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EN
The research on the physical and chemical properties of landfill leachates and migration of its hazardous components into hydrosphere and biosphere is a current problem in the global context. The object of the research is landscape-changing factors of the Lviv municipal landfill (Ukraine). It was defined that the largest part of oil products accumulates in the leachates at the south-western side of the landfill (23.6 mg/dm3) and it is 2.36 times higher than the value of the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) (10 mg/dm3); the most saline leachates with chlorides and sulfites are those accumulating at the foot and at the northwestern side; the phosphate content of the investigated leachate samples was the highest at the foot of the landfill and amounted to 12.8 mg/dm3, which exceeds the MPC (10 mg/dm3) by 1.28 times; high concentration of ammonium nitride was discovered in the leachates at the foot (76.1 mg/dm3) and at the northwestern side (46.3 mg/dm3), which exceeds the MPC (30 mg/dm3) by 2.53 and 1.54 times, respectively; the highest indicators of total iron are typical for basins nearby (at the foot – 68.2 mg/dm3, at the northwestern side – 56.3 mg/dm3) and exceed the MPC norms (2.5 mg/dm3) by 27.28 and 22.52 times, respectively. According to certain indicators, the content of hazardous components in the leachates, which accumulate at the foot and at the northwestern side, exceeds the MPC and is several times higher than in the natural basins at the distance of 800 and 1200 m.
EN
Composting is a natural process; however, many artificial factors have been developed to improve process efficiency for the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) stabilization in the mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plant. The study aimed to assess the effect of aeration (X1), irrigation (X2), process time (X3) and turning frequency (X4) on OFMSW stabilization after the intensive degradation phase of compositing in a full-scale MBT plant. The four-factorial design on two levels with two replicates was used to the optimization of compost stabilization yield. Among analyzed factors, mechanical turning was found not to significantly influence the effect of stabilization. The achieved determination coefficient (R2) of 0.94 suggests an adequate representation of the process model and a good correlation between the experimental and predicted values. The achieved stabilization yield obtained in the control run was 47.5%, where the aeration (X1) was set up as blower working cycle: 10 minutes blowing and 5 minutes break, the irrigation level (X2) was set up for 10000 dm3/d and process was performed 4 weeks (X3).
PL
Kompostowanie to zachodzący naturalnie tlenowy proces biodegradacji wykorzystywany przemysłowo zwłaszcza do przetwarzania odpadów. Opracowano i określono wiele parametrów tego procesu w celu poprawy wydajności procesu stabilizacji frakcji organicznej odpadów komunalnych (OFMSW) w zakładzie obróbki mechaniczno-biologicznej (MBT). Niniejsza praca miała na celu ocenę wpływu napowietrzania (X1), nawadniania (X2), czasu trwania procesu (X3) i częstotliwości przewracania pryzmy (X4) na stabilizację OFMSW uzyskanej po intensywnej fazie kompostowania w zakładzie MBT. Do optymalizacji wydajności stabilizacji kompostu wykorzystano czteroczynnikowy plan eksperymentu (DOE) na dwóch poziomach z dwoma powtórzeniami. Stwierdzono, że mechaniczne przewracanie pryzmy nie ma statystycznie istotnego wpływu na efektywność stabilizacji. Osiągnięty współczynnik determinacji (R2) wynoszący 0,94 sugeruje odpowiednią reprezentację modelu procesu i dobrą korelację między wartościami eksperymentalnymi i przewidywanymi. Uzyskana wydajność stabilizacji uzyskana w przebiegu kontrolnym wyniosła 47,5%, przy ustawieniu czasów pracy wentylatora napowietrzania jako 10 minut działania i 5 minut przerwy (X1), nawadniania na poziomie 10 000 l/dobę (X2) i eksperymencie trwający, 4 tygodnie (X3).
EN
The changes in the waste management system that have been introduced in Europe and in the world were aimed at counteracting the emergence of illegal dumping sites and increasing the levels of waste recovery and recycling, so that waste management remains in line with the principles of sustainable development and circular economy. The change introduced in 2013 in the municipal waste management system in Poland concerned the assumption of full responsibility by municipalities for the municipal waste collected from owners of residential properties, as well as the establishment and organization of a charging system for residents for the collection and management of the waste. The purpose of the study was to conduct a comparative analysis of fees paid by residents of 93 selected communes of the Lubelskie Province. The study examined the impact of the amount of fees for the waste collection and management on the share of households declaring selective municipal waste collection, the share of selectively collected waste, and the mass accumulation rate of municipal waste. As a result of the analysis conducted using the data from the years 2013–2016, it was revealed that the amount of fees for the collection and management of waste in households that sorted waste contributed significantly to the increase in the percentage of selectively collected waste. Similarly, the smaller the value of the ratio of rates for sorted and mixed waste, the greater the segregation efficiency. This indicates that in the case of the analyzed region, the lower fee charged for sorting waste was an incentive for residents to sort waste.
EN
The aim of this study was to identify and assess the potential environmental impacts caused by mixed municipal solid waste management system based on mechanical-biological treatment technology in Rybnik, Poland. The study is based on life cycle assessment methodology, with application of EASETECH model. The system elements that were taken under consideration are the collection and transportation of MSW (municipal solid waste); MBT plant (mechanical and biological treatment), transportation between system elements, landfilling with LFG (landfill gas) collection system and gas combustion in flare. The adopted functional unit is 1 Mg of mixed municipal waste generated in Rybnk.
EN
This paper deals with the estimation of methane emissions from the Mirash municipal solid waste sanitary landfill. The methane emission was calculated according to two different methodologies, namely, IPCC 2006 and LandGEM. Within the framework of the research, the following parameters were evaluated: the amount of landfilled waste, landfill characteristics, and composition of landfilled waste as well as the climate conditions prevailing in the region. According to the IPCC methodology, the total amount of methane emitted from the Mirash landfill during the period 2006–2017 was 30.57 Giga grams (Gg), while according to the LandGEM methodology, the total amount of methane emitted from the Mirash landfill in the period 2006–2017 was 26.32 Giga grams (Gg). The total mass of CH4 in the Mirash regional landfill for the years 2018–2025 is projected to be 53.74 Gg according to the IPCC method, while according to LandGEM method, the projection points to 50.74 Gg. This study was carried out for the sanitary landfill for solid waste management in Mirash, Prishtina Region, in the Republic of Kosovo, during the year of 2018.
EN
The issue discussed in this paper is related to the correlation between the efficiency of waste segregation and fee rate imposed on residents for generated municipal solid waste, which rate is set and changed by municipal authorities. The main objective of the paper was to analyse the variability of fees for waste collection and management, as well as to analyse changes within this scope during the first several years (from 1 July 2013 to 31 December 2016) since the new waste management system was implemented in Poland. The research area included the municipalities of the 1st Waste Management Region in the Silesian Voivodeship. The mean fee sustained by residents of the examined municipalities for the collection and management of mixed waste was PLN 14.1 per person per month; when residents opted for additional selective waste collection, the fee was PLN 7.3 per person per month. During the examined period, the waste collection fee increased in the majority of the municipalities by 34.0%. One third of the municipalities did not change the rate. In those municipalities where the fee increased, the growth of segregation efficiency was hampered. The mean share of the segregated municipal waste stream in the total stream of collected waste reached 22.6%. No significant correlation was observed between the applied fee rate and efficiency of selective waste collection.
EN
A simplified solid waste management system has existed for many years in Ukraine being. The system factually coming to MSW collection and their removal to landfills and dumps. This has resulted in accumulation of 223 million tons MSW on territory of more than 8.5 ha. Signing on 27th June 2014 EU-Ukraine Association Agreement obliged Ukraine to approximate legislation to EU demands in the Field of Waste Management [1]. On 8th November 2017 National Waste Management Strategy has been accepted for this purpose binding until 2030 [2]. This paper makes a comparative study of Municipal Solid Waste (hereinafter referred to as MSW) Management in Ukraine. This paper represents the analysis of the waste composition from the eight cities from different regions of Ukraine. The comparative analysis takes into account dependence of the amount and waste composition on income and population level. The approaches of the World Bank basic report are used in this study [3]. The study reveals prospects for development of techniques on material and energy use of MSW potential in Ukraine.
PL
Zgodnie z dyrektywą Parlamentu Europejskiego i Rady 2006/12/WE z dnia 5 kwietnia 2006 r. o odpadach oraz polskim prawodawstwem, składowanie odpadów jest ostatnią i najmniej pożądaną formą ich zagospodarowania. Dodatkowo od 1 stycznia 2016 r. obowiązuje w Polsce zakaz składowania odpadów o wartości opałowej przekraczającej 6 MJ/kg. Wspomniane przesłanki zachęcają do szerszego wykorzystywania odpadów na cele energetyczne. Obecnie odpowiednio przygotowane odpady (RDF) znajdują zastosowanie jako paliwo w przemyśle cementowym. Na uwagę zasługują innowacyjne metody wykorzystania odpadów w ciepłownictwie. Wprowadzanie coraz bardziej restrykcyjnych wymagań emisyjnych w UE, wymusza na państwach członkowskich konieczność opracowywania nowoczesnych instalacji do odzysku energii. Ze względu na powyższe w artykule przedstawiono możliwości zagospodarowania odpadów komunalnych, na przykładzie paliwa RDF, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem instalacji do odzysku energii z odpadów oraz metod jego wykorzystania, a także wpływu spalania tego paliwa na środowisko. Ponadto, skupiono się na ocenie zasadności wykorzystania paliwa RDF na cele energetyczne, umożliwiającego ograniczenie ilości składowanych odpadów oraz dywersyfikację źródeł paliw i energii.
EN
In accordance with Directive 2006/12 / EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 April 2006 on waste and Polish legislation, waste storage is the last and least desirable form of their management. In addition, from January 1, 2016, a ban on storing waste with a calorific value exceeding 6MJ / kg applies in Poland. These premises encourage wider use of waste for energy purposes. Currently, properly prepared waste (RDF) is used as a fuel in the cement industry. Innovative methods of using waste in heat engineering deserve attention. The appliance of increasingly restrictive emission requirements in the EU, imposes the Member States to develop modern installations for energy recovery. Due to the above, the article presents possibilities of municipal waste management, based on the example of RDF fuel, with particular emphasis on installations for energy recovery from waste and methods of its use, as well as the impact of this fuel combustion on the environment. In addition, it focus was on assessing the appropriateness of using RDF fuels for energy purposes, enabling the reduction of the amount of waste deposited and the diversification of fuel and energy sources.
PL
Obowiązkiem każdej gminy w Polsce jest utworzenie stacjonarnego punktu lub punktów selektywnego zbierania odpadów komunalnych (PSZOK). Obiekty te stanowią nowy element zarządzania strumieniem stałych odpadów komunalnych, znany w krajach europejskich pod nazwą - „household waste recycling center”. Brak tego typu infrastruktury gospodarki odpadami komunalnymi na terenie wielu polskich gmin lub istnienie PSZOK-ów w wersji mobilnej, przyczynia się do powstawania dzikich wysypisk, a ponadto nie umożliwia zwiększania poziomów recyklingu i ponownego użycia niektórych grup odpadów. W pracy dokonano porównawczej oceny oddziaływania na środowisko pięciu istniejących PSZOK-ów na terenie jednego z powiatów województwa świętokrzyskiego. Ocenie poddano lokalizację, funkcjonowanie i wyposażenie tych obiektów. W analizie oddziaływania na środowisko została wykorzystana metoda RIAM (Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix). Spośród przeanalizowanych PSZOK-ów dwa otrzymały ocenę pozytywną, natomiast 3 obiekty powinny zostać zlikwidowane lub całkowicie zmodernizowane.
EN
The duty of each municipality in Poland is to set up a stationary Municipal Solid Waste Collection Points (MSWCP). These facilities are a new element of municipal solid waste management system, known in European countries as: „household waste recycling center”. The lack of this type of municipal solid waste management infrastructure in many Polish communes or the existence of MSWCPs in the mobile version contributes to the emergence of wild dumps, and also don’t allow the increase of the levels of recycling and reuse of some groups of waste. The environmental impact assessment of five existing MSWCPs in one of the poviats of the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship was compared in article. The location, functioning and equipment of these facilities were assessed. The RIAM (Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix) method was used for the environmental impact analysis. From among the analyzed MSWCPs, two received a positive assessment, while 3 objects should be close down or completely modernized.
PL
Podstawowym elementem dobrze zorganizowanego systemu gospodarowania odpadami komunalnymi jest selektywne gromadzenie odpadów. Prawidłowe segregowanie odpadów „u źródła”, (w gospodarstwie domowym), ułatwia dalsze postępowanie z odpadami, a w szczególności przekazywanie ich do procesów ponownego użycia oraz recyklingu. W 2020r. minimum 50% masy odpadów komunalnych, takich jak papier, metal, plastik i szkło, powinno zostać przygotowane do ponownego wykorzystania lub poddane recyklingowi. Odpady te pozyskiwane są z gospodarstw domowych, urzędów, biur i placówek usługowych, właśnie w wyniku zbierania ich w sposób selektywny. Celem artykułu jest przedstawienie wyników rocznej analizy struktury odpadów zbieranych selektywnie do żółtego worka na tworzywa sztuczne, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem udziału zanieczyszczeń, a więc tych odpadów, które w tym worku nie powinny być gromadzone. Badania wykonano w firmie MIKI Recykling Sp. z o.o. w okresie od listopada 2016 do października 2017r. Analizowane odpady zostały zebrane z obszarów wiejskich (trzy gminy wiejskie). W wyniku przeprowadzonych analiz, stwierdzono, że udział zanieczyszczeń w strumieniu selektywnie zbieranych tworzyw sztucznych wynosi średnio 26,8%. Najczęściej występującymi zanieczyszczeniami były: tektura, „inne tworzywa sztuczne”, szkło i metal. Około 30% z tych zanieczyszczeń może być poddane procesom recyklingu lub odzysku, natomiast pozostały strumień należy przekazać do unieszkodliwienia. Tworzywa sztuczne nadające się do recyklingu stanowiły 73,2±9,4%. Wynik ten był nieznacznie wyższy od uzyskanego przez firmę udziału tworzyw sztucznych przekazanych do recyklingu (w tym samym okresie) oraz wyższy od średniej krajowej podawanej przez Główny Urząd Statystyczny.
EN
The basic element of a well-organized municipal waste management system is selective waste collection. Separation of waste „at source” (eg in a household) facilitates further handling of waste, in particular transferring it to recycling and recovery. By 2020, a minimum of 50% of the municipal waste, such as paper, metal, plastic and glass, should be recycled or re-used. These wastes are collected selectively in households, offices, offices and service outlets. The aim of the article is to present the results of the analysis conducted during one year of the structure of selectively collected waste in the yellow bag dedicated for plastic waste, with particular emphasis on the share of impurities, that is all those types of waste that should not be thrown into this yellow bag. The research was carried out at MIKI Recykling Ent. from November 2016 to October 2017. Waste came from 3 rural communes. Analysis of the results of the conducted tests showed that the share of impurities in the stream of selectively collected plastics is on average 26.8%, while the most common impurities are: cardboard, “other plastics materials” and glass. About 30% of these impurities can be directed to recycling or recovery processes, while the remaining stream should be disposed. Plastics suitable for recycling accounted for 73.2±9.4%. This result was slightly higher than the share of plastics transferred for recycling obtained by the company and higher than the national average reported by the Central Statistical Office.
EN
At Lawspet area in Puducherry, India, a unique situation of co-disposal of solid waste dumping and secondary wastewater disposal on land, prevails simultaneously within the same campus. So an attempt is made to assess the combined effect of this co-disposal on the environmental quality and pollution effects on groundwater quality with a view to correctly monitor the situation. Multivariate statistical analysis like hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and discriminant analysis (DA) were employed. HCA was performed on borewells, physiochemical parameters and seasons. Borewell clustering identified four clusters illustrating varying degree of groundwater contamination. In parameter clustering, two major clusters were formed indicating hardness and anthropogenic components. Temporal clustering identified three major clusters indicating pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon. Discriminant analysis revealed nine significant parameters which discriminate four clusters qualitatively affording 86% correct assignation to discriminate among the clusters. Also three major components viz. anthropogenic, hardness and geogenic responsible for groundwater quality in the study area were identified. Conclusively the investigation revealed that the direction of the contaminant transport is towards the southeast direction of the study area, where all the borewells (100%) are affected.
EN
Due to a very high percentage of organic matter in municipal solid waste (47.36%) and in total percentage of biodegradable matter (62.3%), organic waste disposed is the main source of methane emissions into the air in Albania. Capture, collection and utilization of landfill gas in an energy project leads to economic, health and environmental benefits. Energy recovery potential and methane emissions from Tirana landfill have been studied. This site is scheduled to be closed after 6 or 7 years. The evaluation has been done using LandGEM Colombia Model, version 1.0, as an international LFG Modeling. The model predicted the time of peak production in 2019, one year after assumed site closure. The total annual peak of predicted methane recovery from landfill within the study time frame was estimated to be 2950 m3/h and a maximum of power plant capacity 8.3 MW.
EN
In the professional literature, there is no information about the sieve and morphological composition OFMSW (<80 mm) subjected to biological processing in MBT installations during the heating season. Knowledge about the quality of this fraction is important because it significantly affects the course of the biostabilization process. The paper presents the morphological composition, sieve composition, humidity, loss on ignition and organic carbon content of <80 mm fraction separated from municipal waste delivered to 21 MBT installations in Poland, in winter. The results show that about 1/3 of the OFMSW (34.0 ± 10.6%) mass is a fine fraction (<20 mm), mainly furnace waste. The organics share was on average 39.3 ± 10.4%. The fraction "paper and cardboard" was also present in the bulk of OFMSW, an average of 10.5 ± 4.3%. The shares of other components did not exceed 5%. The large number of batteries in OFMSM was surprising, despite their widespread selective collection. The high content of fine fraction (ashes) and inert components in OFMSW during the heating season results in low hydration and low losses of waste incineration, which may even determine their inability to be processed biologically.
PL
W literaturze fachowej brak jest informacji na temat składu sitowego i morfologicznego OFMSW (<80 mm) poddawanej biologicznemu przetwarzaniu w instalacjach MBT w sezonie grzewczym. Wiedza o jakości tej frakcji jest ważna, ponieważ wpływa istotnie na przebieg procesu biostabilizacji. W artykule przedstawiono skład morfologiczny, skład sitowy, wilgotność, straty prażenia i zawartość węgla organicznego frakcji <80 mm wydzielonych z odpadów komunalnych dostarczanych do 21 instalacji MBT w Polsce, w okresie zimowym. Wyniki pokazują, że około 1/3 masy OFMSW (34,0±10,6%) stanowi frakcja drobna (<20 mm), głownie odpady paleniskowe. Udział organiki wynosił średnio 39,3±10,4%. W dużej ilości w masie OFMSW występowała jeszcze frakcja „papier i tektura”, średnio – 10,5±4,3%. Udziały pozostałych składników nie przekraczały 5%. Zaskakująca była duża liczba baterii w OFMSM, mimo powszechnego ich selektywnego zbierania. Efektem dużej zawartości frakcji drobnej (popiołów) i składników obojętnych w OFMSW w sezonie grzewczym jest niskie uwodnienie oraz niskie straty prażenia odpadów, które mogą nawet decydować o ich nieprzydatności do biologicznego przetwarzania.
EN
Though Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is a worldwide problem, the collected wastes are dumped in open dumping at landfilling sites while the uncollected wastes remain strewn on the roadside, many-a-time clogging drainage. Such unsafe and inadequate management of MSW causes spread of bacteria, viruses, particulate matter, dioxins and other harmful pollutants in the surroundings and atmosphere. Hence, due to the repeated exposure of population to these pollutants can lead to serious health problems such as Diarrhea/Dysentery, Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI), and Asthma/Chronic Respiratory Diseases (CRD). Therefore, two-phase study included secondary data on diseases caused due to environmental pollution and primary data on MSW and lack of MSW management from 127 households in urban Patna, India. The random sampling method was used for collection of primary survey data, conducted during 2015–16 in selected areas of Patna. Logistic regression model odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were used to show the strength of the associations among segregation of wastes at source, segregation behavior, collection bins in the area, distance of collection bins from a residential area, and transportation of MSW. The ROC is a statistical technique to validate the logistic regression method that predicts the occurrence of an event through the comparison of probability picture of an event occurrence observed by probability and the predicted probability of the same event. The area under the ROC curve is up to 0.889 extent, which reveals that the ‘segregation of waste at source’ has a very strong scope to accomplish sustainable recycling at urban Patna in order to manage waste with the overall accuracy of 92.126%, which proves a better fi t logistic regression model. Hence, this paper concludes that ‘segregation of waste at source’ helps to attain sustainable recycling which would be the most viable approach to manage MSW in Patna and would eventually reduce environmental pollutants for the public health safety.
PL
Współspalanie węgla i stałych odpadów komunalnych jest zjawiskiem społecznym, stanowiącym poważne źródło emisji substancji szkodliwych do powietrza. Przeprowadzono badania porównawcze współspalania węgla kamiennego z poszczególnymi frakcjami stałych odpadów komunalnych (m.in. makulatura, PE, PCV) w kotle CO o mocy 18 kW wyposażonym w automatyczny podajnik paliwa. Badania miały na celu porównanie parametrów spalin, zawartości pyłu (popiołu lotnego) i gazowych substancji zanieczyszczających powietrze w emitowanych spalinach z danego kotła CO. Podczas spalania pobierane były próbki emitowanego pyłu oraz analizowany był w sposób ciągły skład jakościowy i ilościowy spalin – analiza chemiczna spalin obejmowała: CO2, CO, H2O, SO2, NOx. Oznaczono ponadto stężenie pyłu w spalinach. Pobrany popiół lotny został poddany oznaczeniom zawartości węgla C – organicznego, elementarnego i całkowitego, PM10 i PM2,5 oraz zawartości 16 WWA. Wyniki zostały przeanalizowane pod względem efektywności spalania, emisji głównych zanieczyszczeń (NOx, CO, SO2) i popiołu lotnego oraz zaadsorbowanych na jego powierzchni WWA. Średnie stężenie emitowanego pyłu wynosiło 764 mg m-3, natomiast CO – 1944, SO2 – 1256, NOx – 555 mg m-3 (STP, 3% O2, gaz suchy). Spaliny zawierały popiół lotny, ze znaczną zawartością węgla EC (średnio 31%) oraz wysokim udziałem PM10 oraz PM2,5 – odpowiednio 100 i 75% obj.
EN
Co-combustion of coal and solid municipal waste is a social phenomenon. It constitutes an important emission source of harmful air pollutants. The comparative research was conducted. It concerned co-combustion of coal and different types of municipal solid waste (including wastepaper, PE, PVC) in the domestic CH (central heating) boiler (18-kW power) equipped with an automatic fuel feeder. The aim of this research was to compare the parameters of flue gas, content of dust (fly ash) and gaseous air pollutants in the flue gases from the CH boiler. During the combustion were taken the fly ash samples and was continuously analyzed qualitative and quantitative composition of flue gas. Chemical analysis of flue gases included: CO2, CO, H2O, SO2 and NOx. Concentration of fly ash in the flue gas was determined. The fly ash samples were analysed for the organic, elemental and total carbon, PM10 and PM2,5, and 16 PAHs content. The results were analyzed in terms of combustion efficiency, emissions of major pollutants (NOx, CO, SO2) and fly ash with adsorbed of PAHs on its surface. The average concentration of emitted particulate matter was 764 mg m-3, and CO – 1944, SO2 – 1256 NOx – 555 mg m-3 (STP, 3% O2, dry gas). The flue gases contain fly ash, with a significant carbon content EC (average 31%) and a high proportion of PM10 and PM2.5 – respectively 100 and 75% by volume.
EN
Mixed municipal solid waste collected from the area of each Polish district (commune) is transferred to Regional Installations for Municipal Solid Waste Treatment. They comprise one or more of the following facilities: installations for mechanical-biological waste treatment (MBT), installations for thermal treatment of municipal solid waste, green waste composting plants and landfill sites. MBT installations have been currently the dominant technology of mixed municipal solid waste treatment in Poland. In these installations mixed waste is subjected to mechanical processes (including: crushing, separation, screening and classification) resulting in the production of the undersize fraction with usual grain size below 80mm and the oversize fraction with grain size over 80mm. Because of the necessity of stabilization and hygenization of the undersize fraction prior to landfilling, it is subjected to the process of biological treatment, e.g. biostabilization. The main aim of the research was to analyze the temperature changes during the biostabilization of the undersized fraction in thermally insulated BKB100 laboratory bioreactor. The research covered a 14-day period of the intensive phase. The analyses were performed in 6 replications. 40.1±2.2kg of waste with density of 519.2±27.5kgˑm-3 and the biodegradable fraction content of 41.9±1.9% was placed in the reactor. The temperature of waste inside the reactor was measured by 9 Pt 1000 temperature sensors. The air for the process was constantly supplied from the outside of the reactor. Flow of the supplied air with temperature of 18.3±3.1°C was regulated depending on the average indication of all temperature sensors. Results of the temperature measurements were averaged and showed using Golden Software Surfer 7. As a result of the conducted research it was found that changes in the temperature inside the bioreactor occurred uniformly throughout its full volume. The time of reaching the temperature of 45°C (the beginning of thermophilic phase) was 25.6±4.0 hours (21 hours at the earliest). During the first period the temperature in the reactor was increasing most intensively in the lower parts of the layer, in the central part of the layer the temperature reached 45°C after 34 hours at the earliest, whereas on average it took 47.7±9.9 hours. The average maximum process temperature was 64.8±3.5°C.
EN
Generated wastes require space and financial outlays on their proper storage and processing, whereas the lack of means usually leads to depositing wastes in places not meant for this purpose. Illegal dumping sites still emerge, despite introducing in Poland the obligatory (common) fee for collection and management of wastes and the obligatory establishing the Selective Waste Collection Points in each district. The aim of the work was conducting a detailed inventory of illegal dumping sites in the area of Olsztyn district (situated in the Silesia province, on the Krakow-Częstochowa Upland) and indicting the morphological composition of the wastes deposited in these places. The paper presents a detailed analysis of the morphological composition of illegal landfill sites situated in the analyzed district. The investigations located 28 illegal dumping sites, despite the fact that a Selective Municipal Waste Collection Point operates in the district area. The analysis of location, area, mass and composition of the wastes was conducted for each illegal landfill, according to the methodology developed for this purpose. Over a half of the illegal dumping sites was situated in the forest and on 4 of them the estimated mass of dumped waste exceeded 1Mg. Debris constitutes the highest proportion (21.8%) of the waste morphological composition. Recyclable wastes, i.e. glass, plastics, paper and cardboard, used electronic and electric equipment dominated in the morphological composition of wastes on small landfills, situated close to buildings (less than 250m) and had the smallest area (below 1m2 ). The share of debris and construction wastes was growing with increasing landfill area.
EN
This paper presents the interactions between municipal solid waste management processes (such as waste incineration) and influences of environment in aspects of the atmosphere, water and space. These environmental components provide people with benefits, which are referred to as “environmental services”. In the paper authors attempt to identify environmental services in a process of waste incineration and to describe an approach to services’ potential valuation.
PL
Artykuł dotyczy zagadnień związanych z eksploatacją spalarni stałych odpadów komunalnych. Głównym celem pracy było sporządzenie bilansu energii tego rodzaju zakładu. Obiektem badań był Zakładu Unieszkodliwiania Odpadów Komunalnych w Białymstoku, który rozpoczął funkcjonowanie od początku 2016 roku. Wyniki obliczeń pokazały, że w ciągu ubiegłego roku w spalarni zutylizowano 106 tys. ton śmieci. ZUOK wyprodukował 211 316 GJ energii elektrycznej oraz 328 538 GJ ciepła. Sprawność termicznej utylizacji odpadów wynosiła około 74% w sezonie grzewczym. Poza tym okresem sprawność spadła do wartości około 46% w wyniku znacznego spadku zapotrzebowania na ciepło.
EN
The article concerns the issues related to the operation of an incineration plant for municipal solid waste. The main aim of this work was to develop an energy balance of this type of waste- to-energy plant. The object of the study was the Municipal Waste Disposal Plant in Białystok, which has been in operation since the beginning of 2016. The results of the calculations show that 106,000 tonnes of waste was disposed of last year at the incineration plant. ZUOK produced 211 316 GJ of electricity and 328 538 GJ of heat. The efficiency of thermal utilization of municipal solid waste was about 74% during the heating season. Over the rest of the year the efficiency decreased to 46% due to a significant decrease in heat demand.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań procesów pirolizy odpadów komunalnych frakcji RDF metodą pirolizy ciągłej. Badaniom poddano próbki RDF lekkiego (folie) oraz RDF ciężkiego (odpady opakowaniowe). Proces pirolizy ciągłej prowadzono w temperaturze 850°C, w pilotażowym reaktorze pirolitycznym wyposażonym w spiralę grzejną. Podczas badań określono skład gazu pirolitycznego oraz bilans masowy produktów pirolizy. Uzyskano gaz pirolityczny o wartości opałowej około 13 MJ/m3 i zawartości CH4 około 20%obj. oraz H2 na poziomie ponad 16%obj. Wyniki badań wskazują na możliwość skojarzenia procesu pirolizy odpadów komunalnych z recyklingiem energetycznym i zastosowaniem gazu pirolitycznego jako alternatywnego źródła energii wykorzystywanego do produkcji energii elektrycznej. Uzyskany gaz pirolityczny może być alternatywnym paliwem do zasilania turbiny gazowej lub wykorzystany w kogeneracji zamiast gazu ziemnego.
EN
This paper presents results from continuous pyrolysis process of RDF fraction from municipal waste. Samples used in this research were light RDF (plastic films) and heavy RDF (packaging waste). Pyrolysis process was performed inside a pilot pyrolysis reactor equipped with a heating screw in temperature of 850°C. Experiment allowed to determine a chemical composition of pyrolysis gas and mass balance of pyrolysis products. Lower heating value of pyrolysis gas was about 13 MJ/m3 , content of CH4 was about 20%vol and H2 was over 16%vol. Research results indicate possibility to combine the pyrolysis process of solid municipal waste with energy recycling and waste-to-energy system by using pyrolysis gas as renewable energy source for electricity production. Produced pyrolysis gas can be used, instead of natural gas, as an alternative fuel to power a gas turbine or cogeneration unit.
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