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EN
This paper presents a bibliometric analysis of maritime transport/shipping-related publications between 1975 and November 2018 in order to describe the profile and research themes. Comprehensive queries were used to reveal the general structure of maritime transport/shipping-related literature in the context of the Science Citation Index-Expanded (SCI-Expanded) and Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) databases. The analysis was conducted using bibliometric mapping. Five years of maritime/shipping literature was also comparatively presented. The results indicated major research areas, leading authors, countries, organizations, journals, and publications with the contributions of the comments of leading authors. Within the five-year period, maritime surveillance research and marine engineering research clusters were identified as developing clusters that expanded and received increased interest. Economic studies decreased, while operations research increased in the maritime transport/shipping literature. Optimization research and marine engineering research appear to be growing research clusters. Interdisciplinary research appears to have a high chance of being published in SCI-Expanded and SSCI in the future. The main contribution of this paper was the identification of areas of current research interests which allowed the quantification and visualization of changes in the entire body of shipping literature over a short time period.
EN
In order to provide quality and safety of liquid cargo carried by sea, it is necessary to obey the rules of its protection. During maritime transport edible oils are prone to detrimental influence of many external factors such as supply of oxygen, of water, of metal ions and of pollution, as well as changes of temperature and mixing caused by ship movement. Due to them, they could undergo oxidation reactions, hydrolysis, polymerization and various types of physical transformation. On account of them the deterioration of nutritional, health and sensory qualities of fat could occur. The aim of the study was the assessment of the dynamic of changes with oxidative character (peroxide value and TBA index) which could appear in edible oils depending on their storage conditions. The analysis, which lasted 12 weeks, concerns rapeseed oil. Oxidative changes were registered every two week. The storage conditions in the atmospheric air induced danger connected with oxygen presence, whereas nitrogen blanketing eliminated this risk factor. The assessment also includes the influence of temperature of storage (indoor temperature 20˚C or refrigeration temperature 4˚C) and mixing of the fats. The results indicate that nitrogen blanketing, lowering the temperature and eliminating the mixing during storage of oil have highly positive impact on reduction of oxidative changes in fats.
EN
Dynamically implemented mandatory management systems resulting from legal requirements in maritime transport since 2006 [1-3], very often (especially in the first years of implementing the requirements) functioned independently by the optional procedural approach - ISO [4-5]. It is now common practice to integrate requirements in both - the mandatory and voluntary areas. Legal requirements and recommendations do not define and recommend a specific form of extending existing management systems. The publication describes the relationship between the requirements for the management systems currently applicable in maritime transport resulting from legal requirements (Safety Management System - SMS) and voluntary implementations (Quality Management and Environmental Management System). The common areas identified for the analysis of system requirements (for obligatory and optional systems) will facilitate the integration and broadening of the management culture in maritime transport organizations.
EN
The following paper covers the policy of the Russian Federation (RF) on maritime transport in the broader context of the strategic regulations on transport. On the one hand, the strategic regulations of the Russian Federation on the development of transport was brought closer. While on the other hand, the focus was on the maritime transport issues of the RF in the Baltic Basin and the implementation of the transport strategy between 2008-2019 in the context of the Russian maritime policy activities, with a particular focus on the Baltic Sea.
EN
The paper presents a mathematical model of a positional game of the safe control of a vessel in collision situations at sea, containing a description of control, state variables and state constraints as well as sets of acceptable ship strategies, as a multi-criteria optimisation task. The three possible tasks of multi-criteria optimisation were formulated in the form of non-cooperative and cooperative multi-stage positional games as well as optimal non-game controls. The multicriteria control algorithms corresponding to these tasks were subjected to computer simulation in Matlab/Simulink software based on the example of the real navigational situation of the passing of one’s own vessel with eighteen objects encountered in the North Sea.
EN
In this study, an analysis of deep sea shipping (DSS) container services, calling at Italian ports, is carried out. A comparison with analogous sets of data collected in the years 2011 and 2014 has been performed. The most important Italian port system is the Ligurian one, which includes the main Italian port, Genoa, which is the main access gate to the Padan Plain, the most productive area of Italy. However, other ports are also important: the Ligurian port of La Spezia and the hub port of Gioia Tauro. The comparison, with 2011 and 2014 data, has shown that while the number of DSS departures, from Italian ports, did not increase, the dimensions of the ships, which call at Italian ports, increased relevantly: this is in line with the current trend in container ship gigantism.
7
Content available Current trends of protectionism in shipping industry
EN
The purpose of this paper is to systematize the practical experience of the state protectionism in shipping industry at the current stage of its development. The reasons of protectionism in maritime transport are considered and the analysis of the world fleet ownership and flags of registration is conducted. The comparative analysis of the Dutch and Norwegian tonnage tax regimes and other current tax incentives in the different countries is made. The advantages and shortcomings of protectionist measures in shipping industry from the macroeconomic and microeconomic points of view are analysed. The results of research contains elements of novelty: the scientific representation of state protectionism in shipping industry gained further development by systematization of international experience of application of direct and indirect measures in shipping and allocation of the main trends of protectionism; the classification of protectionist measures in shipping industry is improved by the specification of the structure of indirect methods.
EN
Safety, along with the issue of security, is the most substantial and critical issue to any society and nation of the mankind. The fact that human elements contribute dominantly, in particular, to the transportation – marine, air and road traffic – accidents requires not only the technical approaches, but also cultural configuration inherent to the accidents. This paper tries to incorporate Hofstede’s dimensions of national culture to identify possible interaction with accidents. It will be of help to figure out the need to consider the aspect of national culture to be efficient in dealing with policies for safer communities and nations.
EN
This paper offers an analytical discussion on the terminology and timeframes related to the future of shipping. The discussion is based on issues that have surfaced within the Swedish research project Autonomy and responsibility. The paper argues that the concept ‘autonomous ships’ has become an indicator of that seafarers soon will become obsolete – which may have negative consequences for the supply of maritime competence in coming years - and that the proper definition of the term ‘autonomous’ describes something that will never apply to a ship. Ships can be given the possibility, but hardly the full right or condition of self-government. It is argued that ‘smart ships’, or perhaps ‘intelligent ships’, are more appropriate, since these terms describe the current and future state of technology without predicting how humans will prefer to use it. The estimated timeframes for implementation of unmanned ships suggest no threat to the seafaring occupation for coming generation. The content of the occupation will of course change due to the phase of implementation of degree of digitalization, but there will always be a need for maritime knowledge and understanding.
PL
Niniejsza praca dotyczy realizacji Strategii Transportowej Federacji Rosyjskiej na przykładzie transportu morskiego. Z jednej strony analizowane są związane z transportem morskim wykonawcze programy strategiczne. Z drugiej strony przybliżono sterowane centralnie przez gremia rządowe wykonawstwo ww. planów
EN
The folowing paper reveals the execution of Russian Federations Policy of sea transport based on The Transport Strategy of The RF. On the one hand the russian strategic programms are analised. On the other hand te conduct of the strategic plans (guided by governmental assemblies) is taken into consideration
11
Content available remote Modelling consequences of maritime critical infrastructure accidents
EN
The probabilistic general model of critical infrastructure accident consequences including the superposition of three models of the process of initiating events, the process of environment threats and the process of environment degradation is adopted to the maritime transport critical infrastructure. The general model is applied to this critical infrastructure accident with chemical release consequences identification and prediction. The model also includes the cost analysis of losses associated with these chemical releases. Further, under the assumption of the stress of weather influence on the ship operation condition, critical infrastructure accident losses are examined and the results are compared with the previous ones. Finally, the method of optimization are practically tested to the minimizing these losses and the procedures and the new strategy assuring lower environment losses of the considered critical infrastructure accidents are proposed.
PL
Probabilistyczny model konsekwencji wypadków infrastruktury krytycznej łączący trzy modele: procesu zdarzeń inicjujących, procesu zagrożeń środowiska oraz procesu degradacji środowiska został zaadaptowany do morskiej infrastruktury krytycznej. Model zastosowano do identyfikacji i prognozowania konsekwencji uwolnienia substancji chemicznych podczas wypadków morskiej infrastruktury krytycznej. Model zawiera także analizę kosztów wynikających z uwolnienia tych substancji. Dodatkowa analiza strat uwzględnia wpływ warunków pogodowych na stan eksploatacyjny statku, który uległ wypadkowi. Ponadto przetestowano metodę optymalizacji w celu zmniejszenia tych strat oraz przedstawiono procedury i nowe rozwiązania zapewniające mniejsze straty w środowisku, wynikające z wypadków omawianej infrastruktury krytycznej.
EN
This paper has explored the predictability of spreads between long-term and short-term timecharter rates on spot freight rates. The spread between long-term and short-term rates (or the slope of the yield curve) is often used as a leading economic indicator of economic activities. This concept has been extended to the shipping market in this paper and the probability that the spot freight rate will increase or decrease has been determined. Using the spread between the timecharter rates on long-term and short-term charter contracts, the direction of spot freight rates has been predicted with the dynamic probit model, which is used to estimate the probability of discrete events. Evidence has been drawn from Panamax dry bulk ships for future weekly, quarterly and biyearly changes of spot freight rates. While the dynamic probit model has shown moderate predictive power, the weekly model has shown that the market has a relatively longer memory than the quarterly and biyearly models.
EN
Vessel passage speed is one of the parameters describing the vessel traffic stream on a selected waterway. Knowing the probability distribution of vessel passage speeds is essential for modeling vessel traffic streams on a waterway. This article undertakes probabilistic modeling for vessel speeds in restricted areas, where the distribution of the vessel passage time of the waterway section is known. The probabilistic procedure of the inverse random variable is used. Four different cases are considered. First, the probabilistic distribution of the vessel passage speed is given, where the vessel passage time is described by the normal distribution in certain restricted areas. The next three cases present the probabilistic distribution of vessel passage speeds on the Szczecin–Świnoujście fairway, where the vessel passage time is described by the extreme value distribution, the Frèchet distribution and the Weibull distribution.
14
Content available Simulation model for maritime container terminal
EN
For logistic chains that have a maritime component, the ports transition involves a set of specific operations inside maritime container terminals. This can be cargo handling operations from the terrestrial vehicle in the storage area of ports, from port storage area in the maritime ships, as well as storage operations in the port area and other container terminal activities. Taking into consideration the multi-flow interactions and the non-uniform arrival of vessels and in-land vehicles, discrete event simulation stands as a feasible technique for investigating berthing capacity during the initial planning stage of the terminal or for operative planning of logistic processes at the terminal. If the storage area is analysed as a queuing system, the quality serving attributes could be evaluate. When different distributions for arrival flows of the containers in the maritime container terminal are taken into consideration, the quality serving attributes are difficult to estimate. In our paper, a discrete simulation model is developed in ARENA software for case of a maritime container terminal. The estimation of the general measures of performance for the container port terminals through simulation could provide data for the implementation in the management plans by port administrations.
EN
Security mechanisms of a telematics system are exceedingly intersecting as they could pretend the ordinary influence of the vehicle and perhaps terminate in accidents. This paper includes a new look at automotive and telematics transportation systems, also refers to methods in modelling, facility location, data processing and assessment of risk in telematics networks.
EN
In sea transport, a very important thing is an assignment of cargo to a particular class of storage climate conditions and it is carried out on the basis of the requirements that cargo places upon its storage atmosphere. The water content of black tea must not fall below 2%, as the product otherwise becomes haylike and its essential oils readily volatilize, while on the other hand, it must not exceed 9% as it then has a tendency to grow mould and become musty. Therefore, tea requires particular temperature, humidity/moisture and possibly ventilation conditions. In this context, tea is a hygroscopic material that has the ability to absorb or desorb water in response to temperature and relative humidity of the atmosphere surrounding it. The moisture content of tea is one of the most important variables affecting its chemical and sensory properties. Therefore, to explore and predict the behaviour during transport of tea, its equilibrium moisture content must be determined for a range of transport temperatures and relative humidities. The present paper focuses on the evaluate the hygroscopic properties of tea from Rwanda with different degree of fragmentation based on isotherms of water vapour sorption and characteristics selected parameters of the surface microstructure determining transport conditions and therefor microbiological stability of teas.
17
Content available Ubezpieczenie cargo w przewozach morskich
PL
Celem artykułu jest analiza obowiązujących regulacji w zakresie odpowiedzialności i rozłożenia ryzyka spowodowanego utratą lub uszkodzeniem ładunku podczas transportu morskiego. W artykule omówiono kwestie wyłączeń odpowiedzialności przewoźnika na gruncie Reguł hasko-visbijskich w kontekście uszkodzeń albo zniszczeń towaru powstałych w trakcie transportu morskiego. Artykuł zawiera analizę powszechnie stosowanych klauzul instytucjonalnych w umowach ubezpieczeniowych zawieranych przez ubezpieczycieli. Autorka zwraca uwagę na konieczność nowelizacji przepisów, które dotyczą wyłączeń odpowiedzialności przewoźnika za szkody bądź uszkodzenia ładunków w czasie transportu morskiego. Dawne instytucje prawne służące rozłożeniu ryzyka są przestarzałe i mało efektywne, choć nadal funkcjonują w prawie morskim ze względu na jego tradycjonalizm i uprzywilejowanie grupy armatorów. Patrząc jednak na specyfikę transportu morskiego, zwiększającą się ilość towarów transportowanych drogą morską oraz tendencję wzrostową we współpracy polskich przedsiębiorców z zagranicznymi przewoźnikami, powinna zostać poruszona kwestia zmiany podstawy prawnej dotyczącej tej gałęzi transportu.
EN
The aim of the article is to analyze the applicable regulations regarding liability and risk distribution caused by the loss or damage of cargo during sea transport. The article discusses the issues of exclusion of carrier liability under the Hague-Visbian Rules in the context of damage or destruction of goods created during maritime transport. The article contains an analysis of commonly used institutional clauses in insurance contracts concluded by insurers. The author draws attention to the need to amend the provisions that apply to the exclusion of carrier’s liability for damage or damage to cargo during sea transport. Former legal institutions serving the distribution of risk seem to be outdated and not very effective. These institutions are still functioning in maritime law through its traditionalism and privileging the group of shipowners, and due to the specificity of maritime transport, the increasing amount of goods transported by sea and an upward trend in the cooperation of Polish entrepreneurs with foreign carriers, the issue of changing the legal basis in this transport branch.
18
EN
The purpose of the article is to present the goal of optimization of transport and logistics processes, followed by literature review in the field of optimization methods. The optimization methods were categorized and the most commonly used methods were listed. The tasks of static and dynamic optimization were formulated. An example of the single-criterion static and dynamic optimization and multi-criteria game optimization are given.
EN
The maritime transport in Bulgaria is controlled and coordinated by the Executive Agency "Maritime administration". This institutionis a legal entity on budget support to the Ministry of transport, information technology and communications, a second level user of budget credits, based in Sofia with regional offices in Bourgas, Varna, Lom and Rousse (where are the Bulgarian major ports). EAMA status is regulated by the Merchant Shipping Code – Art. 360, para. 1. The problem of forecasting in the new strategic documents is crucial to the formation of proper infrastructure policy which has to be innovative and for the future strategic development of the tourism in the country. This paper is aimed at presenting the lack of real forecasting in many of the strategic documents and projects adopted for the development of the maritime transport in Bulgaria (i.e. Directive2008/106/EC of European Parliament and Council on the minimum level of training of sea farers; Ordinance No. 9 of 2013 on the requirements for operational suitability of ports and specialised port facilities; Ordinance No. 10 of 2014 on the scope and content, preparation, approval and amendment of the general plans of the public transport ports). There are also many Mutual Agreements for Recognition of Seafarers" certificates. The paper provides a practical example for the use of the so called single or simple exponential smoothing without the presence of any seasonality and the lack of cyclicity on the number of passengersarrivals at the Bulgarian maritime ports.
EN
The once-only principle in the context of the public sector means that citizens and businesses supply data only once to a public administration. The role of public administrations is to internally share these data also across borders so that no additional burden falls on citizens and businesses. One of the most important initiatives in Europe to explore and demonstrate the once-only principle in practice is the TOOP project. TOOP is currently developing a federated IT architecture in order to demonstrate how the once only principle can be applied by the European Member States. This technical solution will be practically tested within three pilot areas. The article presents these areas with a particular focus on a maritime domain. The application of the once-only principle in maritime transport primarily concerns the need for simplification in the area of ship and crew certificates, which are currently issued and maintained in a paper format and stored by national maritime administrations. Barriers and opportunities to implement the once and only principle in Europe are described as well.
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