability. Conclusions: It can be concluded that microfet 2™ is a reliable apparatus for measuring the strength of the external and internal rotation of the shoulder in swimmers. Its light weight and easy portable characteristics can help swimming coaches monitoring specific dry-land strength training programs for their swimmers.
EN
Early identification of anthropological potential in swimmers is considered important to the recruitment and selection of children and adolescents to perform extensive and strenuous training. The aim of the research was a comparative analysis of the anthropometric parameters and indicators of adult, elite swimmers with people who had never trained for swimming. It was assumed that the specific characteristics of the swimmers’ somatic composition referred to the laws of swimming biomechanics. Methods: Anthropometric measurements were taken in a group of elite male swimmers (N = 28), aged 17–24. The same set of measurements was taken in a homogeneous control group of students of physical education. An anthropometric profile significantly differentiating swimmers from the control group was constructed. Next, a linear forward stepwise discriminant analysis was conducted to investigate which indices can be used to distinguish the two groups. Results: It seems significant that a specific somatic composition trait of swimmers in the form of a relatively long shank was observed, which had not been observed in earlier studies. Additionally, indices of relatively slim hand dimension, and indices describing a “reversed triangle” shape of trunk, were the most powerful discrimination variables between the two examined groups. Conclusion: The results obtained cannot be generalised to the entire population of swimmers, however referring them to the laws of biomechanics of swimming allows for the continuation of research into identifying the prognostic traits desirable for success among young swimmers.
EN
Purpose: The aim of the study was to develop a method to measure and analyse kinematics of movement of the pelvic girdle in butterfly swimming in order to support training of technical skills. Methods: A device for recording triaxial accelerations and triaxial rotational angular velocities was mounted on the dorsal part of the pelvic girdle of athlete. The measurements were performed in ten elite butterfly swimmers (age: 23.1 ± 3.7 years, body height: 187.6 ± 4.3 cm, body mass 83.4 ± 6.33 kg). The task of the athlete was to swim one length of short course pool at maximal intensity. Individual mean graphical and numerical profiles of the kinematics of the movement of the pelvic girdle was computed, within the average cycle based on five consecutive cycles. Results: Statistical analysis of numerical individual parameters of profiles of the athletes studied revealed statistically significant differences between the swimmers. Statistically significant correlations were also found between personal best times in 50 m swimming (r = –0.76, p < 0.05) and 100 m swimming (r = –0.76, p < 0.05) and duration of the part of the cycle connected with the decline in velocity from maximum translational motion velocity obtained during propulsion with the upper and lower limbs to minimum value of the velocity obtained before the beginning of propulsion only with the lower limbs. Conclusion: The proposed measurement method, presentation and analysis of the profile of the pelvic girdle motion in butterfly swimming represents a good tool for fast and effective qualitative and quantitative biomechanical evaluation of movement technique components.
EN
The information about the workload on individual muscles in the course of a specific physical activity is essential for targeted prevention, early diagnosis and suitable therapy concerning their overloading and injury. The aim of this study is to evaluate temperature changes in particular skin areas in the course of front crawl swimming, caused by muscle work. Methods: Thermograms were taken of 13 students of Defense University immediately and 15 minutes after swimming 1,000 m focused on 20 regions of the skin over the selected agonists and synergists in upper extremities and body. FLUKE TiR infrared hand camera was used. Results: The results indicated the significant increase in the relative temperatures in the areas of agonists of swimmers’ movement – triceps brachii: from 0.952 to 0.997 of normalized units (nu) on the right and from 0.955 to 0.986 nu on the left. At the same time, the temperature of the muscles participating in lifting the arms above the water surface and stretching them forward – deltoids – increased as well (rear part: from 1.002 to 1.015 nu on the right and from 1.002 to 1.014 nu on the left, sides: from 1.008 to 1.023 nu on the right and from 1.011 to 1.023 nu on the left). Conclusions: In conclusion, the order of the other agonists is as follows: biceps brachii, pectoralis major muscle, and latissimus dorsi. This study provides the options for objective assessment of workload on specific muscles or muscle groups during front crawl swimming.
EN
The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of the swimming speed during diving on the biomechanical parameters describing the movement of selected measurement points of the lower limb in professional divers. Methods: The study involved a group of 4 professional divers whose movement was recorded during underwater swimming at slow (approx. 0.4 m · s–1), medium (approx. 0.5 m · s–1), and fast (approx. 0.8 m · s–1) pace. Results: During swimming at medium speed, the divers made a smaller displacement (along the axes Y) of the midpoint of fin than during swimming at fast speed. The range of motion in the ankle joint increased in fast speed in comparison with low and medium swimming speed. The same relationship was noted for the obtained velocity and angular acceleration in the hip, knee and ankle joints. The authors observed that during swimming at slow pace the divers choose movement ensuring high swimming comfort while the efficiency of motion is a secondary factor. On the other hand, during swimming at higher pace, the applied movement pattern ensures far greater efficiency rather than swimming comfort. Conclusion: The conducted analysis showed that divers adjust the movement of their lower limbs to the swimming pace.
EN
The aim of this study was to analyse changes taking place within selected kinematic parameters of the swimming start, after completing a six-week plyometric training, assuming that the take-off power training improve its effectiveness. Methods: The experiment included nine male swimmers. In the pre-test swimmers performed three starts focusing on the best performance. Next, a plyometrics training programme, adapted from sprint running was introduced aimed at increasing explosive power of the lower extremities; the programme entailed 75 minute sessions conducted twice a week. Afterwards, a post-test was performed, analogous to the pre-test. Spatio-temporal structure data of the swimming start were gathered from video recordings of the swimmer both above and under water. Results: Impulses triggered by the plyometric training contributed to a shorter start time (the main measure of start effectiveness) and glide time as well as increasing average take-off, flight and glide velocities including take-off, entry and glide instantaneous velocities; the glide angle decreased. Conclusions: The changes in selected parameters of the swimming start and its confirmed diagnostic values, showed the areas to be susceptible to plyometric training and suggested, that applied plyometric training programme aimed at increasing take-off power enhances the effectiveness of the swimming start.
9
Content available Physical activity in the water accompanied by music
EN
Music motivates, relaxes and stimulates action and is one factor which enhances the pleasure that people feel from a given movement. Thus, from a psychophysical point of view, listening to music is an important aspect in sport and recreation. With this in mind, the aim of the study was to determine any changes in the participants’ psychophysical sphere which resulted from listening to music while swimming. The psychophysical sphere was expressed in relation to the Borg RPE scale (Rating of Perceived Exertion) as well as the Rejeski and Gauvin Exercise-Induced Feeling Inventory (EFI) scale of emotional states. Material and methods: The participants in the study were not professional swimmers (n = 10). The experiment consisted of two trials in which participants performed the Swimming Cooper test. During the first trial there was no music transmitted while in the second trial specifically selected music was played as the participants swam. Results: An ANOVA variance analysis (α = 0.05) showed statistically significant differences in the RPE scale (p = 0.04) and across all sensations on the EFI scale (p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.001). Conclusions: Listening to music while swimming has a significant impact on the human psychophysical sphere and is expressed by a perceived exertion scale and the scale of emotional states. Respondents paid less attention to the discomfort of physical exertion associated with exercise while listening to music. The rating of their emotional states, including positive engagement, revitalization and tranquility considerably increased though the physical exhaustion measures were significantly lower.
PL
Muzyka motywuje, relaksuje, pobudza do działania. Sprawia, iż człowiek odczuwa większą przyjemność z ruchu. Zatem z punktu widzenia psychofizycznego słuchanie muzyki jest ważnym elementem w sporcie i rekreacji. Dlatego celem badań było określenie zmian w sferze psychofizycznej człowieka wynikających ze słuchania muzyki podczas pływania. Sfera psychofizyczna wyrażona była skalą postrzegania wysiłku Borg’a (RPE) oraz skalą stanów uczuciowych Gauvin’a i Rejeskie’go (EFI). Materiał i Metody: W badaniach wzięły udział nie uprawiające zawodowo pływania osoby (n=10). Eksperyment złożony był z dwóch prób, w których uczestnicy wykonywali pływacki test Coopera. W pierwszej próbie nie przekazywano muzyki podczas wykonywania testu. W drugiej próbie indywidualnie dobrana muzyka była przekazywana w trakcie płynięcia. Wyniki: Analiza wariacji ANOVA (α=0.05) wykazała istotnie statystycznie różnice w skali RPE (p=0.04) oraz we wszystkich odczuciach skali EFI (p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.01, p = 0.001). Wnioski: Słuchanie muzyki podczas pływania istotnie wpływa na sferę psychofizyczną człowieka, wyrażoną skalą odczuwania wysiłku oraz skalą stanów uczuciowych. Badani zwracali mniejszą uwagę na wykonywany wysiłek i towarzyszący temu dyskomfort. Ocena stanów uczuciowych, w tym pozytywnego zaangażowania, rewitalizacji i spokoju istotnie zwiększyła się, a wyczerpania fizycznego istotnie zmniejszyła.
EN
The purpose of the study was to analyze the relationships between sprint swimming performance, dry-land power, and kinematics in master swimmers. Twenty-two male master swimmers were separated in two groups based on their chronological age: (i) 30–39 years and; (ii) 40–49 years. Maximum dry-land power was determined through counter movement jump and 3 kg medicine ball throwing (Hmax and Tmax, respectively). Kinematic determinants of performance were measured during a maximal bout of 15, 25 and 50 m front crawl (T15, T25, T50). Stroke frequency (SF), stroke length (SL) and stroke index (SI) were calculated as kinematical aspects of the stroke. In the 30-39 group, SI25 was correlated to T25 (r = –0.76, p < 0.01, η2 = 0.96), the same was observed between SI50 and T50 (r = –0.83, p < 0.01, η2 = 0.96). Only SI50 was significantly correlated to T50 (r = –0.86, p < 0.01, η2 = 0.97) in the 40–49 years age cohort. In dryland power variables, Hmax and Tmax were only correlated in the younger master swimmers group (r = –0.87, p < 0.01, η2 = 0.97). There were no significant differences (p < 0.05) between younger (30–39 years) and older (40–49 years) swimmers groups in dry-land tests (Hmax 28.5 ± 5.9 vs. 26.5 ± 3.9 cm and Tmax 4.2 ± 1.0 vs. 4.2 ± 1.1 m). Our results suggest that swimming performance in younger master swimmers (30–39 years) seem more dependent on kinematic swimming variables than on strength parameters, which were most related to swimming performance in the older master swimmers (40–49 years).
PL
Celem opracowania jest próba odpowiedzi na pytanie, czy i w jaki sposób zachowania człowieka względem środowiska wodnego mogą wpływać na zmniejszanie zagrożeń cywilizacyjnych, a tym samym zwiększać, bezpośrednio lub pośrednio, bezpieczeństwo jednostki i społeczeństwa. Przyjmując pewien uproszczony podział można przedstawić dwa podstawowe rodzaje zagrożeń: zewnętrzne oraz wewnętrzne. Wykluczenie wymienionych zagrożeń prowadzi do zapewnienia poczucia i rzeczywistej realizacji potrzeby bezpieczeństwa. Może być realizowane poprzez czynniki niezależne od jednostki oraz bezpośrednio przez człowieka. Sądzić można, że fundamentalnym sposobem na czucie się bezpiecznym jest indywidualnie: nabycie względnie wysokiej sprawności pływackiej, umiejętności umożliwiających posługiwanie się sprzętem pływackim oraz wiedzy, w jakich warunkach środowiskowych posiadane kwalifikacje mogą ona być bezpiecznie wykorzystywane oraz społecznie: wyszkolenie odpowiednich osób (ratowników), którzy poprzez własną postawę, umiejętności i właściwe przygotowanie terenu zapewnią bezpieczeństwo na obszarach wodnych.
EN
The aim of this paper is to answer the question if and in what way human behavior with regard to water environment can influence the reduction of civilization threats and thereby directly or indirectly increase safety of an individual and society. By adopting a simplified categorization, one can present two fundamental types of threats: external and internal. Elimination of these threats results in ensuring safety and satisfies the need for safety in a real way. This can be achieved by means of factors independent from an individual and directly by humans. It can be concluded that a basic mean to feel safe individually: is developing the ability to swim and skills enabling to use swimming equipment as well as acquiring knowledge about environmental conditions in which those qualifications can be used, and socially: training appropriate people (lifeguards) who will ensure safety on water areas by means of their conduct, skills and the right preparation of those areas.
EN
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biomechanical (stroke rate, stroke length, and stroke index), anthropometrical (body height, body mass, body mass index, arm span, shoulders width, thigh, leg and upper arm lengths), and muscle architectural (muscle thickness, pennation angle, and fascicle length) parameters as predictors of 200-m front crawl swimming performance in young male swimmers. Twenty-two county level male swimmers (mean ±SD: age: 14.52 ± 0.77 years; body height: 173 ± 5 m; body mass: 60.5 ± 5.7 kg) performed a 200-m front crawl swimming test in a 25-m pool. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that biomechanical parameters (87%) characterized best 200-m front crawl swimming performance, followed by anthropometrical (82%) and muscle architectural (72%) parameters. Also, stroke length (R2 = 0.623), body height (R2 = 0.541), fascicle length of Triceps Brachii (R2 = 0.392) were the best single predictors that together explained 92% of the variability of the 200-m front crawl swimming performance in these swimmers. As a conclusion, with respect to higher performance prediction power of biomechanical parameters, technique should represent the core of the training program at these ages. In addition, these findings could be used for male young swimmers selection and talent identification.
EN
This study presents the hydrodynamic characteristics of different adult male swimmer's body shape using computational fluid dynamics method. This simulation strategy is carried out by CFD fluent code with solving the 3D incompressible Navier–Stokes equations using the RNG k-ε turbulence closure. The water free surface is captured by the volume of fluid (VOF) method. A set of full body models, which is based on the anthropometrical characteristics of the most common male swimmers, is created by Computer Aided Industrial Design (CAID) software, Rhinoceros. The analysis of CFD results revealed that swimmer’s body shape has a noticeable effect on the hydrodynamics performances. This explains why male swimmer with an inverted triangle body shape has good hydrodynamic characteristics for competitive swimming.
PL
W pracy przeprowadzono badania związane z pomiarami biomechanicznymi pływaków. Opracowano metodykę prowadzenia pomiarów oraz przeprowadzono wstępne badania, w ramach których dokonano pomiaru czasów przepłynięcia dystansu 100m stylem klasycznym wraz z międzyczasami oraz pomiarów momentów sił mięśniowych w warunkach izokinetycznych na stanowisku Biodex. Wyniki porównano i określono zależności pomiędzy wynikami osiągniętymi na basenie i podczas pomiarów w laboratorium.
EN
In these thesis did a review based on different literature sources about biomechanical research among sportsmen. After that an author did a measurement of muscle torques on a Biodex chair. The author summarized the results which the swimmers got on a 100 meters distance with the results that they got by using biomechanical devices. The comparison showed that the swimmers which got the better results have less muscle fatigue and achieve greater muscle torques for the bending and straightening of the knee.
EN
Purpose: The main purpose of this study to analyze the coordination, propulsion and non-propulsion phases in the 100 meters breaststroke race. Methods: Twenty-seven male swimmers (15.7±1.98 years old) with the total body length (TBL) of 247.0±10.60 [cm] performed an all-out 100m breaststroke bout. The bouts were recorded with an underwater camera installed on a portable trolley. The swimming kinematic parameters, stroke rate (SR) and stroke length (SL), as well as the coordination indices based on propulsive or non-propulsive movement phases of the arms and legs were distinguished. Results: Swimming speed (V 100surface breast ) was associated with SL (R=0.41, p<0.05) and with TBL tending towards statistical significance (R=0.36, p<0.07), all relationships between the selected variables in the study were measured using partial correlations with controlled age. SL interplayed negatively with the limbs propulsive phase Overlap indicator (R=-0.46, p<0.05), but has no significant relationship to the non-propulsion Glide indicator. Conclusions: The propulsion in-sweep (AP3) phase of arms and their non-propulsion partial air recovery (ARair) phase interplayed with V 100surface breast (R=0.51, p<0.05 and 0.48 p<0.05) respectively, displaying the importance of proper execution of this phase (AP3) and in reducing the resistance recovery phases in consecutive ones.
EN
The main purpose of this study was to analyze tactical solutions used by swimmers, the finalists of the 19th Beijing Olympics in 2008, in individual front crawl events at distances of 50, 100 and 200 m. Observations were carried out on 7 swimmers, the Beijing Olympics medalists competing in front crawl individual events. Detailed analyses were run on: 1) Sports results obtained by the finalists at distances of 50, 100 and 200 m front crawl; 2) block time; 3) results of each 50 m lap time (100 and 200) called split times except 50 m front crawl (there is no split time in 50 m); and 4) the mean swimming speed (V) on individual laps of the analyzed races. To determine the correlation between the response time, the time of individual laps, and the final time of the analyzed front crawl races, Pearson’s linear correlation coefficient r was obtained. As a result of detailed analyses of the test material it is believed that not only tactics for an individual race is important, but equally significant is to elaborate the strategy for the whole event and to prepare the swimmer to compete in the system of heats, semifinals and finals. However, some of the following tactical objectives can be formulated: sprinters (a distance of 50 and 100 m front crawl) should start at maximum speed, according to their abilities, and try to maintain that speed until the end of the race; middle-distance swimmers (200 m front crawl) should adopt the most optimal tactical solutions characterized by increasing speed in the second half of the distance.
EN
Maintaining the body underwater in the so-called vertical position, where the body is inverted (head down) and balanced, is made possible by performing the support scull movement by the upper limbs. In synchronized swimming, the main criteria for judging this vertical position are maintaining body stability and the maximum height of the lower limbs one is able to extend out of the water. Therefore, it seems important to examine for any correlations between the symmetry of the upper limb’s movement (sculling) and the ability to maintain balance of the body. The aim of this study was to use a dynamical asymmetry index (DAI) to assess the symmetry of the upper limb movements performed in synchronized swimming. The use of the dynamical asymmetry index is considered to be advantageous over the asymmetry coefficient, which is better known in literature on the subject and has been used by numerous authors, as it not only evaluates the magnitude of the asymmetry, but also indicates in which phases of movement asymmetry is the greatest or where it is the least significant.
EN
Bilateral diversity is one of the regularities to the human and the upper extremities perform the main role during lateralization, but high level of asymmetry could be an obstacle in the pursuit of success in sport events demanding symmetrical movement. In the case of the lack of balance you should be disqualified according to the breaststroke rules. So, the purpose of the study was to determine the upper extremities kinematical asymmetry during breaststroke swimming on the swimming ergometer and the differences between genders. Transverse asymmetry was found to dominate for both men and women.
EN
Human bilateral diversity has an unsteady influence on his life. High level of morphofunctional asymmetry is unprofitable, but dynamical lack of balance could have crucial influence on the effectiveness of physical activity. It seems that multiple repetitions of symmetrical movements should decrease obtained dynamical asymmetry. The aim of the work was to find the magnitude of dynamical asymmetry and the influence of swimming on it. No difference io studied asymmetry was found.
EN
The aim of the study is to identify the forces sagging the monofin during swimming. 14 high level swimmers first swam 50 m under water with maximal speed using a standard monofin. Next they swam anchored on the strain-gauge-equipped rope using the monofin famished with the gauges (in the middle and at the tail of its surface). The comparison of forces produced in both trials (using the dynamic statistics methods) demonstrated that the forces sagging the monofin in reaction to water resistance could be interpreted as the only source of swimmer's propulsion.
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