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PL
Formy eoliczne doczekały się wielu opracowań, bazujących między innymi na wykorzystaniu technik teledetekcyjnych, które poszerzają możliwości badania dynamiki procesów eolicznych i przekształceń form eolicznych pod wpływem antropopresji. Artykuł prezentuje wyniki badań form eolicznych pod kątem cech morfometrycznych i przekształceń indukowanych działalnością człowieka na obszarze części Polesia Wołyńskiego ograniczonego rzekami Stochod na zachodzie i Horyń na wschodzie. Badania prowadzono przy zastosowaniu analizy mapy topograficznej Wojskowego Instytutu Geograficznego w skali 1:100 000 oraz zdjęć satelitarnych. Na obszarze badań zarejestrowano 187 form eolicznych, z czego 92 noszą ślady współczesnej antropopresji i właśnie ta grupa form podlegała szczegółowej analizie. Wśród nich zidentyfikowano przede wszystkim wydmy paraboliczne, wydmy wałowe i pola piasków eolicznych. Przekształcenia antropogeniczne i uruchamianie deflacji wynikało głównie z rozwoju szlaków drożnych w obrębie form, tworzenia podcięć drogowych, włączenia części form do pól uprawnych, chaotycznej eksploatacji piasku, wykorzystania do celów rekreacyjnych oraz zmiany zalegania poziomu wód gruntowych na skutek melioracji obszarów bagiennych znajdujących się w sąsiedztwie form eolicznych.
EN
There are a lot of results of studies concern on aeolian forms, including analysis based on remote sensing technics, which broaden possibilities of studying the aeolian processes dynamics and transformations of aeolian forms under the influence of anthropopressure. The paper presents results of research focused on morphometry of aeolian forms and recognition of zones transformed by human activity on the part of Volhynia Polesie between Stochod River on the west and Horyń River on the east. Topographic map in scale 1:100 000 published by WIG was used, as well as satellite photographs. On the study area 187 aeolian forms were recognized, including 92, which bear the marks of nowadays transformation. That forms were included into analysis. Among them there were found parabolic dunes, ridge dunes and aeolian sand covers. Anthropogenic transformation and activation of deflation were caused mainly by changing of road trails and roads undercuts, use the aeolian forms for agriculture, chaotic sand exploitation, use for recreational purposes and changing of the ground water level as the result of drainage of boggy areas in vicinity of aeolian forms.
EN
The study was carried out between November 2014 and March 2016 to determine certain morphometric characteristics of two pipefish species occurring in Lake Bafa, Syngnathus abaster and Syngnathus acus. A total of 211 pipefish were captured during the sampling, including 77 individuals of S. abaster (♀: 25; ♂: 44; immature: 8) and 134 individuals of S. acus (♀: 31; ♂: 76; immature: 27). The male-female ratios were 1:1.76 and 1:2.45, respectively. A difference was found in sex ratios between the two species (p < 0.05). The mean length of the captured fish was 86.63 ± 16.77 mm for S. abaster and 82.63 ± 16.02 mm for S. acus and the relationship between the total length and weight, referred to as the length-weight relationship, was as follows: W = 0.00000001L3.71 (R2 = 0.89), and W = 0.000000007L3.86 (R2 = 0.83), respectively. Seven morphometric characteristics were analyzed. The analyses revealed that S. acus and S. abaster were significantly different from each other in terms of their body depth (p = 0.006; p < 0.05), mouth width (p = 0.004; p < 0.05) and height (p = 0.008; p < 0.05). High correlation values were obtained for TL/BD and TL/HD in S. abaster and S. acus, respectively (r > 1).
EN
The area of the Dunajec river basin includes several geological units in the Central Carpathian region at the Polish-Slovakian borderland. The paper focuses on the geomorphometric parameters of the drainage system to recognize the influence of the deep seated geological structures on the morphology of the Dunajec river basin (Central Carpathians). The study were enriched with analysis of the geological maps and lineaments extracted from Digital Elevation Model. According to the obtained results, the massive NW-SE trending fault zones play a vital role in the geological architecture of the researched area. The development of the secondary fault structures has been determined by these dislocations and the manifestation of their activity can be observed as deformations of some of the other tectonic structures along the main fault zones, especially at the folds’ axes. Additionally, the geometric and morphometric features of the drainage system have also been influenced by the activity of these deep structures. The tectonic activity represented by the level of morphological rejuvenation, visible in the light of the morphometric parameters of the streams and the drainage basins, varies greatly between the tectonic units. This diversity is caused by both the lithological and structural features of these geological units.
EN
The Białka river valley is directly related to a deep NNW-SSE oriented fault zone. According to the results of previous morphometric analyses, the Białka drainage basin is one of the most tectonically active zones in the Central Carpathians. It is also located within an area of high seismic activity. In this study Digital Elevation Model (DEM) based, morphometric analyses were used to investigate the morphotectonic conditions of the watershed. The results reveal the relationships between the main tectonic feature and the landforms within the research area. The lineaments, as obtained from the classified aspect map, seem to coincide with the orientation of the main structures as well as the trends revealed by the theoretical Riedel-Skempton shear model. Base-level and isolong maps support the conclusion that the Białka and Biały Dunajec fault zones exert a strong influence on the morphology of the adjacent area.
PL
Zbiornik Koronowski powstał w latach 60-tych XX wieku w wyniku przegrodzenia biegu rzeki Brdy. Autorzy analizowali wpływ morfometrii Zbiornika na turystyczne wykorzystanie jego wód. Dokonali sondowań batymetrycznych w celu identyfikacji miejsc niebezpiecznych dla żeglugi oraz obliczenia podstawowych charakterystyk morfometrycznych. Wykonali również inwentaryzację zagospodarowania turystycznego wokół Zbiornika Koronowskiego. Powstanie Zbiornika Koronowskiego przyczyniło się do rozwoju turystyki, szczególnie w jego południowej części. Wpływa na to odległość od miasta Bydgoszczy oraz lepsza infrastruktura drogowa. Warunki głębokościowe Zbiornika nie mają dużego wpływu na jego wykorzystanie.
EN
Koronowski reservoir was created in the 60’s of the twentieth century as a result of damming the Brda River. The authors analyzed the impact of morphometry of reservoir on the tourist use of its waters. For this purpose, there were made bathymetric soundings to identify dangerous places for sailing and the calculation of the basic morphometric characteristics. Also there was made an inventory of tourism development around the Koronowski Reservoir. The creation of Koronowski Reservoir has contributed to development of tourism, particularly in southern part of reservoir. It is due to the distance from the city Bydgoszcz and better road infrastructure. The depth conditions have small effect on touristic use of the reservoir water.
EN
Hydrological models are very useful for predictions in many ungauged basins across the world. There are many hydrological models available for discharge data gen-eration with different complexities and varied input parameter requirements. Studies have shown that models with many input parameters do not necessarily perform better than those with few input parameters. Basin morphometric parameters play significant roles in the conversion of rainfall to runoff and obtaining good estimates of these parameters for use in runoff models is sometime challenging as Inaccurate input into models can propagate errors and make the models to perform poorly. This study employs the method of principal component analysis to reduce the number of morphometric parameters required to run a runoff model without losing any major information. Parameters for five selected study basins in central Nigeria were measured and analysed. The result shows that three morphometric parameters (Fitness Ratio, Ruggedness Number and Watershed Eccentricity) can adequately represent other parameters as an input into a runoff model for the basins. This reduces significantly the time and effort needed to compute all the parameters which in actual fact may not improve the quality or efficiency of the runoff model.
PL
Ukleje do badań poławiano z rzeki Wisły na początku czerwca 2012 roku na terenie miasta Toruń. Ogółem pozyskano 107 uklei, w tym 66 samic 141 samców. Na każdym osobniku przeprowadzano 16 pomiarów liniowych z dokładnością do 0,1 mm, które następnie wyrażano w procentach długości ciała. Osobniki obu badanych płci uklei z dolnego biegu Wisły charakteryzowały się bardzo zbliżoną budową ciała. Samce w porównaniu z samicami miały wyższą płetwę grzbietową i dłuższe płetwy piersiowe, lecz w praktyce różnice te są trudne do zauważenia. Ukleje z dolnego biegu rzeki Wisły kształtem ciała nie odbiegały zasadniczo od uklei żyjących w środkowym biegu tej rzeki oraz w innych rzekach.
EN
Bleaks for research were caught in the river Vistula at the beglnning of June 2012 within the city of Toruń. A total of 107 bleak were caught, including 66 females and 41 males. 16 linear measurements were conducted on each one with an accuracy of 0, l mm, later they were shown in percentage of body length. Both male and female bleak from the lower reaches of Vistula were characterised with a very similar body. Males in comparison to females had a higher dorsal fin and longer pectoral fins, however in practice those differences arę difficult to notice. Bleaks from the lower reaches of Vistula are not much different from bleaks living in middle reaches of this river or other rivers.
PL
W artykule zaprezentowano wyniki analizy morfometrii wybranych grodzisk Ziemi Chełmińsko-Dobrzyńskiej na tle ukształtowania powierzchni terenu obszarów sąsiednich . Celem pracy było wskazanie powiązań między naturalnymi i antropogenicznymi formami rzeźby terenu i stopniem jej zmian w sąsiedztwie grodzisk. Wykorzystano szczegółowe numeryczne modele terenu grodzisk i ich otoczenia, dane teledetekcyjne oraz materiały geologiczno-geomorfologiczne. Badane obiekty zlokalizowane są w dwóch obszarach badawczych – wschodnim obejmującym obszar pogranicza Ziemi Chełmińsko-Dobrzyńskiej i Ziemi Sasinów oraz zachodnim obejmującym dolinę dolnej Wisły. Analizy zostały przeprowadzone na pięciu obiektach na obszarze wschodnim (Chojno, Grążawy, Księte, Nielbark, Pokrzydowo) i jednym na obszarze zachodnim (Kałdus). Wszystkie obiekty przeanalizowano w oparciu o wybrane wskaźniki morfometryczne opisujące w sposób porównywalny ich geometrię. W szczególności brano pod uwagę powierzchnię, długość i szerokość obiektu, kubaturę grodziska, wskaźnik zwartości grodziska, wskaźnik wydłużenia grodziska, ekwiwalent promienia koła i średnie wyniesienie obiektu. Przeprowadzone badania wskazują, że grodziska o małej powierzchni charakteryzują się zwartą geometrią i regularnym kształtem podstawy zbliżonym do okręgu. Ich forma jest niezależna od rzeźby terenu w miejscu lokalizacji. Grodziska o większej powierzchni mające niski wskaźnik zwartości i nieregularny zarys podstawy wykazują formę przestrzenną uzależnioną od ukształtowania powierzchni w miejscu powstania - ich forma została wkomponowana w lokalne ukształtowanie powierzchni. Oprócz tych przypadków można znaleźć także formy pośrednie łączące wskazane cechy. Cechy morfometryczne grodzisk powiązane są z ich znaczeniem w przeszłości – obiekty pełniące funkcje administracyjne w większym stopniu uzależnione były od ukształtowania powierzchni niż obiekty niewielkie, pełniące rolę strażnic. Jakościowe zmiany rzeźby terenu, jakie obserwujemy w obrębie badanych obiektów, w większym stopniu zachodziły w przypadku zwartych form o niewielkiej powierzchni, gdzie człowiek w pełni przekształcał teren pod budowę grodu. Zmiany jakościowe rzeźby terenu w miejscach lokalizacji form większych były mniejsze (mimo większych zmian przestrzennych), z uwagi na przystosowywanie formy geometrycznej grodu do zastanej sytuacji terenowej.
EN
In the paper, results of detailed analysis of morphometric parameters of selected gords (medieval Slavonic fortified settlements) and surrounding areas in Chelmno-Dobrzyn Region were presented. The purpose of the study was to indicate relationships between natural and anthropogenic elements of landform and the degree of change of natural relief in the gords localization. For the study, detailed digital terrain models of the gords and surrounding areas were used as well as remote sensing data and geological and geomorphological materials. The studied gords are located in two tested areas - borderland Chełmno-Dobrzyń Region and Sasin Region in the east and Lower Vistula Valley in the west. The detailed studies covered six different places – five gords in the eastern area (Chojno, Grążawy, Księte, Nielbark, Pokrzydowo) and one in the western area (Kałdus). The studied objects were analyzed on the basis of selected morphometric parameters comparatively describing their geometry (area, length and breadth, volume, compactness ratio, elongation, equivalent radius of the circle, the average height). The analysis of the gords studied showed that objects of small area are characterized by compact geometry and regularly shaped base usually close to a circle. Their geometrical shape is independent of local land relief. Gords of a larger area have low compactness ratio and irregular outline base; their spatial forms depend on the shape of the surface at the location. Morphometric features of the gods depend on their importance in the past – those with administrative functions depended to a greater degree on land relief than small gords serving as watch-towers.
EN
This paper presents the results of a detailed comparative description of the morphological characters of N. integer obtained during eight research seasons in 2006–2007 period from the region stretching from Świnoujście to Darłowo. An attempt was made to assess the suitability of the studied characters for establishing to which populations individuals belong, to identify secondary sex traits and to detect differences in the body shape of these shrimp-like crustaceans. Most of the measurable characters in all of the samples discrimination analysis indicated the characters which differentiated the compared groups were telson length, lower abdomen width, exopodite uropod length, cephalothorax width below the carapace, cephalothorax width above the carapace and the height of fourth and fifth abdominal segment connections.
EN
Mollusc shells from archaeological excavations are often well preserved and allow for species identification and measurements. Large shell assemblages can provide information for environmental reconstruction and investigation of anthropogenic impacts. In this study we compare freshwater mussel shells from a shell midden excavated on a lake island in northern Poland, dated 2,700–2,600 BP, with contemporary populations from that lake. No changes in species composition occurred, with only Unio tumidus and Anodonta sp. present in the prehistoric sample, and Unio tumidus and Anodonta anatina in the contemporary one. In both the archaeological and contemporary samples, shells of Unio tumidus were relatively small (mean shell length 49.3 ± 5.2 mm, max 64 mm, and 46.0 ±5.9 mm, max 61 mm, respectively). However, the values of all measured characteristics (length, height, mass, and thickness) were significantly lower in the contemporary compared to prehistoric shells. In modern times, in the region of the study largescale forest clearing and conversion of land into agricultural areas occurred; presently areas of intensive agriculture directly adjoin the lake. Dwarfing of the shells likely results from anthropogenic deterioration of mussel habitat.
PL
Praca przedstawia metodykę i wyniki oceny zmian cech geometrycznych ziarna żyta odmiany Słowiańskie po przechowywaniu w warunkach symulowanego laboratoryjnie obciążenia. Naciski o wartościach 35, 52 oraz 70 kPa były wywoływane w specjalnych cylindrach symulujących warunki przechowywania w silosie. Celem pracy było ustalenie przebiegu zmian cech geometrycznych nasion w zmiennych warunkach ich przechowywania (wilgotności: 14, 16, 18 20, 22 i 24% i temperaturze: 6°C oraz 20°C). Pomiary cech geometrycznych przeprowadzono z użyciem systemu SVISTMET. Wyniki badań wskazują, że zmiany wielkości ziaren (statystycznie nieistotne) występują tylko w skrajnych warunkach przechowywania (20°C, 52 i 70 kPa) w warunkach wysokiej ich wilgotności (ponad 20%), która była głównym czynnikiem tych zmian. Kształt ziaren, wyrażony zdefiniowanym współczynnikiem, ulegał zmianom tylko w warunkach podwyższonej wilgotności (20-24%) i nacisku (70 kPa), co związane jest ze zwiększona plastycznością ziaren.
EN
The work presents methodology and evaluation of changes of geometric features of rye grain of Slavic variety after storing in the conditions of load simulated in a laboratory. Pressures of 35, 52 and 70 kPa value were incurred in special cylinders which simulated conditions of storing in a silo. The purpose of the work was to determine the course of changes within geometric features of grains in variable conditions of storing (humidity: 14, 16, 18, 20, 22 and 24% and temperature: 6°C and 20°C). Measurements of geometric features were taken with the use of SVISTMET system. The results of the research prove that changes in the grain size (statistically insignificant) occur only in extreme storing conditions (20°C, 52 and 70 kPa) in the conditions of their high moisture (over 20%), which constituted the main factor of these changes. Grain shape, expressed with a defined coefficient, was subject to changes only in the conditions of raised moisture (20-24%) and pressure (70kPa) which is connected with increased elasticity of grains.
EN
The paper deals with the morphometric analysis of remains of the reindeer Rangifer tarandus Linnaeus, 1758 from 20 Late Pleistocene cave localities in Poland. In most of the localities, the species was the most abundant component of the large mammal fauna; the remains came from individuals, killed by predators, including man. The measurements of the remains were compared with those of reindeer from localities in Germany, Moldova, Ukraine and Russia. The measurements of the reindeer from Poland were intermediate between the smaller and more slender reindeer from north-western Europe and the larger reindeer from southern and eastern Europe; the antlers from the localities studied mainly represented the tundra form of Rangifer tarandus. The forest form of the species was represented by a few antlers. With respect to the ages of individuals, the reindeer from the Polish sites belonged to the age classes of under 2 years, 5–6 years and 6–7 years.
EN
The morphometric characteristics of the adult natural population of the brine shrimp Artemia salina from the saltwork of Sahline were surveyed in order to establish the relationship between morphometry and environmental water parameters. The field work was performed monthly from October 2005 to June 2006. During this period, the variation in water temperature, salinity, pH, and concentrations of dissolved oxygen and nutrients (orthophosphate, nitrite, nitrate and ammonium) were monitored. Adult Artemia samples (male and female) were randomly collected and stored in plastic containers and transferred to the laboratory for morphometric characterisation. Results show that adult specimens appear in the saltwork of Sahline from December through June. The population sampled in June had significantly lower values in all morphometric characters when compared to the other samples. Concerning male specimens, correlation analysis of the morphometric parameters and environmental conditions indicate that the strongest correlations were between temperature and total length (rxy = -0.656), salinity and total length (rxy = -0.558), and between pH and width of head (rxy = 0.559). For female specimens, the strongest correlations were between total length and salinity (rxy = -0.610), total length and temperature (rxy = -0.537) and between total length and pH (rxy = 0.583). No correlations were observed between dissolved oxygen concentrations or ammonium levels and any morphometric parameters. The principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that diameter of compound eyes, width of second abdominal segment and width of third abdominal segment, for male specimens, and total length, abdominal length and width of the ovisac, for female specimens, are the morphometric parameters that show the greatest variation between samples.
PL
Do badań cech mierzalnych uklei (Alburnus aibwnus L.) z Kanału Bydgoskiego odłowiono 118 osobników, w tym 82 samice i 36 samców. Na każdym osobniku dokonano 17 pomiarów linlowych z dokładnością do 0,1 mm. Następnie analizowane cechy mierzalne wyrażano w procentach długości ciała. W kilku cechach mierzalnych odnotowano statystycznie istotne różnice między wartościami średnimi samic i samców, lecz w praktyce są one trudne do uchwycenia. Ukleje z Kanału Bydgoskiego w porównaniu z uklejami z rzeki Brdy posiadały dłuższy trzon ogonowy, były mniej wygrzbiecone i w większości posiadały mniejsze płetwy. Badane osobniki bytujące w kanale budową ciała były bardziej zbliżone do uklei zasiedlających jeziora aniżeli rzeki.
EN
In order to check the measurable traits of bleak (Alburnus alburnus L.) from Bydgoski Canal, 118 specimens were caught, including 82 females and 36 males. 17 linear measurements of every specimen were taken within an accuracy of O. l mm. The analyzed measurable traits were expressed as a percentage of body length. As far as some measurable traits were concerned, statistically significant differences between mean values in males and females were found; however, in practice they are difficult to notice. Compared with the bleak from Brda River, the bleak from Bydgoski Canal have longer peduncle, they have smaller dorsal ridges, and most have smaller fins. When it comes to the body structure, the tested specimens living in Bydgoski Canal are more similar to the bleak inhabiting lakes than rivers.
EN
The morphometric and drainage basin analysis of the Umshing River is carried out quantitatively using remote sensing and GIS techniques. The results are presented concerning the hydrological behavior of Umshing river in order to define multi-scale geomorphometric landform types. The Umshing basin shows a sub-trellis drainage pattern indicating the litho-structural control on the drainage. Lithological, structural and geomorphological features control the directions of flow of the tributaries. It is observed and inferred that the Umshing river catchment is under the stage of creep or tilting and hence is vulnerable to geohazard.
EN
In this work a methodological purpose for landforms classification is proposed, based on the analysis of DTMs. In addition, land use and vegetation cover units in the farm were mapped. Finally, the relationship between landforms and land use-vegetation cover units was explored.
PL
Formy terenu tradycyjnie były analizowane przez kartowanie analogowe, jednakże rozwój komputerów umożliwił wprowadzenie informacji cyfrowej, opartej na danych odniesionych przestrzennie. Informacja ta może być wykorzystana do tworzenia precyzyjnych modeli zmiennych morfometrycznych, które wyrażają ciągłe przestrzennie zjawisko bądź konkretne cechy terenu. Na podstawie tych właśnie modeli można wykonywać złożone analizy krajobrazu oparte na parametrach ilościowych, takich jak: wysokość nad poziomem morza, nachylenie, krzywizna, czy chropowatość. Głównym celem niniejszej pracy jest sklasyfikowanie terenu w jednorodne geomorfometryczne jednostki za pomocą numerycznych modeli terenu (NMT) i ich pochodnych oraz odniesienie tych jednostek do obszarów pokrytych roślinnością. Badanie przeprowadzano na terenie gospodarstwa rolnego, typowego dla pastwisk w południowo zachodniej Hiszpanii. Numeryczne modele terenu utworzono na podstawie warstwic i wysokości z wielkością piksela równą 5 metrów, a formy terenu na obszarze badania skartowano przy użyciu algorytmów klasyfikacji nienadzorowanej (grupowanie ISOdata i K- średnich). Metody te pozwalają na grupowanie wartości w dowolnie określonej liczbie klas, czego skutkiem jest klasyfikacja jednostek morfometrycznych. Wynikowe jednostki morfometryczne okazały się użytecznym narzędziem w procesie wyjaśniania rozmieszczenia roślinności. Dominującą formą rzeźby terenu na badanym obszarze są penepleny - faliste powierzchnie erozyjne z głęboko wrytymi rzekami, tworzącymi strome zbocza dolin. Na stromych zboczach dolin, ze względu na orientację terenu, pokrywa roślinna jest gęsta i zróżnicowana gatunkowo. Wyraźne zróżnicowanie w pokryciu roślinnym pojawia się również w wypukłościach i wklęsłościach terenów równinnych, a spowodowane jest to różną wilgotnością gleby wynikającą z morfologii terenu.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono analizy morfometryczne obszaru Polski. Wykonano mapy hipsometryczną, deniwelacji, spadków, kierunków na­chyleń i odchyleń standardowych. W badaniach wykorzystano wysokościowe dane satelitarne SRTM-3 o rozdzielczości 3x3 (60-65x90 m), które do celów badań zgeneralizowano do siatki 125x125 m, a następnie do heksagonów o powierzchni 0,14 i 3 km2. Dane te, ze względu na szczegółowość, powinny być bardzo przydatne w analizach morfometrycznych, w tym na potrzeby praktyki.
EN
The article discusses the results of research on the differentiation of land relief in Poland based on altitude data from SRTM {Shuttle Radar Topography Mission), which is released in the resolution of 3x3 (for Poland's latitude it is 60-65x90 m). Calculations were based on the data in lower resolution done on the grid of 125x125 m. The article presents classic morphometric analyses, a hypsometric map (fig. 2) and maps of differences of relative altitudes (fig. 4), slope angles (fig. 5) and slope directions. Percentage of area in high a.s.l. altitudes and slopes by region were also calculated (tabl. 1 and 2) The author suggests a new method of presentation of differentiation of surface relief through the analysis of variation of standard relative altitude in regular geometrical figures (fig. 7). Maps of Poland in 1:5,000,000 prepared for the article were generalized using a network of hexagons of 0,14 and 3 km2 each (respectively 2,300,000 and 104,200 cells for the area of Poland), within which particular variables were averaged. The research showed high usefulness of SRTli data, particularly in scales below 1:100,000. This data is very detailed and can be applied for various morphometric analyses, which are currently revived becat of this, particularly in geomorphology, hydrology and pedology. Application of computer techniques radio reduces the time needed for tedious calculations. In the case of classic morphometric analyses high hopes are raised by data mining techniques and cluster analysis in general, which facilitate discovery of often difficult to perceive, nevertheless crucial regularities the morphometric differentiation of the Earth's surface. This can help to explain morphogenetic and landscape-forming processes. The last section of the article discusses the possibilities of application of detailed altitude data beyond the traditional range of Earth sciences (geology, physical geography), i.e. in socio-economic study and spatial economy. For more advanced application it is however necessary to eliminate the influence of some land cover forms, forests in particular. It is particularly important in lowland and flatland areas.
EN
The mud crab is the only non-indigenous xanthid encountered in the River Odra estuary. In 2007-2008, the crabs were collected, using fish traps, to determine sex and to follow variations in individual weight and carapace length and width over a year. Sex-dependent differences in the crab morphometry were studied as well. The largest catch was that obtained in September (23.48% of the total number of 264 individuals) and October (31.82%). Male crabs accounted for 56.44% of the total number; males dominated in autumn (September-December) and spring (March, May, June) catches. Males showed significantly wider carapaces (16.81 š3.98 mm; range: 5.60-22.90 mm) and mean individual weight (2.15 š0.94 g; range: 0.15-3.93 g) than females (mean carapace width of 15.05 š3.33 mm; range: 5.30-19.80 mm, and mean individual weight of 1.47 š0.60 g; range: 0.13-2.56 g). Of the 11 morphometric characters analyzed, expressed in relative values (%), related to the carapace width, males showed significantly larger claw dimensions (CHL1, CHW1, CHH1, CHL2, CHW2, CHH2) and smaller abdomen widths (AW).
EN
Seasonal changes in the morphometric and physiological parameters of the cockle Cerastoderma glaucum (Bivalvia) from the Baltic Sea (GD), the North Sea (LV), and the Mediterranean Sea (BL) were investigated. The cockles from GD were much smaller than those from other populations due to osmotic stress. The female to male ratios did not differ significantly from 1:1. The northern populations (GD, LV) had a monocyclic reproductive pattern, whereas the southern population (BL) seemed to reproduce throughout the year. Seasonal changes in the contents of biochemical components appeared to be correlated with changes in trophic conditions and the reproductive cycle. Protein content was the highest in spring for all the populations. The highest lipid contents and lowest carbohydrate contents were noted in GD and BL in spring, while no marked differences were noted among seasons in LV (probably because the data from both sexes were pooled). Respiration rates in GD were the highest among the populations, which could have been due to osmotic stress. High metabolic rates expressed by high respiration rates in GD and LV in spring and autumn could have resulted from gamete development (in spring) and phytoplankton blooms (in spring and autumn).
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