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EN
The paper presents the results of preliminary research on the application of olivine moulding sands with hydrated sodium silicate containing 1.5 % wt. of binder to perform ecological casting cores in hot-box technology using a semi-automatic core shooter. The following parameters were used in the process of core shooting: initial shot pressure of 6 bar, shot time 3 s, the temperature of the core-box: 200, 250 and 300°C and the core curing time: 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 s. The matrix of the moulding mixture was olivine sand, and the binder of the sandmix was commercial, unmodified hydrated sodium silicate with molar module SiO2/Na2O of 2.5. In one shot of the automatic core-shooter were formed three longitudinal specimens (cores) with a dimensions 22.2×22.2×180 mm. The samples obtained in this way were subjected to the assessment of the influence of the shooting parameters, i.e. shooting time, temperature and curing time in core-box, using the following criteria: core box fill rate, mechanical strength to bending RgU, apparent density, compaction degree and susceptibility to friability of sand grains after hardening. The results of trials on the use of olivine moulding sands with hydrated sodium silicate (olivine SSBS) in the process of core shooting made it possible to determine the conditions for further research on the improvement of inorganic hot-box process technology aimed at: reduction of the heating temperature and the curing time. It was found that correlation between the parameters of the shooting process and the bending strength of olivine moulding sands with sodium silicate is observed.
EN
The aim of this study is to demonstrate the possibility of using moulds made from the environmentally friendly sands with hydrated sodium silicate in modified ablation casting. The ablation casting technology is primarily intended for castings with diversified wall thickness and complex shapes made in sand moulds. The article presents the effect of binder content and hardening time on the bending strength Rgu of moulding sands with binders based on hydrated sodium silicate hardened by microwave technology. The aim of the research was to develop an optimal sand composition that would provide the strength necessary to make a mould capable of withstanding the modified ablation casting process. At the same time, the sand composition should guarantee the susceptibility of the mould to the destructive action of the ablation medium, which in this case is water. Tests have shown that microwave hardening provides satisfactory moulds’ strength properties even at a low binder content in the sand mixture.
EN
The necessity of obtaining high quality castings forces both researchers and producers to undertake research in the field of moulding sands. The key is to obtain moulding and core sands which will ensure relevant technological parameters along with high environmental standards. The most important group in this research constitutes of moulding sands with hydrated sodium silicate. The aim of the article is to propose optimized parameters of hardening process of moulding sands with hydrated sodium silicate prepared in warm-box technology. This work focuses on mechanical and thermal deformation of moulding sands with hydrated sodium silicate and inorganic additives prepared in warm-box technology. Tested moulding sands were hardened in the temperature of 140ºC for different time periods. Bending strength, thermal deformation and thermal degradation was tested. Chosen parameters were tested immediately after hardening and after 1h of cooling. Conducted research proved that it is possible to eliminate inorganic additives from moulding sands compositions. Moulding sands without additives have good enough strength properties and their economic and ecological character is improved.
EN
This study is an attempt to determine by Hot Distortion Test (HDT) the impact of physical methods of hardening inorganic binders in the moulding sands on phenomena caused by influence of thermal energy from heating elements with a temperature of 900°C +/- 10°C. Medium silica sand-based moulding mixtures were densified and then hardened using two physical methods: microwave heating at a frequency of 2.45 GHz or classical drying at a temperature of 110°C. Sodium silicate bonded sand (SSBS) with five unmodified kinds of hydrated sodium silicates subjected to two different types of hardening method were assessed in terms of their behaviour in high temperature. Thermal behaviour by means of deformation measurement was carried out with a modified Hot Distortion Test (mHDT). Due to this advanced, but unstable by appropriate standards Hot Distortion Test gives an opportunity to measure thermoplastic deformations (L) in moulding sands in many aspects, such as time of annealing. Research carried out in this way exposed differences between inorganic binders with molar module ranging from 3.4 to 2.0. It was established that deformations under the influence of high temperature last the longest in SSBS containing binders with molar module ranging from 3.4 to 2.9. Similarly, for these types of moulding sands the method of hardening the binder is found to be essential for increasing/decreasing the rate of thermoplastic deformations during the annealing of samples. The samples of SSBS made with binders with molar module from 2.5 to 2.0 are found to be excessively susceptible to thermoplastic deformation as a result of heating them in high environmental temperature presence.
EN
Moulding sands containing sodium silicate (water-glass) belong to the group of porous mixture with low resistance to increased humidity. Thanks to hydrophilic properties of hardened or even overheated binder, possible is application of effective methods of hydrous reclamation consisting in its secondary hydration. For the same reason (hydrophilia of the binder), moulds and foundry cores made of high-silica moulding sands with sodium silicate are susceptible to the action of components of atmospheric air, including the contained steam. This paper presents results of a research on the effect of (relative) humidity on mechanical and technological properties of microwave-hardened moulding mixtures. Specimens of the moulding sand containing 1.5 wt% of sodium water-glass with module 2.5 were subjected, in a laboratory climatic chamber, to long-term action of steam contained in the chamber atmosphere. Concentration of water in atmospheric air was stabilized for 28 days (672 h) according to the relative humidity parameter that was ca. 40%, 60% and 80% at constant temperature 20 °C. In three cycles of the examinations, the specimens were taken out from the chamber every 7 days (168 h) and their mechanical and technological parameters were determined. It was found on the grounds of laboratory measurements that moulds and cores hardened with microwaves are susceptible to action of atmospheric air and presence of water (as steam) intensifies action of the air components on glassy film of sodium silicate. Microwave-hardened moulding sands containing sodium silicate may be stored on a long-term basis in strictly determined atmospheric conditions only, at reduced humidity. In spite of a negative effect of steam contained in the air, the examined moulding mixtures maintain a part of their mechanical and technological properties, so the moulds and foundry cores stored in specified, controlled conditions could be still used in manufacture.
EN
The paper presents the results of preliminary research on the use of silica sands with hydrated sodium silicate 1.5% wt. of binder for the performance of eco-friendly casting cores in hot-box technology. To evaluate the feasibility of high quality casting cores performed by the use of this method, the tests were made with the use of a semiautomatic core shooter using the following operating parameters: initial shooting pressure of 6 bar, shot time 4 s and 2 s, core-box temperature 200, 250 and 300 °C and core heating time 30, 60, 90 and 150 s. Matrixes of the moulding sands were two types of high-silica sand: fine and medium. Moulding sand binder was a commercial, unmodified hydrated sodium silicate having a molar module SiO2/Na2O of 2.5. In one shot of a core-shooter were made three longitudinal samples (cores) with a total volume of about 2.8 dm3. The samples thus obtained were subjected to an assessment of the effect of shooting parameters, i.e. shooting time, temperature and heating time, using the criteria: core-box fill rate, bending strength (RgU), apparent density and surface quality after hardening. The results of the trials on the use of sodium silicate moluding sands made it possible to further refine the conditions of next research into the improvement of inorganic warm-box/hot-box technology aimed at: reduction of heating temperature and shot time. It was found that the performance of the cores depends on the efficiency of the venting system, shooting time, filling level of a shooting chamber and grains of the silica matrix used.
EN
This study shows the results of the investigation of the strength performance, and residual strength of a single component inorganic binder system Cast Clean S27®. The study was conducted using three different foundry sand sources in South Africa. Sample A is an alluvial coastal sample, sample B is an alluvial riverbed sample and Sample C is a blasted sample from a consolidated quartzite rock. The binder was also cured using three different curing mechanisms. The aim of the investigation was to determine the variation of strength performance and residual strength between the different South African sand sources based upon the physical and chemical properties of the sand sources. The moulding sand was prepared using three possible curing mechanisms which are carbon dioxide curing, ester curing and heat curing. The strength measurements were determined by bending strength. Sample A and sample C sand had good strength development. Sample B sand had inferior strength development and excellent high temperature residual strength. The study showed that the single component inorganic binders have good strength development and low residual strength. The silica sand properties have major contributing factors on both strength development and residual strength. The degree of influence of silica sand properties on strength performance and residual strength is dependent on the time of curing and method of curing.
EN
In the paper, a research on effects of baking temperature on chromite sand base of moulding sands bonded with sodium silicate is presented. Pure chromite sand and its chromite-based moulding sand prepared with use of sodium silicate were subjected to heating within 100 to 1200°C. After cooling-down, changes of base grains under thermal action were determined. Chromite moulding sand was prepared with use of 0.5 wt% of domestic made, unmodified sodium silicate (water-glass) grade 145. After baking at elevated temperatures, creation of rough layer was observed on grain surfaces, of both pure chromite sand and that used as base of a moulding sand. Changes of sand grains were evaluated by scanning microscopy and EDS analyses. It was found that changes on grain surfaces are of laminar nature. The observed layer is composed of iron oxide (II) that is one of main structural components of chromite sand. In order to identify changes in internal structure of chromite sand grains, polished sections were prepared of moulding sand hardened with microwaves and baked at elevated temperatures. Microscopic observations revealed changes in grains structure in form of characteristically crystallised acicular particles with limited magnesium content, intersecting at various angles. EDS analysis showed that these particles are composed mostly of chromium oxide (III) and iron oxide (II). The temperature above that the a.m. changes are observed in both chromite-based moulding sand and in pure chromite sand. The observed phenomena were linked with hardness values and mass of this sand.
EN
In the paper, a research on effects of baking temperature on chromite sand base of moulding sands bonded with sodium silicate is presented. Pure chromite sand and its chromite-based moulding sand prepared with use of sodium silicate were subjected to heating within 100 to 1200 °C. After cooling-down, changes of base grains under thermal action were determined. Chromite moulding sand was prepared with use of 0.5 wt% of domestic made, unmodified sodium silicate (water-glass) grade 145. After baking at elevated temperatures, creation of rough layer was observed on grain surfaces, of both pure chromite sand and that used as base of a moulding sand. Changes of sand grains were evaluated by scanning microscopy and EDS analyses. It was found that changes on grain surfaces are of laminar nature. The observed layer is composed of iron oxide (II) that is one of main structural components of chromite sand. In order to identify changes in internal structure of chromite sand grains, polished sections were prepared of moulding sand hardened with microwaves and baked at elevated temperatures. Microscopic observations revealed changes in grains structure in form of characteristically crystallised acicular particles with limited magnesium content, intersecting at various angles. EDS analysis showed that these particles are composed mostly of chromium oxide (III) and iron oxide (II). The temperature above that the a.m. changes are observed in both chromite-based moulding sand and in pure chromite sand. The observed phenomena were linked with hardness values and mass of this sand.
11
Content available remote Podstawowe badania wytrzymałościowe zaprawy geopolimerowej
PL
W artykule omówiono badania nad materiałami geopolimerowymi w budownictwie. Przedstawiono również wyniki badań zaprawy geopolimerowej na bazie popiołu lotnego aktywowanego mieszaniną wodnego roztworu wodorotlenku sodu i krzemianu sodu. Do badań przygotowano dwie serie próbek, które różniły się stężeniem NaOHsol. Próbki zaprawy poddano badaniom wytrzymałości na zginanie oraz ściskanie (zgodnie z normą PN-EN 196-1 2006) po 7 i 28 dniach. Otrzymane wyniki posłużą jako podstawa do dalszych badań nad zastosowaniem geopolimerów w budownictwie.
EN
The article discusses research on geopolymer materials using in civil engineering. It also shows the results of research on mortar geopolymers based on fly ash activated with a mixture of aqueous solution of sodiumhydroxide and sodiumsilicate. There were tested two sets of samples which differed in concentration of NaOHsol. The samples of mortar were tested on flexural strength and compressive strength (according to PN-EN 196-1 2006) after 7 and 28 days. The results serve as a basis for further research on the use of geopolymers in construction.
EN
The necessity of receiving high quality castings forces undertaking research to elaborate moulding and core sands ensuring obtaining the materials with relevant technological parameters and also with high environmental standards. The most important group here are moulding sands with hydrated sodium silicate. Unfortunately, their fundamental disadvantages are weak knock-out properties. The article presents the most commonly used methods of measuring the knock-out properties of moulding and core sands. The authors propose a new method for estimation this parameter. The method is based on the measurement of high-temperature expansion.
PL
Potrzeba uzyskiwania wysokiej jakości odlewów wymusza podejmowanie prac badawczych dla otrzymania mas formierskich i rdzeniowych zapewniających uzyskanie tworzyw o odpowiednich parametrach technologicznych, jednocześnie spełniających wysokie wymogi ochrony środowiska. Najważniejszą grupę stanowią tutaj masy z uwodnionym krzemianem sodu. Niestety jedną z ich podstawowych wad jest słaba wybijalność. W artykule zostały przedstawione najczęściej stosowane metody pomiaru wybijalności mas formierskich i rdzeniowych Autorzy zaproponowali nową metodę oceny wybijalności opierającą się na pomiarze ekspansji wysokotemperaturowej.
EN
Dispersion properties of colloidal silica were studied at subsequent stages of silica sols preparation. Dilute sols were obtained from solutions of sodium silicate by ion exchange method. In them SiO2 particles were built up and next the sols were concentrated. The concentrations of the sols in which SiO2 particles were built-up ranged from 5.89 to 6.44 wt. % SiO2, while the mean concentrations of the sols which were added into the heel sols were 3.28 and 6.20 wt. % SiO2. The particle size distributions were measured by DLS, while the contribution of the ionic form of silica was determined by the colorimetric method on the basis of the intensity of the yellow colour coming from the heteropolycomplexes of silicomolybdic acid.
PL
W pracy badano charakterystykę dyspersyjną krzemionki koloidalnej w kolejnych etapach otrzymywania zolu kwasu krzemowego. Rozcieńczone zole otrzymywano z roztworów krzemianu sodu metodą wymiany jonowej, nabudowywano w nich cząstki SiO2 i następnie zatężano. Stężenia zoli, w których nabudowywano cząstki zawierały się w przedziale 5,89÷6,44 % wag. SiO2, a zole stosowane do nabudowania miały średnie stężenia 3,28 i 6,20 % wag. SiO2. Rozkłady wielkości cząstek mierzono techniką DLS, a udział formy jonowej krzemionki oznaczano kolorymetrycznie mierząc intensywność żółtego zabarwienia heteropolikompleksu kwasu molibdenowo–krzemowego.
EN
The paper presents the results of the tensile tests Rmu carried out on sands with sodium silicate, modified with SiO2, Al2O3 and ZnO in the form of aqueous colloidal solution or powder. It has been proved that the improvement of sand properties depends on: modifier type, chemical reaction of the modifier (acid-base reaction), method by which the modifier is introduced to binder, modifier content. It has been observed that among the tested modifiers, SiO2 and Al2O3 have stronger effect on the sand strength improvement than ZnO. Great degree of Rmu improvement has been obtained by introducing to the binder either SiO2 (Rmu improved by 30%) or Al2O3 (Rmu improved by 50%), both in the form of powders.
EN
The paper presents examination results of the effect of four hardening methods on structure of linking bridges in sandmixes containing hydrated sodium silicate. Test pieces prepared of the moulding sands containing 2.5 % of a binder with molar module between 2.4 and 2.6 were hardened with carbon dioxide, dried traditionally in an oven and hardened with microwaves at 2.54 GHz or using a combination of the CO2 process and microwave heating. It was revealed that the hardening method influences structure of linking bridges and is correlated with mechanical properties of the hardened moulding sands. It was found that strength of the moulding sands microwave-heated for 240 s is approximate to that measured after traditional drying for 120 min at 110°C. So, the microwave hardening permits significant reduction of the process time, comparable to the CO2 hardening, at the same time guaranteeing over 10 times higher mechanical properties. Analysis of SEM photographs of the moulding sands hardened with the mentioned methods allow explaining differences in qualitative parameters of the moulding sands and their relation to structures of the created linking bridges.
PL
W pracy zaprezentowano rezultaty badań wpływu czterech metod utwardzania na budowę mostków wiążących w masach z uwodnionym krzemianem sodu. Próbki do badań, sporządzone z masy z dodatkiem 2,5% spoiwa o module molowym 2,4 - 2,6, utwardzano dwutlenkiem węgla, suszono klasycznie w piecu, utwardzano mikrofalami o częstotliwości 2,45 GHz lub utwardzano metodą łączącą proces CO2 i nagrzewanie mikrofalowe. Wykazano, że metoda utwardzania ma wpływ na budową mostków wiążących korelując z właściwościami wytrzymałościowymi utwardzanych wymienionymi metodami mas. Stwierdzono, że wytrzymałość nagrzewanych mikrofalowo przez 240 sekund mas jest bardzo zbliżona do zmierzonej po procesie klasycznego ich suszenia w temperaturze 110 °C przez 120 min. Zastosowanie utwardzania za pomocą nagrzewania mikrofalowego zapewnia zatem istotne skrócenie procesu, porównywalne do czasu utwardzania dwutlenkiem węgla, gwarantując równocześnie, w porównaniu z tą ostatnią metodą, ponad 10-krotny wzrost właściwości wytrzymałościowych. Analiza zdjęć z mikroskopu skaningowego mas formierskich, utwardzanych wymienionymi metodami, umożliwiła wyjaśnienie różnic w parametrach jakościowych mas i ich powiązanie z budową utworzonych mostków wiążących.
19
Content available remote Properties of silicate waterproofing in concrete surface layer
CS
Modifikovaný roztok křemičitanu sodného vytváří v povrchu betonu nový druh izolace. Silikátový roztok reaguje s vápenatými ionty, které jsou v betonu ve formě hydroxidu vápenatého a vytváří s nimi CSH gely, které se stávají součástí cementového tmelu. Vzhledem k tomu, že vznikají obdobné sloučeniny jako při hydrataci cementu, je nesnadné určit hloubku průniku silikátového roztoku do hmoty betonu. V příspěvku jsou popsány dvě metody: jedna je založena na měření rozdílů v kumulativním objemu pórů povrchové vrstvy do 20 mm a více než 20 mm pod povrchem. Druhá metoda je založena na použití barevných acidobazických indikátorů, stálých v silně zásaditém prostředí, kdy na snímcích z optického mikroskopu lze přesně změřit hloubku průniku obarveného silikátového roztoku.
EN
In the study a special lithium oxide-modified potassium-sodium water-glass was obtained and it was applied in the production of rutile welding electrodes. The obtained electrodes were subjected to weldability tests in which the current strength and the welding load voltage were examined.
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