Consuming a diet high in fruits and vegetables can lower the risk of developing numerous chronic diseases, including cancer and cardiovascular disease, due to the presence of multiple antioxidants. Horticultural produce consumed in Cyprus include a large variety of fruits and vegetables, most of which are common components of a Mediterranean-style diet due to the island’s localization. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant composition and activity of the edible portion of ten fruits and ten vegetables commonly consumed in Cyprus. Total phenolics, total anthocyanins, ascorbic acid and carotenoids contents were determined, while the in vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by three assays. Antioxidant activity showed great variation, with the highest values found in green olives, capers and red chili peppers and in correlation with total phenolic content. Ascorbic acid was detected in large quantities in parsley, coriander, red guavas and red chili peppers, while red chili peppers, capers and coriander had high levels of carotenoids. Furthermore, sweet cherries, red grapes, and red apples contained significant amounts of anthocyanins. Statistical analysis revealed that phenolic compounds are the most potent antioxidants in fruit and vegetables, while total anthocyanins had a weak contribution to their antioxidant activity. The present study could be a guide for Cypriot as well as Mediterranean diet health-conscious consumers to select specific fruits and vegetables as dietary components. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study thoroughly describing the antioxidant composition and activity of a wide array of important Cypriot horticultural products.