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EN
From ancient days to till today manufacturing industries, especially making of holes on the parts during drilling process for precision assembling of parts facing problems with burr formation. Drilling operation is one of the finishing operation in the production cycle, removing of burrs during drilling process is a time consuming and non-value added process to the manufacturing sector. So reducing the size of burrs is the main aim of the present study. In the present work, optimization of burr size is considered during drilling of aluminium 7075 alloy. In this connection, experiments are conducted based on Grey based Taguchi. From Grey relational grades of responses selected optimal combination of parameters to attain multiple performance characteristics of responses with a corresponding higher grey relational grade. For identifying the most significant input parameters that influence the output responses ANOVA is conducted. Based on interaction effect plots of data means of responses from results of ANOVA, confirmation tests are conducted by choosing most significant parameters. Finally, observations reveals that feed rate, point and clearance angles are the most influential factors on burr size and also experimental results divulge that the lower the thrust force causes to decrease the burr height. The proposed approach is helpful to the budding entrepreneurs in the related areas to select optimal combination of drilling parameters to attain multiple performance characteristics of responses especially in burr size to prevent the post finishing operations up to certain extent.
EN
High-quality products include those with better surface quality and texture, close dimensional tolerances and form accuracies at precise level, increase fatigue life and burr-free. Burr formation is one of the most common inevitable facts occurring in all material removal processes, reduces assembly and machined part quality. But, burr formation during milling is a more complex mechanism compare to remaining machining burrs and leads to numerous difficulties during the deburring process. To prevent this, one should optimize the combination of cutting parameters during machining itself. In order to build up a link between quality and productivity and to attain the same in the cost-effective way, the present work concentrate on multi objective optimization of CNC end milling process parameters. Multiple performance characteristics with respect to surface quality and performance index like assembly work have been put up, to assess an equivalent single quality index (called grey relational grade) has been optimized finally by Grey based Taguchi method. After that priority weight of individual quality and performance attributes has been estimated by entropy measurement technique on the basis of relative significance and check the feasibility of the proposed technique has been demonstrated in this context.
EN
Industries related to the acquiring of building materials may soon face a shortage of natural resources and an associated increase in costs of their acquisition. Therefore, it is necessary to look for possible ways to reduce the exploitation of natural resources and instead use recycled raw materials. Such policies fit into one of the most important trends in modern construction, which is sustainable development. In the conducted research, the Taguchi method was utilized in order to investigate the impact of modifying cement mortars with rubber and cork waste on the selected properties of the obtained composites. Thanks to the above method, we managed to obtain the desired information about mortars in a shorter time and at a lower cost than using traditional testing methods. Using the selection in planning method, we confirmed that rubber waste can be a good substitute for sand in mortars.
EN
In this paper we aim to improve the understanding of the relationship between unilateral-uniplanar external fixator design parameters and their influences on fixator performance. Stability and strength of bone-fixator construct as well as the quality of healing were defined as our major concerns in order to evaluate the performance of fixator. The roles of six key design parameters were assessed during the early stage of healing by using finite element models. Tissue differentiation within the callus was predicted through the implementation of a mechanoregulation theory of bone healing. Taguchi and ANOVA methods were used to achieve optimal design sets for outputs and to determine contribution percentage of each design parameter on outputs. For improving overall fixator performance, optimal set of design parameters consisting of 2 mm, 8 mm, 120 mm, 20 GPa, 50 mm and 20 mm were determined by Taguchi for pin diameter, rod diameter, rod elevation, fixator Young's modulus, distance of the nearest pin to fracture site and distance between adjacent pins, respectively. Also, results of ANOVA revealed that rod elevation is the most important design parameter, with 43 % effectiveness on overall fixator performance, which was followed by fixator material and pin diameter with 28 % and 19 %, respectively. Results of this study can assist orthopedic surgeons to achieve an optimal fixator device with respect to the patient's condition and give insight into the importance of different design parameters.
EN
Resistance spot welding (RSW) is a fabrication process that is being used in the automobile and aerospace industry since many years for joining low carbon or “mild” steel. Quality and strength of the welds depend upon the process parameters of RSW. The most effective parameters in this process are: current intensity, welding time, sheet thickness and material, geometry of electrodes, electrode force, and current shunting. This paper presents the experimental investigations for the optimization of tensile shear stress of RSW for stainless steel grade 316L sheets by using Taguchi method. The experiments were conducted using Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array under varying proces parameters, namely electrode diameter, welding current, and heating time. The experimental data were analyzed using signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ratio) to find the optimal process parameters. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and F test were used to find the most significant parameters affecting the spot weld quality characteristics. Confirmation tests with optimal process parameters were conducted to validate the test results. From the results, itwas found that it is possible to increase tensile shear stress significantly.
EN
Variation in final casting dimensions is a major challenge in the investment casting industry. Additional correction operations such as die tool reworking as well as coining operations affect foundry productivity significantly. In this paper influence of basic parameters such as wax material, mould material, number of ceramic coats and feed location on the dimensional accuracy of stainless-steel casting has been investigated. Two levels of each factor were chosen for experimental study. Taguchi approach has been used to design the experiment and to identify the optimal condition of each parameter for reduced dimensional deviation. Analysis of variance has been carried out to determine the contribution of each process parameter. The result reports that selected parameters have significant effect on the dimensional variability of investment casting. Mould material is the dominant parameter with the largest contribution followed by number of ceramic coats and wax material whereas feed location is having negligible contribution.
EN
Pre-structuring of magnetic particles during fabrication of magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) is a crucial step, which results in the formation of chain-like columnar structures in the rubber matrix. In this study, MRE based on natural rubber and carbonyl iron particles were prepared. The Taguchi method was utilized to study the effect of several dominating factors during the fabrication process such as pre-curing time, pre-curing temperature and applied magnetic field during curing on the loss tangent (tan δ) and tensile properties. Tan δ was measured through parallel-plate rheometer over a frequency range of 1–100 Hz and a strain amplitude range of 0.1–6%. Tensile properties were measured with a universal tensile testing machine. The obtained data were statistically analyzed using S/N ratios and ANOVA in order to predict the optimal combination of factors, and then further experiments were conducted for verification purpose. Results indicated that the magnetic field had the greatest influence on tan δ when measured over a range of frequency and elongation at break. Furthermore, pre-curing time and magnetic field were found to influence tan δ when measured over a range of strain amplitude. However, none of the factors exhibited significant influence on tensile strength. In addition, the morphology of MRE was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
PL
Dynamiczny rozwój przemysłu motoryzacyjnego dotknął również pojazdy wykorzystywane w pracach polowych. Poruszają się one z coraz to większymi prędkościami, charakteryzują się też większymi masami. Ich zatrzymanie wymaga więc stosowania nowych, bardziej wydajnych hamulców. To z kolei wymusza prowadzenie licznych badań mających na celu optymalizację składu okładzin ciernych. Do badań wykorzystuje się różne metody. Najkorzystniej jest, jeżeli wykonuje się badania na obiekcie rzeczywistym. Jednak mało kiedy jest to możliwe. W badaniach laboratoryjnych próbuje się jak najlepiej odzwierciedlić obiekt badań, jednak stanowiska badawcze zapewniają jedynie pewne przybliżenie. Wielu naukowców zajmuje się obecnie badaniami symulacyjnymi. Ich główną zaletą jest niski koszt oraz praktycznie nieograniczona możliwość wariacji warunków badań. Niniejsza praca ma na celu zaproponowanie nowej metody badawczej wykorzystującej kontakt Ball-Cratering. Do odpowiedniego zaplanowania eksperymentu zaproponowano metodę optymalizacji procesów Taguchi. W celu zweryfikowania prawidłowości proponowanej metody wykonano przykładowe badania. Wyznaczono w nich wartości współczynnika tarcia oraz współczynnika szybkości zużywania ściernego.
EN
The dynamic development of the automotive industry also affected vehicles used in agricultural. They are running at higher speeds, they are also characterized by larger masses. Their stopping therefore requires the use of new, more efficient brakes. This, in turn, requires numerous studies to optimize the composition of friction materials. Various methods are used for research. It is most beneficial if tests are carried out on a real object. However, not often it is possible. Laboratory tests attempt to reflect the research object as closely as possible, but the test stands provide only some approximation. Many researchers are currently involved in simulation research. Their main advantage is lower cost and virtually unlimited variation of test conditions. This work aims to propose a new research method using Ball-Cratering contact. The method of Taguchi optimizing processes was proposed for the appropriate planning of the experiment. In order to verify the correctness of the proposed method, examinations were carried out. As a result, the values of the coefficient of friction and the coefficient of abrasive wear rate were determined.
9
Content available remote Rotary smart car parking system
EN
Problems with parking individual cars, particularly in urban areas, were already experienced by the inhabitants of developed countries in the interwar period. These problems continue to appear, as the number of cars increases and there are fewer and fewer parking spaces. Therefore, solutions are sought after to ensure the largest possible number of parking spaces with the smallest occupied area, especially in large agglomerations of highly developed countries. The article presents one of the possible solutions – rotary car parks (The Rotary Automated Car Parking System; RACPS). The research results reffered to in the article are the effect of works conducted at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of the Cracow University of Technology in the field of modelling and optimisation of a rotary car park [5, 6, 8].
PL
Kłopoty z parkowaniem samochodów indywidualnych szczególnie w obszarach miejskich mieli już w okresie międzywojennym mieszkańcy krajach rozwiniętych. I te problemy w dalszym ciągu się pojawiają, ponieważ ilość samochodów wzrasta, a miejsc do parkowania mamy coraz mniej. Dlatego poszukuje się rozwiązań, które mają zapewnić jak największą liczbę stanowisk parkingowych przy jak najmniejszej powierzchni zajmowanej, szczególnie w wielkich aglomeracjach krajów wysokorozwiniętych. W artykule przedstawiono jedno z możliwych rozwiązań, jakim są parkingi obrotowe (The Rotary Automated Car Parking System; RACPS). Wyniki badań przytoczone w artykule są efektem prowadzonych na Wydziale Mechanicznym Politechnice Krakowskiej prac z zakresu modelowania i optymalizacji obrotowego parkingu samochodowego [5, 6, 8].
EN
Since G.E.P. Box introduced central composite designs in early fifties of 20th century, the classic design of experiments (DoE) utilizes response surface models (RSM), however usually limited to the simple form of low-degree polynomials. In the case of small size datasets, the conformity with the normal distribution has very weak reliability and it leads to very uncertain assessment of a parameter statistical significance. The bootstrap approach appears to be better solution than – theoretically proved but only asymptotically equal – t distribution based evaluation. The authors presents the comparison of the RSM model evaluated by a classic method and bootstrap approach.
EN
The design of experiment (DoE) is a methodology originated from early 1920s when Fisher’s papers created the analysis of variance and first known experimental designs: latin squares. It is focused on a construction of empirical models based on measurements obtained from specifically structured and driven experiments. Its development resulted in the constitution of four distinctive branches recognized by the industry: factorials (full or fractional), Taguchi’s robust design, Shainin’s Red-X® and a response surface methodology (RSM). On one hand, the well-known success stories of this methodology implementations promise great benefits, while on other hand, the mathematical complexity of mathematical and statistical assumptions very often lead to improper use and wrong inferences. The possible solution to avoid such mistakes is the expert system supporting the design of experiments and subsequently the analysis of obtained data. The authors propose the outline of such system and provides the general analysis of the ontology and related inference rules.
EN
Friction Stir Welding (FSW) was carried out on Aluminum Alloy 6082-T6 plates with dimensions of 200 x 70 x 2 mm. Design of Experiment (DOE) was applied to determine the most important factors which influence the Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) and Hardness (HV) of AA 6082-T6 joints produced by Friction Stir Welding (FSW). Effect of two factors which include tool rotational speed and welding speed on (UTS, HV) were investigated by Taguchi method using L9 orthogonal array to find the optimum process parameters. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out to determine which of the selected factors are more significant on both of responses, the optimum parameters for the higher UTS it found by using a rotational speed of 1400 rpm and 125 mm/min for the welding speed, also 1400 rpm and 160 mm/min to maximize Hardness (HV).
EN
The utilization of TiB2 particles reinforced aluminum (Al6063) metal matrix composite materials in many different engineering fields has undergone a tremendous increase. Accordingly, the need of accurate machining of composites has increased enormously; an attempt has been made to assess the factors influencing surface roughness and material removal rate on machining the composite. The orthogonal array, the signal-to-noise ratio, and analysis of variance were employed to study the performance characteristics in turning operations of 5 and 10 wt. % TiB2 particles reinforced aluminum (Al6063) metal matrix composites. Taguchi method was used to find the optimal cutting factors for surface roughness (Ra) and material removal rate (MRR). Three cutting factors namely speed; feed and depth of cut were optimized with considerations of Ra and MRR. The experimental plan and analysis was based on the Taguchi L27 orthogonal array with three cutting factors using carbide tool (K20). The optimal parametric combination for K20 carbide insert was found to be feed, speed and depth of cut. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) result shows that feed the most significant process parameter on surface roughness followed by speed. For MRR result show that the speed and the feed are the significant parameters followed by the composition of composite material.
EN
Owing to the distinguished properties Metal Matrix Graphite Hybrid Composites (Al/SiCMMC-Gr) are used in various applications. This paper deals with the utility of Taguchi and response surface methodologies for the prediction of surface roughness in tuning of these materials with PCD tool. The cutting parameters effect on surface quality is analyzed and an empirical model with respect to turning parameters is established using response surface method. The most important parameter that influences the turning Al/SiC-MMC-Gr is feed. The measured and predicted results are approximately equal, which proves that, model is to be used for predicting surface finish in turning of these composites. Validation experiments have been used to confirm the predicted results.
EN
The article attempts to assess the usefulness of the Taguchi method to optimise the purification process of synthetic textile wastewater (pH 6.7 - 7.2, Conductivity = 6.71 - 6.84 mS/cm, Salinity = 3581 - 3648 mg NaCl/l, Colour = 560 - 4710 mg Pt/l, COD = 2220 - 2290 mg O2/l, TOC = 394 - 551 mg/l) using K2FeO4. The research was conducted using 3 types of wastewater containing anionic detergent (sodium lauryl sulfate, 100 mg/l) and differing only in the concentration of azo dye Acid Green 16 (AG 16). Technical K2FeO4 was used as an oxidiser, which was subjected to physico-chemical analysis (purity, UV-VIS spectrum, surface characteristics and chemical composition using SEM and EDX methods). For planning and optimising the wastewater treatment process, the Taguchi method was used for four input parameters: pH (2, 7, 12), reaction time (10, 30, 50 min), AG 16 concentrations (20, 120, 220 mg/l) and K2FeO4 concentrations (25, 125, 225 mg/l), for which 9 experiments were performed in accordance with the plan adopted. Test result analysis allowed to indicate the optimal values for individual input parameters (pH 2, time = 50 min, AG 16 = 20 mg/l, K2FeO4 = 125 mg/l). Under these conditions, visual discoloration of wastewater was obtained (AG 16 = 0.4 mg/l, ↓98% ), colour removal (66 mg Pt/l, ↓88%) and DOC (249 mg/l, ↓37%).
PL
W artykule podjęto próbę oceny przydatności metody Taguchi do optymalizacji procesu oczyszczania syntetycznych ścieków farbiarskich (pH = 6.7-7.2, Conductivity = 6.71-6.84 mS/cm, Salinity = 3581-3648 mg NaCl/dm3, Colour = 560-4710 mg Pt/dm3, COD = 2220-2290 mg O2/dm3, TOC = 394-551 mg/dm3) z zastosowaniem K2FeO4. Badania prowadzono z wykorzystaniem 3 rodzajów ścieków zawierających detergent anionowy (laurylosiarczan sodu, 100 mg/dm3) i różniących się jedynie stężeniem barwnika Acid Green 16 (AG 16). Jako utleniacz zastosowano techniczny K2FeO4, który poddano analizie fizykochemicznej (czystość, widmo UV-VIS, charakterystyka powierzchni i skład chemiczny z zastosowaniem metod SEM i EDX). Do planowania i optymalizacji procesu oczyszczania ścieków zastosowano metodę Taguchi dla czterech parametrów wejściowych: pH (2, 7, 12), czasu reakcji (10, 30, 50 min.), stężenia AG 16 (20, 120, 220 mg/dm3) oraz stężenia K2FeO4 (25, 125, 225 mg/dm3), dla których wykonano 9 eksperymentów zgodnie z przyjętym planem. Analiza wyników badań pozwoliła na wskazanie optymalnych wartości dla poszczególnych parametrów wejściowych (pH 2, czas 50 min., AG 16=20 mg/dm3, K2FeO4 = 125 mg/dm3). W tych warunkach uzyskano wizualne odbarwienie ścieków (AG 16 = 0.4 mg/dm3, ↓98% ), zmniejszenie barwy (66 mg Pt/dm3, ↓88% ) oraz DOC (249 mg/dm3, ↓37%).
16
Content available remote Zastosowanie metody Taguchi w spawalnictwie
PL
Metoda Taguchi jest stosowana przy planowaniu eksperymentu do optymalizacji wybranych parametrów spawania w celu poprawy jakości złączy. W opracowaniu przedstawiono przegląd aktualnej literatury dotyczącej metodyki Taguchi wykorzystanej w różnych procesach spawalniczych.
EN
Taguchi method is used as a statistical design of experiment technique for optimizing selected welding parameters in terms of improvement of the weld quality. The present study reviews current literature on the Taguchi methodology applied for various welding processes.
17
Content available remote Optimization of turning process parameters by Taguchi-based Six Sigma
EN
In this paper, Six Sigma approach is used for improving the quality process outputs in turning of Galvanized Iron. The objective is to optimize the turning parameters and maximize the MRR (Material Removal Rate). A L16 orthogonal array based on Taguchi experiments consisting of three controlling factors viz. spindle speed, feed rate, and depth of cut, each with four levels as required in traditional DOE setting is used here. Taguchi’s parameter design offers an approach in Design of Experiments (DOE) with control parameters optimization to attain best outcome. An orthogonal array offers a set of balanced least experiments which help in data analysis and prediction of optimum results. For each experiment, the Material Removal Rate (MRR) is calculated. The Taguchi method results in reducing the quality characteristic variation due to uncontrollable parameter through the study of response variation using the Signal to Noise (S/N) ratio by the use of Minitab 16 software. Moreover, statistical investigation shows that standard deviation and mean value of confirmation run data are reduced when compare with before Taguchi design run data was performed.
EN
In this research, an experimental investigation of the machining characteristics of Aluminium Alloy 7075 T6 in CNC milling machine using High Speed Steel (HSS) cutting tool had been carried out. In machining operation, the quality of surface finish is an important requirement for milled work pieces. Thus, the choice of optimized cutting parameters is very important for controlling the required quality. The purpose of this research is focused on the analysis of optimum cutting conditions for minimum surface roughness and maximum material removal rate in CNC milling of Aluminium Alloy 7075 T6 by Taguchi method. Experiment have been carried out based on L16 standard orthogonal array design with three process parameters namely Spindle Speed, Feed rate, Depth of Cut. The results of the machining experiments were used to characterize the main factors affecting surface finishing and material removal rate by signal to noise ratio and analysis of variance method. Feed rate is the most significant process parameters for surface roughness and depth of cut is the most significant process parameters for material removal rate.
EN
The 3D simulation of fabrics is an interesting issue in many fields, such as computer engineering, textile engineering, cloth design and so on. Several methods have been presented for fabric simulation. The mass spring model, a typical physically-based method, is one of the methods for fabric simulation which is widely considered by researchers due to rapid simulation and being more consistent with reality. The aim of this paper is the optimization of mass spring parameters in the simulation of the drape behaviour of knitted fabric using the Imperialist Competitive Algorithm. First a mass spring model is proposed to simulate the drape behavior of knitted fabric. Then in order to reduce the error value between the simulated and actual result (reducing the simulation error value), parameters of the mass spring model such as the stiffness coefficient, damping coefficient, elongation rate, topology and natural length of the spring are optimized using the Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA). The ICA parameters are specified using the Taguchi Design of Experiment. Finally fabrics drape shapes are simulated in other situations and compared with their actual results to validate the model parameters. Results show that the optimized model is able to predict the drape behavior of knitted fabric with an error value of 2.4 percent.
PL
Celem niniejszej pracy jest optymalizacja parametrów masowo-sprężystych w symulacji układalności struktur dzianych przy wykorzystaniu imperialistycznego algorytmu konkurencji. Zaproponowano model mas i sprężyn symulujących zachowanie dzianin. Następnie, dla polepszenia korelacji pomiędzy strukturami teoretycznymi a rzeczywistymi, określone parametry modelu, takie jak: współczynnik sztywności, współczynnik tłumienia, wydłużenie, topologia i naturalna długości sprężyny zoptymalizowano posługując się imperialistycznym algorytmem konkurencji (ICA). Parametry określono przy użyciu planowania eksperymentu metodą Taguchi. Przedstawiono i porównano symulacje układalności z rzeczywistą układalnością dzianin. Stwierdzono, że opracowany model pozwala na przewidywanie układalności dzianin z dokładnością do 2,4%.
EN
Rotor speed and twist per metres (tpm) are two key parameters in open-end rotor spinning of cotton yarns. High spinning productivity can be obtained by keeping the rotor speed high and twist level as low as possible. However, too high rotor speed may result in yarn imperfections and too low twist level may result in lower tenacity yarns. This study aimed at optimising the multiple yarn characteristics in open-end rotor spinning using the Taguchi method and the grey relational analysis. Cotton yarn samples of 30 tex were produced on rotor spinning machine with different twist levels (i.e. 500, 550, 600 and 700 tpm) at different rotor speeds (i.e. 70,000, 80,000, 90,000 and 100,000 rpm) according to the Taguchi design of experiment. Optimal spinning process parameters were determined using the grey relational grade as the performance index. It was concluded that for the cotton fibres and yarn count used in this study, optimum properties of the yarns could be obtained at 90,000 rpm rotor speed and 700 tpm.
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