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EN
The main purpose of this study is the comparison of two control strategies of wind turbine 4.8 MW, using fuzzy control and proportional integral control, taking into account eight kinds of faults that can occur in a wind turbine model. A technique based on fault diagnosis has been used to detect and isolate faults actuators and sensors in this system, it's about an observer applied to the benchmark model. The obtained results are presented to validate the effectiveness of this diagnostic method and present the results of the proposed control strategies.
EN
Despite technological advances and progress in industrial systems, the fault diagnosis of a system remains a very important task. In fact an effective diagnosis contributes not only to improved reliability but also to a decrease in maintenance costs. This paper presents an approach to a diagnosis of hybrid systems thanks to the use of Bond Graphs, Observer and Timed Automata. Dynamic models (in normal and failing mode) are generated by an observer based methods as well as through state equations generated by the Bond Graphs model. The procedure of fault localization through a method based on the observer does not allow locating faults with the same signature of failure. Thus the diagnosis technique for the localization of these defects will be based on the time analysis using Timed Automata. The proposed approach is then validated by simulation tests in a two tanks hydraulic system.
PL
Artykuł zawiera metodykę postępowania podczas diagnozowania stanu technicznego elektrofiltru. Elektrofiltr jest maszyną krytyczną ze względu na kluczową funkcję, jaką pełni obiekt w złożonym systemie oczyszczania gazów odlotowych z pyłu. Diagnozowanie stanu technicznego maszyn krytycznych należy przeprowadzać w celu zachowania pełnej sprawności obiektu i nie dopuszczenia do występowania awarii, prowadzących do wyłączenia urządzenia z eksploatacji. Należy dobrać a następnie zastosować kluczową metodę pozwalającą na prowadzenie stałego nadzoru podczas eksploatacji elektrofiltrów. Monitorowanie stanu technicznego maszyn krytycznych ma na celu zlokalizowanie wstępnych faz uszkodzeń poszczególnych podzespołów, zespołów, czy też elementów obiektów wpływających na pracę całej maszyny.
EN
The article contains methodology of the technical condition diagnosis, which is based on the genesis of the ESP condition. The electrostatic precipitator is a critical machine due to its key function, what is the object in the complex purification off-gases system from the dust. The technical condition diagnosis for critical machines carried out for the purpose maintaining the full efficiency of the device and not allowing frequent failures, which can lead to the device being taken out of operation. Key methods should be selected and then applied to allow continuous supervision during the operation of electrostatic precipitators. The technical condition monitoring of critical machines is aimed at locating initial damage phases of subassemblies, assemblies or elements with the device affecting the work of entire machine.
4
Content available Damage Detection of Steel-Concrete Composite Beam
EN
The paper presents analysis results of steel-concrete composite beams, identification and attempts to detect damage introduced in a discrete model. Analysis of damage detection was conducted using DDL (Damage, Detection, Localization), our own original algorithm. Changes of dynamic and static parameters of the model were analysed in damage detection. Discrete wavelet transform was used for damage localization in the model. Prior to ultimate analysis, two-tier identification of discrete model parameters based on experimental data was made. In identification procedure, computational software (Python, Abaqus, Matlab) was connected in automated optimization loops. Results positively verified the original DDL algorithm for damage detection in steel-concrete composite beams, which enables further analysis using experimental data.
PL
Niniejszy artykuł przedstawia wyniki analiz stalowo-betonowych belek zespolonych, identyfikację oraz próby detekcji uszkodzeń wprowadzonych w modelu dyskretnym. Analizy detekcji uszkodzeń przeprowadzono na podstawie opracowanego algorytmu UDL (Uszkodzenia D-detekcja, L-Lokalizacja). Podczas diagnostyki uszkodzeń analizowano zmiany w parametrach dynamicznych i statycznych modelu. Podczas lokalizacji uszkodzeń modelu wykorzystano dyskretną transformatę falkową. Analizy docelowe zostały poprzedzone dwupoziomowym procesem identyfikacji wybranych parametrów modelu dyskretnego w oparciu o wyniki badań doświadczalnych. Procedury identyfikacji przeprowadzono łącząc programy obliczeniowe (Python, Abaqus, Matlab) w automatyczne pętle optymalizacyjne. Wyniki przeprowadzonych analiz pozytywnie weryfikują opracowany algorytm UD-L do diagnostyki uszkodzeń stalowo-betonowych belek zespolonych, co pozwala na dalsze analizy w oparciu o badania doświadczalne.
PL
Ważnym elementem diagnostycznym obiektów budowlanych jest sprawdzenie stanu technicznego elementów żelbetowych, w tym badanie jakości betonu. W artykule zaproponowano wykorzystanie metod nieniszczących (nieinwazyjnych). W pierwszej kolejności stosuje się metodę, która pozwala na określenie miejsc, w których może wystąpić jakaś destrukcja materiałowa. W drugiej kolejności wytypowane wcześniej miejsca bada się innymi metodami w celu ustalenia jakości betonu.
EN
An important element of the diagnostic in buildings is to check the technical condition of reinforced concrete elements, including the examination of the quality of concrete. This study proposes using nondestructive (noninvasive) methods. In the first order, we used the method to determine places in which some destruction can take place. In the second order, the places selected earlier are checked with the use another methods to determine the quality of the concrete.
EN
In this paper, a fault-tolerant control (FTC) scheme is proposed for actuator faults, which is built upon tube-based model predictive control (MPC) as well as set-based fault detection and isolation (FDI). In the class of MPC techniques, tube-based MPC can effectively deal with system constraints and uncertainties with relatively low computational complexity compared with other robust MPC techniques such as min-max MPC. Set-based FDI, generally considering the worst case of uncertainties, can robustly detect and isolate actuator faults. In the proposed FTC scheme, fault detection (FD) is passive by using invariant sets, while fault isolation (FI) is active by means of MPC and tubes. The active FI method proposed in this paper is implemented by making use of the constraint-handling ability of MPC to manipulate the bounds of inputs. After the system has been detected to become faulty, the input-constraint set of the MPC controller is adjusted to actively excite the system for achieving FI guarantees on-line, where an active FI-oriented input set is designed off-line. In this way, the system can be excited in order to obtain more extra system-operating information for FI than passive FI approaches. Overall, the objective of this paper is to propose an actuator MPC scheme with as little as possible of FI conservatism and computational complexity by combining tube-based MPC and set theory within the framework of MPC, respectively. Finally, a case study is used to show the effectiveness of the proposed FTC scheme.
7
PL
Artykuł omawia zagrożenia dla pasywnej infrastruktury telekomunikacyjnych sieci kablowych oraz metody monitoringu technicznego linii kablowych i obiektów bezobsługowych, zwłaszcza wykrywania i lokalizacji uszkodzeń kabli. Szczegółowo przedstawiono ograniczenia zasięgu i dokładności lokalizacji uszkodzeń kabli miedzianych i światłowodowych oraz opracowane w Instytucie Łączności elementy sprzętowe scentralizowanego systemu monitoringu SMIT.
EN
This paper proposes a data projection method (DPM) to detect a mode switching and recognize the current mode in a switching system. The main feature of this method is that the precise knowledge of the system model, i.e., the parameter values, is not needed. One direct application of this technique is fault detection and identification (FDI) when a fault produces a change in the system dynamics. Mode detection and recognition correspond to fault detection and identification, and switching time estimation to fault occurrence time estimation. The general principle of the DPM is to generate mode indicators, namely, residuals, using matrix projection techniques, where matrices are composed of input and output measured data. The DPM is presented in detail, and properties of switching detectability (fault detectability) and discernability between modes (fault identifiability) are characterized and discussed. The great advantage of this method, compared with other techniques in the literature, is that it does not need the model parameter values and thus can be applied to systems of the same type without identifying their parameters. This is particularly interesting in the design of generic embedded fault diagnosis algorithms.
EN
The definitions and conditions for fault isolability of single faults for various forms of the diagnostic relation are reviewed. Fault isolability and unisolability on the basis of a binary diagnostic matrix are analyzed. Definitions for conditional and unconditional isolability and unisolability on the basis of a fault information system (FIS), symptom sequences and directional residuals are formulated. General definitions for conditional and unconditional isolability and unisolability in the cases of simultaneous evaluation of diagnostic signal values and a sequence of symptoms are provided. A comprehensive example is discussed.
EN
The paper presents a new method for diagnosis of a process fault which takes the form of an abrupt change in some real parameter of a time-continuous linear system. The abrupt fault in the process real parameter is reflected in step changes in many parameters of the input/output model as well as in step changes in canonical state variables of the system. Detection of these state changes will enable localization of the faulty parameter in the system. For detecting state changes, a special type of exact state observer will be used. The canonical state will be represented by the derivatives of the measured output signal. Hence the exact state observer will play the role of virtual sensors for reconstruction of the derivatives of the output signal. For designing the exact state observer, the model parameters before and after the moment of fault occurrence must be known. To this end, a special identification method with modulating functions will be used. A novel concept presented in this paper concerns the structure of the observer. It will take the form of a double moving window observer which consists of two signal processing windows, each of width T . These windows are coupled to each other with a common edge. The right-hand side edge of the left-side moving window in the interval [t − 2T, t − T ] is connected to the left-hand side edge of the right-side window which operates in the interval [t − T, t]. The double observer uses different measurements of input/output signals in both the windows, and for each current time t simultaneously reconstructs two values of the state—the final value of the state in the left-side window zT (t − T ) and the initial value of the state z0(t − T ) in the right-side window. If the process parameters are constant, the values of both the states on the common joint edge are the same. If an abrupt change (fault) in some parameter at the moment tA = t − T occurs in the system, then step changes in some variables of the canonical state vector will also occur and the difference between the states will be detected. This will enable localization of the faulty parameter in the system.
EN
This article presents a single model active fault detection and isolation system (SMAC-FDI) which is designed to efficiently detect and isolate a faulty actuator in a system, such as a small (unmanned) aircraft. This FDI system is based on a single and simple aerodynamic model of an aircraft in order to generate some residuals, as soon as an actuator fault occurs. These residuals are used to trigger an active strategy based on artificial exciting signals that searches within the residuals for the signature of an actuator fault. Fault isolation is carried out through an innovative mechanism that does not use the previous residuals but the actuator control signals directly. In addition, the paper presents a complete parameter-tuning strategy for this FDI system. The novel concepts are backed-up by simulations of a small unmanned aircraft experiencing successive actuator failures. The robustness of the SMAC-FDI method is tested in the presence of model uncertainties, realistic sensor noise and wind gusts. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion on the computational efficiency of the method and its ability to run on small microcontrollers.
EN
In the following article we will try to find the dependence between the location of imperfections in a closed domain and the spectrum of the Laplace operator for this region. In the theoretical part we will define the spectral problem which is solved by eigenvalues. These eigenvalues are dependent on location and size of the imperfection. However, we are interested in the inverse task which consists in localizing the imperfection of the domain on a basis of the spectrum of the operator.
PL
W artykule przeanalizowano zastosowanie widma operatora Laplace'a jako narzędzia do przybliżonej lokalizacji uszkodzeń w kole jednostkowym. W części teoretycznej zdefiniowano zagadnienie spektralne rozwiązywane za pomocą wartości własnych. Znalezione wartości zależą od położenia i rozmiaru uszkodzeń. W artykule został zdefiniowany problem odwrotny, który polega na znalezieniu miejsca uszkodzenia na podstawie znanego widma.
PL
W literaturze naukowej problem lokalizacji uszkodzeń istnieje od dziesiątków lat. Polega on na rozwiązaniu zadania odwrotnego, czyli przybliżonego określenia lokalizacji uszkodzenia na podstawie funkcji i wartości własnych operatora w zadanym obszarze [1]. Algorytmy, przy pomocy których określa się położenie uszkodzenia wymagają skomplikowanych obliczeń [2]. Autorzy niniejszego artykułu chcieli w bezpośredni sposób, przy użyciu wartości własnych operatora Laplace’a dla kwadratu [0,1]×[0,1] znaleźć przybliżone miejsce w którym jest uszkodzenie.
EN
In the following article we will try to find the dependence between the location of imperfections in a square measured [0,1]×[0,1] and the spectrum of the Laplace operator for this square. In theoretical considerations concerning the problem of the location of the imperfection for the fixe bounded domain we will take advantage of spectra theory results and, more precisely, the conclusion of the spectra thorem for compact and self-adjoint operators, which says that all eigenvalues of the Laplace operator on the bounded Ω⊆R^2 domain are positive have finite multiplicities and +∞ is the limit point of eigenvalues. These eigenvalues are dependent on location and size of the imperfection. However, we are interested in the inverse task which consists in localizing the imperfection of the domain on a basis of the spectrum of the operator. In the practical part we will determine the spectrum of 81 samples whose imperfection is placed in different points of domain. On a basis of numerical studies we will hypothesize about the dependence between the spectrum of the Laplace operator of the [0,1]×[0,1] square and the location of the imperfection.
EN
In recent years one can observe an increasing interest of the researchers, both from academia and industry, in the development of systems for the monitoring of health structures.. The main fields of application for these systems are rotating machinery, aircrafts and other means of group transport and civil engineering structures. Many of the latter, contain truss elements in its structure. That is why detection and possible localization of the fault in such a structures is crucial for the safety of its operation. In this paper the application of modal filtration to damage detection and localization in the truss structures is presented. The results of numerical simulation an laboratory experiment are shown
PL
Ostatnio można zaobserwować wzrastające zainteresowanie badaczy zarówno ze środowisk akademickich, jak i z przemysłu, rozwojem układów monitorowania stanu obiektów. Główne poła zastosowania tych układów to maszyny wirnikowe, lotnictwo i inne środki transportu zbiorowego oraz konstrukcje inżynierii lądowej. W artykule pokazano zastosowanie filtracji modalnej do wykrywania i lokalizowania uszkodzeń w konstrukcjach kratownicowych. Przedstawiono wyniki badań symulacyjnych oraz pomiarów laboratoryjnych.
15
EN
The structural health monitoring systems seeks to increase the accuracy of diagnosis. Increasingly, raw information about the occurrence of damage is not sufficient. The aim is to determine its location, identification, and even predictions about its propagation. Based on these requirements already in 1993 Rytter [1] proposed the classification of monitoring systems by dividing them into levels from 1 (detection) to 4 (prognosis). To meet the assumptions a method of fault location using local modal filters was developed [2], which was the extension of damage detection method based on spatial filtering [3]. The method of local modal filters correctly locates damage on the object. However, there is a possibility that the multiple damage can occur in the object. In this paper the author will answer the question whether this method will be effective in this type of situation. In the simulations consecutively damages of varying size and location were introduced in the object and it was checked whether they are detectable, and as their increasing number affects the accuracy of location.
PL
W układach monitorowania stanu konstrukcji dąży się do wzrostu dokładności stawianej diagnozy. Coraz częściej informacja jedynie o wykryciu szkodzenia jest niewystarczająca. Celem jest lokalizacja, identyfikacja a nawet prognoza jego rozwoju. W oparciu o te wymagania już w 1993 Rytter [1] zaproponował klasyfikacje układów monitorowania dzieląc je na poziomy od 1 (wykrycie) do 4 (prognoza). Aby sprostać tym wymaganiom metoda lokalizacji uszkodzeń bazująca na lokalnych filtrach modalnych została opracowana [2], jako rozszerzenie metody wykrywania uszkodzeń w oparciu o filtrację przestrzenną [3]. Metoda lokalnych filtrów modalnych poprawnie lokalizuje uszkodzenie na obiekcie. Jednakże istnieją przypadki, gdy w obiekcie rozwija się więcej niż jedno uszkodzenie. W niniejszym artykule autor postara się odpowiedzieć na pytanie, czy wspomniana metoda okaże się skuteczna w takiej sytuacji. W symulacjach kolejno wprowadzano uszkodzenia o różnym wymiarze i lokalizacji i sprawdzano czy są one wykrywalne oraz czy ich wzrastająca liczba wpływa na dokładność lokalizacji.
PL
Przedstawiono system automatycznej lokalizacji uszkodzeń w sieci dystrybucyjnej średniego napięcia z wykorzystaniem sterownika 7SC 80.
EN
The paper presents the system for automatic location of faults in MV distribution network that uses 7SC80 controller.
17
Content available remote Lokalizacja uszkodzeń poprzecznych w rozwartym kablu współosiowym
PL
W oparciu o teorię linii długiej w artykule przedstawiono metodę lokalizacji miejsca uszkodzenia oraz wyznaczania impedancji upływu kabla koncentrycznego polegającą na pomiarze napięcia i prądu na początku kabla oraz napięcia na jego rozwartym końcu. Weryfikacja eksperymentalna została przeprowadzona na kablu RG59 firmy Bitner o długości l=50 m. Zamodelowano kilka miejsc uszkodzeń dla kilku wartości impedancji upływu.
EN
On the basis of transmission line theory, this article describes the method of locating the fault and determining the values of leakage impedance of a coaxial cable based on measurement of voltage and current at the beginning of the cable and voltage at the end of an open cable. Experimental verification was conducted on a Bitner RG59 coaxial cable of 50 meters' length. A few fault locations were modeled for several values of leakage impedance.
EN
Safety in dynamic processes is a concern of rising importance, especially if people would be endangered by serious system failure. Moreover, as the control devices which are now exploited to improve the overall performance of processes include both sophisticated control strategies and complex hardware (input-output sensors, actuators, components and processing units), there is an increased probability of faults. As a direct consequence of this, automatic supervision systems should be taken into account to diagnose malfunctions as early as possible. One of the most promising methods for solving this problem relies on the analytical redundancy approach, in which residual signals are generated. If a fault occurs, these residual signals are used to diagnose the malfunction. This paper is focused on fuzzy identification oriented to the design of a bank of fuzzy estimators for fault detection and isolation. The problem is treated in its different aspects covering the model structure, the parameter identification method, the residual generation technique, and the fault diagnosis strategy. The case study of a real diesel engine is considered in order to demonstrate the effectiveness the proposed methodology.
EN
This paper introduces a set of comprehensive general reasoning rules about single faults based on a diagnostic matrix. The reasoning scheme unifies inference about faults based on a conventional binary diagnostic matrix, a two- and three-valued fault isolation system as well as on their fuzzy counterparts. There are introduced and defined notions of alternative and dominant fault signatures, fuzzy fault signatures as well as a matrix of alternative signatures. This matrix is supposed to be used instead of the classic diagnostic one. It is also shown that dominant fault signatures are transformable into alternative ones. Finally, three variants of concise general reasoning rules of faults are given. Three examples illustrate key point issues of the paper. The first example refers to a medical diagnostic case. It shows an instance of dominant fault signatures and, in fact, proposes a rational approach for planning diagnostic tests. The other examples describe the fuzzy reasoning approach employing a matrix of fuzzy alternative signatures applicable for use with multi-valued fuzzy diagnostic signals. Future works are outlined in the summary section.
20
Content available Double fault distinguishability in linear systems
EN
This paper develops a new approach to double fault isolation in linear systems with the aid of directional residuals. The method of residual generation for computational as well as internal forms is applied. Isolation of double faults is based on the investigation of the coplanarity of the residual vector with the planes defined by the individual pairs of directional fault vectors. Additionally, the method of designing secondary residuals, which are structured and directional, is proposed. These transformations allow achieving various isolation properties. It is shown that double fault distinguishability can be improved by decomposing the observed residual vector along the response directions. The described methods are illustrated with a simple computational example.
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