Separation of enantiomers by liquid chromatography is a powerful method which has long been used to obtain enantiomerically pure compounds in the pharmaceutical, food, and agrochemical industries. Optimization of such separations to achieve high-performance resolution of pairs of enantiomers is a challenging task. To this end, mathematical models of adsorption on chiral stationary phases have been widely used to predict the performance of chromatographic columns packed with these materials. In this review we discuss the basic adsorption models used in chiral separations, and their extension to specific cases. We also outline combination of adsorption models with models describing mass-transport processes in a chromatographic column. We focus on the most popular chiral stationary phases used in chromatographic separations, for which we describe recent developments in theoretical modeling of enantioselective binding.