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EN
This study determines the length distribution, length–weight relationship, age, growth parameters, mortality rate, sex ratios, length at first maturity and reproduction of saddled seabream (Oblada melanura) collected monthly by fishermen around the Northern Aegean Sea between November 2017 and October 2018. The length–weight relationship was calculated as W=0.0091×L 3.11 (R 2=0.95) and positive allometric growth was found. The condition factor and GSI varied between 0.81–1.58 and 0.01–9.61, respectively. The spawning season extended from May to July and peaked in June. Total lengths at 50% maturity were 18.97 cm for males and 18.83 cm for females. Parameters of the von Bertalanffy growth equation were: L∞ =29.91 cm, K =0.27 per year, t0=−0.82 year and age varied between 1 and 8. The instantaneous rates of total mortality (Z) and natural mortality (M) were 1.36 and 0.58 per year, respectively. Rates for fishing mortality F and exploitation E were 0.78 and 0.57 per year, respectively. The mean absolute fecundity (F) was 117 075±23 243 oocytes, ranging from 19130 to 470 132.
2
Content available Dlaczego energetyka jądrowa w Polsce?
PL
Omówiono sytuację energetyczną Polski z punktu widzenia stopniowego zaprzestania wykorzystywania paliw kopalnych. Przedstawiono niezbędność energetyki jądrowej wobec niewystarczającego potencjału energetyki odnawialnej, zarówno do pokrycia zapotrzebowania na energię elektryczną jak i ciepło, szczególnie w dużych miastach. Z punktu widzenia długiego czasu wdrażania nowych technologii, postuluje się natychmiastowe rozpoczęcie szkolenia kadr nauczycielskich, a w efekcie uświadamiania społeczeństwa, w zakresie wiedzy o korzyściach i zagrożeniach płynących z energetyki jądrowej, która jest nieunikniona.
EN
The Polish energy situation was discussed from the point of view of a gradual cessation of the use of fossil fuels. Presented is the necessity of nuclear energy in the face of the insufficient potential of renewable energy, both to meet the demand for electricity and heat, especially in large cities. From the point of view of a long time of implementation of new technologies, it is postulated to immediately start training teachers’ staff and, as a result, raise public awareness of the benefits and threats of inevitable nuclear energy.
EN
In a few recent decades, population increase of the wild boar has been evidenced in various European countries. As the result of this increase, the wild boar has expanded into farmlands, especially in some regions, where the cultivated maize constitutes the main source of its diet through the larger part of the year. The effect of winter weather and land use changes on the expansion of wild boar was analysed in a farmland in southern Poland. Over 21 years (1985–2005) in the study area of about 681 km2 a rapid increase in the number of harvested wild boars was recorded. While in the middle 1980′s, there were only about 40 animals harvested per hunting season, in 2005 the number increased to 180. The rapid increase was, in general, correlated positively to the increasing surface area of the maize crops — from 205 ha (0.9%) in 1985 to 3212 ha (14.9% of arable lands) in 2004. However the correlation between the increase of the average late winter (February/March) temperature and the number of wild boars seems to be negative and contrary to our expectations, the numbers of wild boars were found to be higher under the lower temperatures in that period of the year.
EN
Introduction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the trend of occupational injuries in Turkey using epidemiologic criteria such as incidence mortality and fatality/all injuries recorded – rates. Materials and methods. Safety and health data were obtained from the Annual Statistic Books of the Social Insurance Institution (1988–2006) and Social Security Institution (2007–2011) of Turkey. Results. The results from the official data showed that although total employment is increasing the number of occupational injuries and incidence and mortality rates are decreasing. The results also demonstrate that occupational fatality/all injuries recorded – rate is increasing. The fatality/all injuries recorded – rate per 1000 injuries increased to 25.5 in 2011 from 8.6 in 1988. Each work day an average of five people died because of occupational injuries. Discussion and conclusions. The fatality/all injuries recorded – rate (the number of fatal cases per 1000 occupational injuries) is an important indicator of the injury rate for a country. Systems of occupational injury and illness surveillance constitute a critical resource for the management and reduction of occupational injuries and illness.
EN
Investigations concerning the effect of hemp oil on mortality of the foxglove aphid (Aulacorthum solani Kalt.) and the two spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) were conducted in the years 2014-2015. The tested essential oil was produced at the Institute of Natural Fibers and Medicinal Plants in Poznan. It was obtained by steam distillation of fresh panicles of Polish hemp cultivars, Beniko, Bialobrzeskie and Silesia, with low cannabinoid contents, including THC (max. 0.2% plant fresh matter). The effect of essential oil on the investigated pests was determined following the application of aqueous emulsion solution at 0.02, 0.05 and 0.1%. Mortality of agrophages was determined 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment. In this study a very high efficacy of the essential oil produced from hemp panicles was found in the reduction of population size of the foxglove aphid (A. solani). Already at 24 h after its application at a concentration of 0.1% pest mortality rate was 98.20%, while after 48 h it reached 100%. A significant, although much lesser effect of oil on the aphid population was recorded when applying it at 0.05%, with the mortality rate of the true bug after 72 h amounting to 57.33%. Essential oil also showed an effect on the two spotted spider mite (T. urticae). Following the oil application, irrespective of its concentration, a significant effect on mite mortality was observed. Its action was the strongest at its highest concentration, ie 0.1%, while mortality of the pest at 24, 48 and 72 h after treatment was 83.28, 95.83 and 98.72%, respectively.
EN
We examined the claw strength, handling behavior, consumption rate, and size selective predation of the invasive Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis feeding on native Baltic Sea blue mussels Mytilus edulis trossulus during 24 h laboratory experiments. Single starved crabs were offered 15 mussels (five mussels in three length classes) at a time. The total number of mussels consumed by a single crab increased significantly (P < 0.05) with the experimental time from 1.7 ± 0.7 # mussels crab−1 h−1 after 4 h to 0.2 ± 0.7 # mussels crab−1 h−1 after 24 h. The highest consumption rate was observed within the first 4 h, and it decreased significantly (P < 0.05) during the experiment. This was most likely due to the crabs being starved before the start of the experiment. E. sinensis can also harm blue mussel shells by crushing them without further consumption. The mean daily damage, and not consumption, by a single crab was 0.9 ± 1.4 of 11–40 mm mussels. The claw strength of E. sinensis ranged from 1.50 to 20.43 N (mean 8.51 ± 5.93 N) and was significantly correlated (P < 0.05) with sex and both claw size and carapace size. The study showed that E. sinensis may be able to impact the native M. edulis trossulus population abundance in the coastal Baltic waters either through direct predation or indirect mortality by damaging (crushing) the shell.
EN
Objective: Dynamic changes of heart rate variability (HRV) reflect autonomic dysfunction in cardiac disease. Some studies suggest the role of HRV in predicting intensive care unit (ICU) mortality. The main object of this study was analyzing the HRV to design an algorithm to predict mortality risk. Methods: We evaluated 80 cardiovascular ICU patients (45 males and 45 females), ranging from 45 to 70 years. Common time and frequency domain analysis, non-linear Poincaré plot and recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) were used to study the HRV in two episodes. The episodes include 8–4 h before death, and 4 h before death to death. Independent sample t-test was used as statistical analysis. Results: Statistical analysis indicates that frequency domain and Poincaré parameters such as LF/HF and SD2/SD1 show changes in transition to death episode (p < 0.05). Moreover, Lmean, vmax and RT measures showed meaningful changes (p < 0.01) in closer segments to the death. Conclusions: Analysis of physiological variables shows that there are significant differences in RQA measures in episodes close to death. These changes can be interpreted as more stability and determinism behavior of HRV in episodes close to death. RQA parameters can be used together with HRV parameters for description and prediction of mortality risk in ICU patients.
EN
Early post-fledging mortality of White Stork during the period from the first flight to their autumn departure from natal area was described. Data from eight breeding seasons (2005−2012) about 56 cases of death of juvenile White Storks from a study area in Western Poland were collected. For a comparison the data of 55 cases of death from recoveries data deposited in Polish Bird Ringing Centre from entire Poland were included in analysis. Early post-fledgling mortality rate varied from 2 to 11% (mean 4.3%) of all fledglings per year. The main causes of death were collision with power lines and electrocution which in Western Poland constituted 60% and in entire Poland − 78% of death cases with known causes. Other anthropogenic causes constituted responsibly 25 and 13% and natural causes − 15 and 9%. Mean distance where dead storks were found was 183.3m from natal nests, while 73% were found closer than 100 m from their nests.
9
Content available remote Oak decline in a southern Finnish forest as affected by a drought sequence
EN
We investigated the decline of a pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) forest growing on shallow soil at the northern distributional limit of the species in southern Finland, using the dendro-climatic approach. About 200-year-old trees in three vigour classes – healthy, declining and dead – were sampled in 2008. Annual tree-ring, earlywood and latewood widths were measured and chro-nologies were established. The tree-ring data were correlated with monthly and seasonal climate data. Radial increment of oaks was positively related to the June and July precipitations. This was ex-pressed especially in total ring width and latewood width, whereas the earlywood was more influ-enced by the warmer winter and spring. Furthermore, the correlation between the current year ear-lywood width and the preceding year latewood width was higher than between the earlywood and latewood of the same year. The analyses showed that the dead oaks and part of the declining oaks had ceased growing during 2005-2007 after a decade-long summer drought series. This indicates a time lag in the oak dieback. The radial growth of the declining and the dead oaks had dropped already since the 1990s, while the healthy oaks had better long-term growth and higher adaptive capacity to climate variation.
PL
Zatrucia ostre środkami ochrony roślin w ostatnich latach są w Polsce stosunkowo rzadkie i z reguły stanowią rezultat rażącego naruszenia zasad bezpieczeństwa. Dokładna liczba zatruć przewlekłych środkami ochrony roślin w Polsce nie jest znana. Zmiany przepisów, które wyeliminowały część zagrożeń w chemicznej ochronie roślin, przyniosły nowe zagrożenia takie jak: stosowanie środków ochrony roślin niezgodnie z rejestracją, rosnąca sprzedaż preparatów fałszywych, zagrożenia związane ze stosowaniem mieszanin zbiornikowych i obniżonych dawek, zbędna chemizacja środowiska wskutek rejestrowania dawek wyższych niż to potrzebne i lekceważenie zasad BHP przez rolników. Coraz bardziej realne stają się także zagrożenie gromadzeniem składowisk środków przeterminowanych oraz możliwe problemy ze zbiorem opakowań po środkach ochrony roślin.
EN
The cases of acute poisoning with pesticides have been rare in last years in Poland and usually occurred as a consequence of gross violation of safety rules. The exact number of chronic poisoning cases with pesticides in Poland is unknown. The legal changes resulting in elimination of some hazards in chemical protection, resulted also in new risks: use of plant protection products contrary to the label, increase in sales of fake products, hazards related to use of tank mixtures and dose reduction, excessive environment chemicalisation due to registration of too high doses and negligence of safety rules by farmers. The more and more real risks become anew problems with accumulation of pesticides whose date expired and possible problems with package collection.
EN
This article contains information about the accident frequency and the potential for the affecting of it by technical condition of the vehicle. It discusses the impact of the selected vehicle and surface parameters on the safety.
PL
Ten artykuł zawiera informacje o częstotliwości wypadków i możliwości jej wpływu przez stan techniczny pojazdu. Omawia wpływ wybranego pojazdu i parametrów powierzchni na bezpieczeństwo.
EN
The analysis of the number of died men and women of different age per 100 000 persons of the corresponding sex from 1985 to 2002 in the city Kyiv was conducted. It is established that in the wide range of ages the phenomenon of the morbidity ratio of persons of different age is of a non-linear character. It is found the availability of the significant effect (19,6%; p<0,001) on the degree of this ratio. Four specific periods, associated with different possible mechanisms of the effect of the psychoemotional strain on the human body, have been specified in the dynamics of the sex ratio. It is established that the psychoemotional factor affects persons of different age groups specifically. In this, its effect on persons of able-to-work age, is the most threatening. A quantitative assessment of the population health of different age groups with due account of mortality ratio of persons of different sex has been proposed. The explanation of changes of sex ratio in populations, based on the theory of evolution in their development, is presented.
PL
Przeprowadzono analizę liczby zgonów kobiet i mężczyzn w różnym wieku na 100 000 mieszkańców miasta Kijów obu płci, obejmującą lata 1985-2002. Założono, że w szerokim przedziale wiekowym zjawisko wskaźnika umieralności kobiet i mężczyzn w różnym wieku ma charakter nieliniowy. Stwierdzono istotny wpływ napięcia psychoemocjonalnego (19,6%, p<0,001) na wysokość ww. wskaźnika. Cztery poszczególne okresy, związane z różnymi możliwymi mechanizmami wpływu napięcia psychoemocjonalnego na organizm człowieka, zostały określone w dynamice wskaźnika płci. Ustalono, że czynnik psychoemocjonalny wpływa w różny sposób na osoby w różnych grupach wiekowych. W szczególności, jego wpływ na osoby w wieku produkcyjnym jest najbardziej groźny. Zaproponowano ocenę ilościową stanu zdrowia ludności w różnych grupach wiekowych z należytym uwzględnieniem wskaźnika śmiertelności osób obu płci. Przedstawiono także wyjaśnienie zmian współczynnika płci w populacji, w oparciu o teorię ewolucji w ich rozwoju.
EN
The subject of our study was the grain weevil Sitophilus granarius L. In this work based on laboratory research, it has been presumed that lowering environment temperatures can have an effect on emigration and immigration processes, and thus on the spread of this pest. The control culture was conducted at a temperature of 28 oC. The environment temperature of the experimental cultures was changed weekly, and consecutively set at: 25 oC, 10 oC, 21 oC and 25 oC. In conditions facilitating the migration of adult S. granarius specimens, the lowered temperature of the surroundings reduced the population’s migration activity, and a particular drop in female migration activity was observed. Females are more sensitive to the effects of lower temperatures.
PL
Obiektem badań był wołek zbożowy Sitophilus granarius L. W badaniach laboratoryjnych przyjęto założenie, że obniżenie temperatury środowiska może wywierać wpływ na procesy emigracji i imigracji, a tym samym na rozprzestrzenianie się tego szkodnika. Hodowle kontrolne prowadzono w temperaturze 28 oC. W hodowlach eksperymentalnych co tydzień zmieniano temperaturę środowiska, stosując kolejno: 25 oC, 10 oC, 21 oC i 25 oC. W warunkach umożliwiających migracje osobnikom dorosłym S. granarius obniżenie temperatury otoczenia spowodowało zmniejszenie aktywności migracyjnej populacji, a szczególnie spadek aktywności migracyjnej samic. Samice są bardziej wrażliwe na oddziaływanie niskich temperatur.
EN
The aim of the research was the lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica F., a dangerous pest of stored wheat grain and foodstuffs. As the first pest biting the grain, the lesser grain borer helps many other species to attack the grain. The aim of laboratory experiments was to study how various temperature affects feeding activity of this species and an investigation of birth rate dynamics and mortality of the population. Experiments were conducted in three temperature variants: 28, 22 and 31°C. Regular tests were done concerning the proportion of food (wheat grain) consumed, its contamination and the rates of consumption by experimental populations. It was concluded that temperature exerts an influence on the population development as well as on its feeding activity. The decrease in temperature to 22 °C is considered as a factor which inhibits the population development of R. dominica. On the other band, at 31°C, consumption is the highest. Besides that, during the whole experimental period, the degree of grain damage was higher than consumption in all of the studied temperatures, which provides evidence of a high feeding activity of this species.
PL
Obiektem badań był kapturnik zbożowiec Rhyzopertha dominica F. - groźny szkodnik magazynowanego ziarna zbóż i produktów spożywczych. Jako szkodnik pierwotny, nadgryzając ziarno, ułatwia jego atakowanie wielu innym gatunkom. Celem badań laboratoryjnych było zbadanie wpływu różnych temperatur na aktywność pokarmową tego gatunku oraz zbadanie dynamiki liczebności i śmiertelności populacji. Eksperymenty prowadzono w temperaturze 28, 22 i 31°C. Regularnej kontroli poddawano stopień zużycia pokarmu (pszenicy), jego zanieczyszczenie oraz konsumpcję populacji. Stwierdzono, że temperatura wywiera wpływ zarówno na rozwój populacji, jak i na jej aktywność pokarmową. Obniżona temperatura (22 °C) jest czynnikiem hamującym rozwój populacji R. dominica. Natomiast w temperaturze 31°C konsumpcja jest największa. Poza tym w ciągu całego okresu badawczego stopień uszkodzenia ziarna przewyższa konsumpcję we wszystkich badanych temperaturach, co świadczy o dużej aktywności pokarmowej tego gatunku.
EN
The study included the saw-toothed grain beetles Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. kept in stores and granaries. The aim of the laboratory experiments was to analyse the effect of the short-termed and periodically increased temperatures on the population dynamics of this species. The control and experimenta1 cultures were kept in a thermostat at a temperature of 30°C and relative humidity (r.h.) of 70 %. Semolina was used as a substrate in all the cultures. In the first variant of the experiments, seven days before the assessment the cultures were exposed to a short-termed effect (0.5 h) of the temperature increased to 35°C. In the second variant, the cultures were exposed to the effect of the temperature increased to 35°C in the same way, but for 24 hours. It was found out that the increase in temperature, both short-term and periodical causes a decrease of a population size. The elevated temperature, especially lasting for 24 hours also causes an increase of the population morta1ity. Moreover, it was found out that the females are more sensitive to the effect of temperature rises.
PL
Badaniami objęto spichrzela surynamskiego Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. - owada żyjącego w produktach zbożowych przechowywanych w magazynach i spichlerzach. Celem badań laboratoryjnych była analiza wpływu krótkotrwałego i okresowego działania podwyższonych temperatur na przebieg procesów populacyjnych tego gatunku. Hodowle kontrolne i eksperymentalne prowadzono w termostacie w temperaturze 30°C i wilgotności względnej 70 %. Jako substrat we wszystkich hodowlach zastosowano kaszę mannę. W pierwszym wariancie eksperymentu hodowle co cztery tygodnie, siedem dni przed terminem kontroli, poddawano krótkotrwałemu (0,5 godz.) oddziaływaniu podwyższonej do 35°C temperatury. W drugim wariancie eksperymentu hodowle poddawano w taki sam sposób oddziaływaniu temperatury podwyższonej do 35°C, ale przez okres 24 godzin. Stwierdzono, że podwyższenie temperatury zarówno krótkotrwałe, jak i okresowe powoduje zmniejszenie liczebności populacji. Podwyższona temperatura, zwłaszcza działająca przez okresy 24-godzinne powoduje także wzrost śmiertelności populacji. Ponadto stwierdzono, że samice są bardziej wrażliwe na podwyższanie temperatury.
EN
The influence of episode of density-independent mortality on the time-space variability of phytoplankton distribution in the near surface layer of a stratified sea is the aim of this paper. The mortality of phytoplankton in unpredictable conditions, like a spill of crude oil or other chemicals is considered. The numerical simulations were carried out using a biological model of upper layer with a developed primary production and regeneration mechanisms and of daily migration of zooplankton. In such cases an increase in the mortality rate intensifies the decrease in phytoplankton biomass. Such a situation can on occasion lead to phytoplankton extinction, and hence to irreversible changes in its distribution area.
EN
The subject of the study was the saw-toothed grain beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis L., which is a dangerous pest for stored grains and food products. In this study, based on laboratory work, a hypothesis has been postulated which states that the introduction of foreign chemical substances, in the form of powdered herbs garden sage (Salvia offrcinalis L.), wormwood (Arlemisia absinthium L.), lavender (Lavandula officinalis L.), peppermint (Mentha piperita L.), into the substrates (food) may have an inhibitory effect on the development, as well as causing a decrease in the population number of O. surinamensis. The data yielded suggest that the introduction of the complex organic chemical substances present in powdered herbs to the substrates causes a reduction in the population of 0. surinamensis. These substances have feeding-inhibitory characteristics, which act on this species of insects. Particularly the influence of mint, womnwood and salvia have an inhibitory effect on population development.
PL
Badano spichrzela surynamskiego Oryzaephilus surinamensis L. - groźnego szkodnika magazynowanego ziarna zbóż i produktów spożywczych. Stwierdzono, że wprowadzenie do substratu (pokarmu) sproszkowanych ziół: szałwii lekarskiej (Salvia officinalis L.), bylicy piołun (Artemisio absinthium L.), lawendy wąskolistnej (Lavandula officinalis L.) i mięty pieprzowej (Mentha piperita L.) stanowi czynnik hamujący rozwój, a tym samym obniża liczebność populacji O. sw-inamensis. A zatem substancje chemiczne zawarte w tych ziołach powodują zmniejszenie liczebności populacji O. surinamensis. Związki te wykazują właściwości antyfiadantów dla tego gatunku owada. Szczególnie działanie mięty, piołunu i szałwii inhibituje rozwój tej populacji.
PL
Stan zdrowia Polaków nie jest korzystny. Jest on gorszy w stosunku do pozostałych krajów europejskich należących do UE. Dzieje się to za sprawą wyższego relatywnie poziomu zgonów szczególnie z powodu chorób układu krążenia oraz z powodu wypadków. Umieralność z powodu chorób nowotworowych jest co prawda na średnim poziomie, ale co istotne to jest obserwowana stała tendencja wzrostowa, przy obniżających się trendach w wielu krajach szczególnie zachodniej Europy. Przyczynami tego stanu rzeczy są przede wszystkim: niewłaściwy styl życia tzn. palenie papierosów, nadużywanie alkoholu, wysokokaloryczna dieta, brak ruchu, degradacja środowiska przyrodniczego. Bez opanowania przedwczesnej umieralności głównie mężczyzn w średnim wieku Polsce będzie trudno konkurować również i ekonomicznie z innymi krajami, zwłaszcza wysoko rozwiniętymi.
EN
Health condition of Poland's population is not favourable. It is worse compared to other EU countries and results from a relatively higher death rate especially due to coronary system diseases and accidents. Mortality due to cancer diseases is on average level however a continuous increasing tendency has been observed at decreasing trends in many, especially western countries. The reasons for this state are mainly: improper life style i.e. cigarette smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, high-caloric diet, lack of physical activity, degradation of the natural environment. Poland will not be able to become a country competitive also in economic terms to other, especially highly developed countries without taking control over premature mortality observed especially in male, middle-age population.
EN
The populations of Rhyzopertha dominica, a dangerous pest in stored grains were investigated. This laboratory study assumed the hypothesis that the introduction of poowdered leaves of Salvia officinalis L. and Artemisia absinthium L. containing feeding inhibitors into grain may delay the development and therefore reduce population size of R. dominica. These herbs were powdered and added at 0.5 g of herb per 40 g wheat. The research was conducted in optimum conditions of temperature and humidity (28 stopni C and relative humidity 60%). The insects used in the experiment were initially obtained from mature individuals of uniform age and were bred in glass containers with base area 28 cm^2 covered with gauze. The experiments were continued for 310 days and the herb supplements were renewed each month. The results of the study show that the introduction of chemical substances contained in the powdered leaves of S. officinalis and A. absinthium into an optimal substrate (wheat) infested with R. dominica decreases its population size. These substances have properties that inhibit the feeding of this insect species.
PL
Przedstawiono wyniki badań epidemiologicznych dotyczących ryzyka zachorowania na raka u pracowników dwóch dużych zakładów przemysłu gumowego w Polsce. Jeden z nich produkował obuwie gumowe, drugi opony. Badania prowadzono metodą kohortową. Wyniki wieloletniej obserwacji 16 813 osób (8771 mężczyzn i 8042 kobiet) zatrudnionych co najmniej trzy miesiące w latach 1945-1985 przy produkcji obuwia gumowego wykazały istotnie zwiększone ryzyko zgonu z powodu chorób nowotworowych ogółem (mężczyźni: 678 zgonów, SMR=116, 95%CI: 107-125; kobiety: 506 zgonów, SMR=111, 95%CI: 101-121). Biorąc pod uwagę umiejscowienie nowotworu u mężczyzn odnotowano istotną nadwyżkę raka: pęcherzyka żółciowego (17 zgonów, SMR=317, 95%CI: 185-508), krtani (39 zgonów, SMR=192, 95%CI: 136-262), płuca (239 zgonów, SMR=125, 95%CI: 109-141) u kobiet: raka pęcherzyka żółciowego (42 zgony, SMR=206, 95%CI: 149-279), raka macicy (17 zgonów, SMR=220, 95%CI: 128-353) i szyjki macicy (59 zgonów, SMR=161, 95%CI: 122-207). Analiza umieralności w podkohortach wyodrębnionych wg roku zatrudnienia w zakładzie wykazała, że istotne ryzyko raka jelita grubego, pęcherzyka żółciowego, krtani i płuca dotyczy osób, które rozpoczęły pracę przed przeprowadzką zakładu do nowo wybudowanych i wyposażonych w nowoczesne urządzenia hal, tzn. pracowały w gorszych warunkach higienicznych. W grupie 16 686 pracowników zakładu oponiarskiego (10918 mężczyzn i 5768 kobiet) zatrudnionych co najmniej trzy miesiące w latach 1950 - 1995 nie odnotowano istotnego statystycznie zwiększenia ryzyka nowotworów chociaż w niektórych umiejscowieniach liczba odnotowanych zgonów przekraczała przewidywaną wartość. Jedną z prawdopodobnych przyczyn różnego obrazu umieralności w obu badanych grupach jest ich odmienna struktura wiekowa - pracownicy zakładu oponiarskiego są znacznie młodsi. Do ostatecznej oceny ryzyka raka u osób zatrudnionych w fabryce opon potrzebna jest dalsza obserwacja.
EN
Results of epidemiological research on the risk of cancer in workers of two big Polish rubber plants are reported. One manufactured rubber shoes, the other made rubber tyres. The cohort method was used in the study. The results of long-term observation of 16 813 people (8771 men and 8042 women) employed between 1945 and 1985 in the production of rubber shoes showed a significantly higher risk of death from cancer in general (men: 678 deaths, SMR=116, 95%CI: 107-125; women: 506 deaths, SMR=111, 95%CI: 101-121). Considering particular locations, increased mortalities were noted in the males for the cancer of: gallbladder (17 deaths, SMR=317, 95%CI: 185-508), larynx (39 deaths, SMR=192, 95%CI: 136-262), lung (239 deaths, SMR=125, 95%CI: 109-141) and in the females for the cancer of: gallbladder (42 deaths, SMR=206, 95%CI: 149-279), uterus (17 deaths, SMR=220, 95%CI: 128-353) and cervix (59 deaths, SMR=161, 95%CI: 122-207). Our analysis of the mortality within the sub-cohorts set up by year of employment at the plant revealed that people who had started their employment before the plant moved to the new buildings provided with modern equipment, i.e. those who experienced poorer hygienic conditions, were at a significant risk of cancer of large intestine, gallbladder, larynx and lung. In the group of 16 686 workers of the rubber tyre plant (10918 men and 5768 women), statistically significant increase in the risk of cancer was not recorded, although for some locations the number of recorded deaths was higher than expected. One of the probable causes for the differences in the pattern of mortality between the studied cohorts is that the cohort of the rubber tyre plant was much younger than that of the other plant. Further observation is necessary to obtain the final assessment of cancer risk among workers of that plant.
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