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PL
Artykuł jest przeglądem naszych badań w zakresie mechanizmu korozji i pasywacji żelaza, stali konstrukcyjnych oraz stali stopowych w systemie H2O - NaCl - CO2 - H2S, w podwyższonej temperaturze i podwyższonym ciśnieniu. Praca ma duże znaczenie dla doboru stali odpornych na korozję, przeznaczonych do budowy instalacji geotermalnych. Zaproponowany został mechanizm korozji stali konstrukcyjnych, wyjaśniony wpływ zawartości chromu oraz obróbki cieplnej na odporność korozyjną stali niskostopowych. Praca przedstawia również właściwości elektrochemiczne (pasywację) stali stopowych w wodzie o silnej mineralizacji (solance). Artykuł omawia zarówno badania laboratoryjne (w autoklawie) jak i w instalacji przemysłowej. Te ostatnie pozwoliły na uzyskanie charakterystyki elektrochemicznej stopów w warunkach naturalnych, w bardzo dużych przepływach (do 2 m/s).
EN
The paper presents the review of our investigations of the mechanism and kinetics of corrosion and passivation of iron, carbon steels and chromium steels in the H2O - NaCl - CO2 - H2S system, in elevated temperature and at high pressure. The work is very important for the selection of corrosion resistant steels for geothermal plants. Corrosion mechanism of carbon steel is discussed and the influence of chromium content in the steel and the effect of thermal treatment of the alloys on the mechanism of anodic layer formation and corrosion resistance of the alloys are explained. The paper presents also the passive behavior of stainless chromium steels in thermal water with high salinity (brine). The investigations were performed in laboratory (autoclave) and in field conditions, in Polish geothermal power plants (electrochemical measurements at high pressure and high water flow rate, up to 2 m/s).
2
Content available remote Sinter-hardening of Ni-Mo pre-alloyed powders with tungsten addition
EN
Purpose: Purpose of this paper was to present the benefits of powder metallurgy technology and development of sinter-hardening process. The mechanical properties, focusing in particular on hardness and wear resistance, of two different carbon levels pre-alloyed steel powders processed with sinter-hardening method, were described. Microstructure characteristic of produced sinter-hardened Ni-Mo steels with increasing amount of tungsten (from 0 to 0.3% wt.) was taken under consideration. Design/methodology/approach: Different compositions have been tested in order to investigate the influence of various tungsten additions into low (0.4%) and high (0.6%) carbon content of pre-alloyed steel powders. Powders, with addition of 0.7% lubricant, were pressed in a 2000 kN hydraulic press. De-waxing process at 550 degrees centigrade for 60 minutes in a fully nitrogen atmosphere was performed before the sintering. Sinering was carried out in vacuum furnace with argon backfilling. The furnace was equipped with a cooling zone to provide accelerated cooling from the sintering temperature. Green compacts were sintered at the temperature 1120 degrees centigrade for 1 hour and rapidly cooled with a rate 2.5 degrees centigrade/s. Findings: The applied sinter-hardening process with achievement of material characterized by good wear resistance. The investigation of Ni-Mo and Ni-Mo-W sinter-hardened steels with low and high carbon content proved that applied process of sintering under vacuum and rapid cooling brought expected outcome. Research limitations/implications: Considering the achieved outcome, it was revealed that chemical composition and applied process of steels preparation, sinter-hardening with the cooling rate 2.5 degree centigrade/s, results in achieving materials with relatively high hardness and significant resistance to abrasion. Anyhow, further research should be performed. Originality/value: Sinter-hardening of Ni-Mo pre-alloyed powders with the addition of different additions of tungsten, especially in terms of hardenability and wear resistance, was investigated.
3
Content available remote Sintering of Ni-Mo-W steels and their properties
EN
Purpose: The paper focuses on microstructural and mechanical characteristics of Ni-Mo and Ni-Mo-W sintered steels with increasing amount of tungsten, low and high addition of carbon. Design/methodology/approach: Prepared mixes of powders have been compacted at 700 MPa and sintered in a vacuum furnace with argon backfilling at 1120°C for 60 minutes; after sintering rapid cooling has been applied with an average cooling rate of 2,5°C/s. Produced sets of samples have been studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with EDS for phase distribution and mapping and light optical microscopy (LOM) for microstructure observations. Mechanical properties such as impact energy, microhardness and wear rates were evaluated depending on chemical composition and the effect of applied sintering process with rapid cooling. Wear resistance was investigated using both pin on disk and disk on disk tests. Findings: The highest value of impact energy was achieved for set of steels with smaller amount of carbon. It was noticed that the presence of tungsten didn't differ much the results. The situation was opposite in the case of microhardness, where the best results were obtained for set with addition of 0.6%C and reached 452 HV0.1. The microstructure of all investigated alloys was mainly martensitic with minor presence of bainite in the set of steels containing low addition of carbon. Research limitations/implications: According to the powders characteristic, the applied cooling rate seems to be a good compromise for mechanical properties and microstructures, nevertheless further tests should be carried out in order to examine different cooling rates and parameters of tempering process. Originality/value: The effect of small additions of W and WC to low alloyed steels, especially in terms of hardenability and wear resistance, was investigated.
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