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EN
The linear and geometrically nonlinear free and forced vibrations of Euler-Bernoulli beams with multicracks are investigated using the crack equivalent rotational spring model and the beam transfer matrix method. The Newton Raphson solution of the transcendental frequency equation corresponding to the linear case leads to the cracked beam linear frequencies and mode shapes. Considering the nonlinear case, the beam transverse displacement is expanded as a series of the linear modes calculated before. Using the discretised expressions for the total strain and kinetic energies and Hamilton’s principle, the nonlinear amplitude equation is obtained and solved using the so-called second formulation, developed previously for similar nonlinear structural dynamic problems, to obtain the multi-cracked beam backbone curves and the corresponding amplitude dependent nonlinear mode shapes. Considering the forced vibration case, the nonlinear frequency response functions obtained numerically near to the fundamental nonlinear mode using a single mode approach show the effects of the number of cracks, their locations and depths, and the level of the concentric harmonic force. The inverse problem is explored using the frequency contour plot method to identify crack parameters, such as the crack locations and depths. Satisfactory comparisons are made with previous analytical results.
EN
In this note a certain review of applications of a non-asymptotic modelling approach, called the tolerance modelling, is presented. Some objects and thermomechanical problems are shown, with a general outline of this method and an example of application for nonlinear vibrations of periodic beams.
EN
A review of selected nonlinear phenomena which may occur in fixed or rotating structures has been presented in the paper. At first, a self, parametrically and externally exited oscillator with added time delay control has been studied. It has been shown that the interaction between different vibration types may produce an untypical resonance curve, with five solutions occurring, observed by an internal resonance loop. The existence of the loop may be controlled by adding a time delay input signal. A proper selection of the time delay may reduce the loop or eliminate it totally. In the second problem a rotating hub-beam structure has been studied. The blade, apart from passive layers, has been composed of two active PZT layers which enabled active vibration control. A nonlinear coupling of the structure (plant) and the controller resulted in the so called saturation phenomenon which has been effectively used for the vibration reduction.
4
Content available remote The modelling and analysis of shock absorbers with stroke-dependent damping
EN
In order to obtain the characteristics of a damping force which depends on the amplitude and frequency of the excitation, a modification to the vehicle shock absorber is proposed in this paper. Within the range of small amplitudes, the ‘soft’ characteristics improve riding comfort, while within the resonance ranges, the increased damping force provides a higher level of ride safety. A nonlinear model of the system is introduced, taking into account various strategies of oil-flow control. Utilising numerical integration methods, the influence of excitation parameters and constructional parameters on the characteristics of the damper is investigated.
PL
W pracy zaproponowano koncepcję amortyzatora samochodowego, którego charakterystyka zależy od amplitudy i częstotliwości wymuszenia. W zakresie małych amplitud charakterystyka miękka poprawia komfort jazdy. W zakresach rezonansowych zwiększona siła tłumienia zapewnia większe bezpieczeństwo jazdy. Opracowano nieliniowy model układu uwzględniający różne strategie sterowania przepływem oleju. Wykorzystując metody numerycznego całkowania, zbadano wpływ parametrów wymuszenia oraz parametrów konstrukcyjnych na charakterystyki tłumika.
EN
The present paper is dedicated to computer simulations performed using a numerical model of a one-stage gear. The motion equations were derived utilizing the bond graph method. The formulated model takes into consideration the variable stiffness of toothings as well as an inter-tooth clearance which has been represented via discontinuous elements with so called dead zones. As a result of these assumptions, the nonlinear model was obtained which enables representation of the dynamic phenomena of the considered gear. In the paper, an influence of errors of gear wheels’ co-operation on the character of excited dynamic phenomena was studied. The methodology of the analyses consists in utilization of the following tools: color maps of distribution of the maximal Lapunov coefficient and bifurcation diagrams. Based upon them, the parameters were determined, for which the Poincare portrait represents a structure of the chaotic attractor. For the identified attractors, the initial attractors were calculated numerically - which along with the changes of the control parameters are subjected to multiplication, stretching or rotation.
EN
Considered are free and forced transverse vibrations of slender periodic beams of finite length. It is assumed that the vibration amplitude is of the order of cross-section dimensions, still much smaller than the beam length. An averaged non-asymptotic model is proposed as a tool in analysis. The description is based on the tolerance approach to averaging of differential operators, using the concept of weakly slowly-varying function. The resulting differential equations with constant coefficients involve the effect of periodicity cell length. The model is verified by comparison of linear frequencies and mode shapes with Finite Element Method results, and then applied in analysis of free and forced vibrations of beam with variable cross-section. The method employed in obtaining the solution involves Galerkin orthogonalization and Runge–Kutta (RKF45) method. The results of nonlinear vibrations analysis are presented by backbone and amplitude-frequency response curves, time series, Poincare sections and bifurcation diagrams.
PL
W pracy opracowano model tłumika hydraulicznego o charakterystyce zależnej od amplitudy i częstotliwości wymuszenia. W zakresie małych amplitud i dużych częstotliwości układ zachowuje się jak amortyzator o charakterystyce miękkiej, co w przypadku zastosowania go w zawieszeniu samochodu poprawia komfort jazdy. W zakresach rezonansowych zwiększona siła tłumienia zapewnia większe bezpieczeństwo jazdy. Uzyskane charakterystyki amortyzatora są niesymetryczne, co jest także wskazane dla tłumików samochodowych. W pracy zbadano wpływ parametrów wymuszenia oraz parametrów konstrukcyjnych na charakterystyki amortyzatora.
EN
The model of hydraulic damper whose characteristics is depending on the amplitude and excitation frequency was proposed in this paper. Within the range of small amplitudes and high frequencies, the system behaves like a shock absorber of ‘soft’ characteristic, which in case of using it in a car suspension, improves driving comfort. Within the resonance ranges the increased damping force provides a high safety of the ride. The obtained shock absorber characteristics are asymmetrical, which is recommended for car dampers. The influence of excitation parameters as well as constructional ones on the characteristics of the damper was investigated.
EN
The proposed and verified the technique of finding a finite number of first natural frequencies for geometrically nonlinear vibrations of layered elongated cylindrical panels at discrete consideration of components. The influence of the radius of curvature on the natural frequencies of three- and five-layered panels is investigated. The dependence between the volume of filler three-layer panels and the lowest natural frequency has been established.
EN
The paper is devoted to analysis of geometrically nonlinear vibrations of beams with geometric and material properties periodically varying along the axis. The 1-D Euler-Bernoulli theory of beams with von Kármán nonlinearity is applied. An analytical-numerical model based on non-asymptotic tolerance modelling approach and Galerkin method is applied. The linear natural frequencies and mode shapes are determined and the results are confirmed by comparison with a finite element model. Forced damped vibrations analysis in the large deflection range is performed to illustrate complex behaviour of the system.
10
Content available Nonlinear vibrations of periodic beams
EN
Geometrically nonlinear vibrations of beams with properties periodically varying along the axis are investigated. The tolerance method of averaging differential operators with highly oscillating coefficients is applied to obtain governing equations with constant coefficients. The proposed model describes dynamics of the beam with the effect of microstructure size. In an example, an analysis of undamped forced nonlinear vibrations of the periodic beam is shown. Moreover, the results obtained for undamped free vibrations of periodic beams by the tolerance model are justified by those results from the finite element method. These results can be used as a benchmark in similar problems.
EN
The objects under consideration are thin visco-elastic periodic plates with moderately large deflections. Geometrically nonlinear vibrations of these plates are investigated. In order to take into account the effect of microstructure size on behaviour of these plates a non- -asymptotic modelling method is proposed. Using this method, called the tolerance modelling, model equations with constant coefficients involving terms dependent on the microstructure size can be derived. In this paper, only theoretical considerations of the problem of nonlinear vibrations of thin visco-elastic periodic plates resting on a foundation with damping are presented.
EN
In this paper we consider important classes of one dimensional environments, bending stiffness of which can be neglected. It is impossible to apply approximate analytical method of solution of mathematical models of dynamic processes. So justification of existence and uniqueness of solutions, carried out a qualitative their evaluation, based on numerical analysis are considering in this paper. Also the features of dynamic processes of some of examined class of systems are analyzed. Methods of qualitative study of oscillations for restricted and unrestricted bodies under the influence of the resistance forces, described in this paper are based on the general principles of the theory of nonlinear boundary value problems – Galerkin method and the method of monotonicity. Scientific novelty consists in generalization these methods of studying for nonlinear problems at new classes of oscillating systems, justification of solution correctness for specified mathematical models that have practical application in real engineering vibration systems.
EN
This paper presents experimental observation of nonlinear vibrations in the response of a flexible cantilever beam to transverse harmonic base excitations around its flexural mode frequencies. In the experimental setup, instead of manual control of the signal excitation frequency and amplitude, a closed-loop vibration system is used to keep the excitation amplitude constant during the frequency sweep and to increase confidence in the experimental results. The experimental results show the presence of the third mode in the response when varying the excitation frequency around the fourth mode. The frequency-response curves, response spectrum and Poincaré plots were used for characterization of nonlinear dynamic behaviour of the beam.
EN
The purpose of this paper is to investigate a double torsion pendulum with planar frictional contact. The single torsion pendulum with one-degree-of-freedom is an angular equivalent of the linear harmonic oscillator. The second degree of freedom has been obtained by adding a free body to the inverted single torsion pendulum. The free body’s angular displacement is caused by frictional forces appearing in the interface (contact zone) between the free body and the pendulum column’s head kinematically excited at its base by a mechanism with torsion spiral spring. An experimental station has been set up and run to find most unknown parameters of the pendulum from the time series of state variables taken as inputs to the Nelder-Mead method of identification. The obtained results proved significant usability of the identification method in the case of numerical simulation of the pendulum’s dynamical model. It has not been satisfactorily proved in the case of time characteristics coming from a real system that exhibits also some unrecognized physical effects.
15
EN
The paper concerns analysis of nonlinear vibration of the rotating system consisted of two disks and shaft. The analytical multiple time scale method is applied to the analysis dynamics of the system near main resonance. The transition phenomenon depending on the value of the nonlinearity parameter is discussed. All the analytical results have been confirmed numerically.
16
Content available Nonlinear vibrations of periodic beams
EN
Geometrically nonlinear vibrations of beams with properties periodically varying along the axis are investigated. The tolerance method of averaging differential operators with highly oscillating coefficients is applied to obtain the governing equations with constant coefficients. The proposed model describes the dynamics of the beam with the effect of the microstructure size.
EN
The paper presents the nonlinear one degree of freedom model of cutting process. To describe the dynamics the Duffing model with time delay part is used. The model is solved analytically by using the multiple time scale method. The stability lobe diagrams are determined numerically and analytically. The obtained results show that stability region depends on initial conditions of the system.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono jednowymiarowy nieliniowy model skrawania. Do opisu procesu przyjęto model Duffinga z opóźnieniem czasowym. Model rozwiązano analitycznie za pomocą metody wielu skal czasowych. Wykres stabilności otrzymano numerycznie i analitycznie. Wykazano, że obszary stabilności zależą od warunków początkowych układu.
EN
The aim of paper is to study the solution of the problem of nonlinear transverse vibrations of elastic elongated body under the force of resistance in unbounded domain. Such problems have applications in various technical systems - vibration of pipelines, railways, long bridges, electric lines, optical fibers. Unboundedness of the area creates more fundamental difficulties in the study of the problem. For the considered models of nonlinear oscillations have no general analytical techniques for determining the dynamic characteristics of the oscillatory process. Therefore it is sugges ted to use qualitative methods of the theory of nonlinear boundary value problems to obtain correct problem solution conditions (existence and uniqueness of the solution). In the paper conditions of the correctness of the solution of mathematical model for these nonlinear systems (sufficient conditions of the existence and uniqueness in the class of locally integrable functions) are obtained. Methods of qualitative study of semi-infinite cable vibrations under the forces of resistance based on general principles of the theory of nonlinear boundary value problems - method of monotony and Galerkin method. Scientific novelty of the work lies in particular in the generalization of methods of studying nonlinear problems on a new class of oscillatory systems In unbounded domains, justifying the correctness of the solution with specified mathematical model, which has practical applications in real engineering oscillatory systems. The technique allows not only for proving the correctness of the model solution, but also has an opportunity in its study to apply various approximate methods.
19
Content available remote New method of analysis of non-linear stochastic and random vibrations
EN
Topic discussed in the hereby paper is an assessment of the influence of a random character of certain input data – in this case – changes of external excitations of the system. This problem is related to the so-called heuristic models often placed in opposition to widely used algorithmic models. The main issue concerned the question whether the heuristic methodology can move to the techniques, in this case, the rotor dynamics. The objects of investigations were the high-speed rotor of a micro turbine being an element of the micro power plant in dispersed power engineering based on renewable energy sources.
20
Content available remote Middle ear prostheses – modelling and simulations
EN
The paper presents planar model of human middle ear, which is described by differential equations of motion and solved numerically using the MD Adams software. First, dynamic behaviour of intact ossicular chain is analysed, next, incus is removed and partial ossicular replacement prosthesis is used to reconstruct middle ear. Then, natural frequencies of the system are analysed as a function of mass and length of the prosthesis.
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