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EN
The issues discussed in the paper concern the assessment of changes in quantitative and qualitative indicators of water resources in the climatic conditions of the southern part of Kazakhstan. For this purpose, many years of systematic field observations and other continuous data obtained from the functioning measurement and observation stations operating within the Aral-Syrdarya Basin Inspection were used. On the basis of the obtained data, indicators were determined that characterize the quantity and quality of water supplied to the soil in the irrigation process, as well as the quantity and quality of water flowing out of the drainage systems, together with an evaluation of the effectiveness of irrigation and drainage systems. Soil salinity was assessed in five irrigated massifs with a total area of 332.55 thous. ha. For the same irrigated massifs, the annual amounts of water taken for irrigation, the amount of outflowing water and the assessment of the mineralization level were determined. Based on the developed results of field observations characterizing the hydrological and environmental situation of the lower section of the Syr Darya River in 1960–2015, the negative reaction coefficients were calculated for the local population, soil and vegetation for five of the irrigated massifs of the Kyzylorda region. The ecological situation of the habitat of soil and plants in the lower reaches of the Syr Darya River in all irrigation areas deteriorates on a time scale, since as a result of the reclamation of agricultural lands, intensive secondary soil salinization occurs and the formation of infiltration runoff with high mineralization, contributing to the violation of the harmonization of the relationship between nature and man.
EN
In order to evaluate the water quality of the Hauterivian groundwater in the zinc deposit of Chaabet el Hamra, Southern Setif region, Algeria, eighteen physico-chemical parameters such as pH, EC, TDS, Cl−, SO42−, HCO3−, CO32−, NO3−, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+,, and heavy metals Zn, Pb, Fe, Cr, Cd, Mn were analyzed and collected from six different wells in April 2012. The studied groundwater is dominated by HCO3−, Ca2+, and Mg2+ ions. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and Algerian standards, all groundwater samples are considered safe and fit for drinking as they fall within the permissible limits. In addition, the Schoeller diagram confirms the best quality water of the Hauterivian groundwater. Gibbs diagram show that the predominant samples fall in the rock-water interaction field, suggesting that water-rock interactions are the major mechanism controlling groundwater chemistry. Assessment of groundwater samples using various water quality indices such as sodium absorption ratio (SAR), soluble sodium percentage (SSP), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), magnesium hazard (MH) and Kelly ratio (KR) showed that the groundwater in the area has an excellent quality for irrigation purpose. According to Wilcox’s diagram, all groundwater samples fall in the C2S1 category, reflecting that they are suitable for irrigation.
EN
The experiment was established in the Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW) Experimental Field in Skierniewice in the spring of 2018 in three replications. It was conducted on strawberry plants of the cultivar ‘Marmolada’ growing in stoneware containers with a diameter of 0.40 m and a height of 1.20 m, containing about 120 litres of podzolic soil with a pH of 6.2 (in KCl). The experiment was conducted in two variants: at 100% hydration and 50% hydration (2x13 fertilizer combinations). The aim of the study was to assess the impact of beneficial microorganisms and innovative mineral fertilizers enriched with them on the fruiting intensity and fruit quality of two-year-old strawberry plants in container-based cultivation, optimally irrigated and subjected to stress of prolonged water deficiency. The method of fertilizing the strawberry plants did not significantly affect the number of inflorescences and flowers. However, the treatments significantly increased the chlorophyll content in the leaves of optimally irrigated plants, especially where they were fertilized with NPK fertilizers and Urea enriched with filamentous fungi, and also the fertilizers Polifoska 6 and Super Fos Dar 40 enriched with beneficial bacteria. With limited water availability, regardless of the type of mineral fertilizer, the microorganisms did not have a significant impact on the characteristics of the strawberry plants grown. Reducing the availability of water to plants by 50% caused a significant decrease in fruit yield and mean fruit weight. The microorganisms, especially the filamentous fungi, helped to limit the impact of water deficiency on the quantity and quality of the obtained fruit crop, especially when compared with the effect of full mineral fertilization. However, the strawberry fruit yield was lower than the yield of optimally irrigated plants by about 30%. Under optimal irrigation, the NPK fertilizer enriched with filamentous fungi significantly increased fruit yield. Similarly, an increase in yield occurred after the application of the fertilizers: Urea in the recommended dose (100%) with the addition of filamentous fungi, and Super Fos Dar 40 in the amount of 60% of the recommended dose enriched with beneficial bacteria. Additional fertilization with the microbiological preparations increased the strawberry fruit yield. Better effects were obtained on the containers with a lower level of irrigation than on those with optimal irrigation.
PL
Doświadczenie założono na polu doświadczalnym Szkoły Głównej Gospodarstwa Wiejskiego (SGGW) w Skierniewicach wiosną 2018 roku w trzech powtórzeniach. Doświadczenie przeprowadzono na sadzonkach roślin truskawki odmiany ‘Marmolada’ posadzonych w kamionkowych kontenerach o średnicy 0,40 m i wysokości 1,20 m, wypełnionych 120 litrami gleby bielicowej o pH of 6,2 (w KCl). Doświadczenie prowadzono w dwóch wariantach: 100% nawodnienie i 50% nawodnienia (2 x 13 kombinacji nawozowych). Celem pracy była ocena wpływu pożytecznych mikroorganizmów i innowacyjnych nawozów mineralnych wzbogaconych mikrobiologicznie na intensywność owocowania i jakości owoców dwuletnich roślin truskawki uprawianych w kontenerach, optymalnie nawadnianych i poddanych stresowi suszy. Sposób nawożenia roślin nie miał istotnego wpływu na liczbę kwiatostanów i kwiatów truskawki. Natomiast zabiegi te istotnie zwiększały zawartość chlorofilu w liściach roślin optymalnie nawadnianych, szczególnie tam, gdzie nawożono je nawozami NPK i mocznikiem wzbogaconymi grzybami strzępkowymi oraz nawozami Polifoska 6 i Super Fos Dar 40 wzbogaconymi pożytecznymi bakteriami. Mikroorganizmy przy ograniczonym dostępie wody, niezależnie od rodzaju nawozu mineralnego, nie miały istotnego wpływu na wielkość badanych cech roślin truskawki. Ograniczenie nawodnienia roślin o 50% spowodowało znaczny spadek plonu i masy jednego owocu. Mikroorganizmy, a szczególnie grzyby strzępkowe pozwoliły ograniczyć wpływ niedoboru wody na wielkość i jakość uzyskanego plonu, zwłaszcza w porównaniu do wpływu pełnego nawożenia mineralnego. Plon truskawki był niższy w porównaniu do plonu roślin optymalnie nawadnianych o około 30%. Nawóz NPK wzbogacony grzybami strzępkowymi w tych warunkach zwiększał istotnie jego wielkość. Podobnie po zastosowaniu nawozów: mocznika w zalecanej dawce (100%) z dodatkiem grzybów strzępkowych i nawozu Super Fos Dar 40 w ilości wynoszącej 60% dawki zalecanej, wzbogaconego pożytecznymi bakteriami. Nawożenie preparatami mikrobiologicznymi zwiększyło plon owoców truskawki. Lepszy efekt uzyskano w kontenerach o niższym poziomie nawadniania niż w kontenerach z nawodnieniem optymalnym.
EN
Participatory monitoring allows communities to understand the use and management of local water resources and at the same time develop a sense of ownership of environmental information. The data generated through participatory monitoring of stream flow and rainfall generate evidences to corroborate local people’s experiences with changing water resources patterns. In this study we evaluate the potential of participatory monitoring of hydrological variables to improve scarce water supply utilization in agriculture. The case study site is the Mustang district in Nepal, which is located in the Upper Kaligandaki River Basin in the Himalayas with unique and complex geographical and climatic features. This region is characterized by a semi-arid climate with total annual precipitation of less than 300 mm. Water supply, agricultural land, and livestock grazing are the key ecosystem services that underpin livelihood security of the local population, particularly socio-economically vulnerable groups. An analysis of the measured stream flow data indicate that annual flow of water in the stream can meet the current crop irrigation water needs for the agricultural land of the research site. The data provide local farmers a new way of understanding local water needs. Participatory monitoring would contribute to an optimization of the use of ecosystem services to support economic development and livelihood improvement.
EN
To resist against a hostile environment, the oases of Saoura developed ingenious techniques of catchment and sharing of water to exploit the rare and precious waters of the groundwater. But the intervention of modern irrigation techniques has disrupted the entire oasis system inside the oasis such as the spring, the palm grove and the ksar. These techniques have overexploited the groundwater supplying the palm grove in terms of quantity and quality. For centuries, the oases of Mougheul used only the source (with a flow of 25 dm3∙s–1 in 2001) which is inside the oasis to irrigate the parcels and herds. After the year 2005, the state decided to supply the city of Bechar with drinking water through the catchment field of Mougheul through five modern boreholes, which had a profound impact on the oasis, its surroundings, and the whole artesian source. In this work, we study the impact of the use of modern catchment systems on the water source and the life of the Mougheul population. By interviewing farmers and landowners about the impact of groundwater scarcity on the oasis. This allowed knowing the current state of the oasis and the reasons for its deterioration.
PL
Aby przeżyć w nieprzyjaznym środowisku, w oazach Saoura rozwijano pomysłowe techniki gromadzenia i rozdziału wody celem eksploatacji ograniczonych i cennych zasobów wód gruntowych. Interwencja współczesnych technik nawadniania zniszczyła cały system oaz z ich źródłami, gajami palmowymi i osadami ludzkimi. Te techniki nadmiernie eksploatowały wody gruntowe zasilające gaje palmowe. Przez wieki oazy w Mougheul wykorzystywały jedynie źródło (o wydajności 25 dm3∙s–1 w 2001 r.) znajdujące się wewnątrz oazy. Po roku 2005 państwo podjęło decyzję o zaopatrywaniu miasta Bechar w wodę pitną z poziomu wodonośnego w Mougheul poprzez pięć współczesnych odwiertów, co miało ogromny wpływ na oazę, jej otoczenie i cały system studni artezyjskiej. W pracy przedstawiono wpływ wykorzystania współczesnych systemów pozyskiwania wody na źródło wody i życie ludności w Mougheul.
EN
The Henaya Irrigated Perimeter (HIP) is an agricultural area irrigated by treated wastewater (TWW) of Ain El Hout treatment plant. Various analyses have shown that i) this water has low concentration of heavy metals and toxic elements, ii) the average values of the physicochemical parameters for 136 samples are satisfactory (29.2 mg O2∙dm–3 for chemical oxygen demands – COD, 13.14 mg O2∙dm–3 for biological oxygen demands – BOD, 14.2 mg∙dm–3 of suspended matter – SM, 1.82 mg∙dm–3 of N-NO3, 7.7 for pH and 927.74 μS∙cm–1 for electric conductivity – EC). Thirdly, it contains a high number of bacteria and nematodes (7200 CFU∙(100 dm3)–1 for faecal coliforms and 30 eggs∙dm–3 for intestinal Nematodes) which makes it dangerous for groundwater contamination. The objective in this work is to characterize the TWW and evaluate the impact of it use for irrigation on the quality of Hennaya groundwater. Before this, one has to prove that there is an amount of TWW that feeds the water table to show that there is a risk of pollution. We then estimated the aquifer minimum recharge value by TWW using the Thormthwaite method. The estimation has given 92 mm which is an important quantity. The results of the groundwater microbiological analyses reveal no sign of contamination. The cause is the efficiency of the degradation of pollutants of the Vadose zone. The soil purifying power Md of the HIP was evaluated by the Rehse method and gave values ranging from 2.1 to 12.7 which indicated a complete purification.
PL
Obszar nawodnień Hennaya to grunty rolnicze nawadniane oczyszczonymi ściekami z oczyszczalni Ain El Hout. W wyniku analizy stwierdzono, że w oczyszczonych ściekach stężenia metali ciężkich i substancji toksycznych jest małe, a średnie wartości parametrów fizycznych i chemicznych mierzonych w 136 próbkach są zadowalające (ChZT – 29,2 mg O2∙dm–3, BZT – 13,14 mg O2∙dm–3, zawiesina – 14,2 mg∙dm–3, N-NO3 – 1,82 mg∙dm–3, pH – 7.7 i przewodnictwo – 927,74 μS∙cm–1). Ścieki zawierają dużą liczbę bakterii coli pochodzenia kałowego (7200 jtk∙(100 dm3)–1) i jaj nicieni przewodu pokarmowego (30 jaj∙dm–3), co stanowi zagrożenie dla jakości wód gruntowych. Celem badań była analiza oczyszczonych ścieków i ocena ich wpływu na wody gruntowe nawadnianych nimi obszarów. Wstępnie należało dowieść, że ścieki zasilają wody gruntowe i istnieje ryzyko zanieczyszczenia. Za pomocą metody Thormthwaite’a oszacowano minimalne zasilanie wód podziemnych – 92 mm, czyli jest to znacząca ilość ścieków. Nie stwierdzono mikrobiologicznych zanieczyszczeń wód gruntowych. Przyczyną tego jest zdolność strefy aeracji do redukcji zanieczyszczeń. Redukcję zanieczyszczeń przez gleby nawadnianej strefy oceniano metodą Rehse, a uzyskane wartości wynoszące od 2,1 do 12,7 wskazują na całkowite oczyszczenie.
EN
The ash-leaved maple (Acer negundo L.) has low habitat requirements, which is why this species is often used in the reclamation of industrial areas. The development of the reclamation plantings depends on the optimal water soil conditions that can be controlled by watering treatments. However, the use of irrigation requires determining the water needs of the cultivated species. The objective of the study was to evaluate the water needs of the ash-leaved maple in the reclamation plantings, in the period of over three years after planting. The water needs of the ash-leaved maple were determined using the crop coefficients method. Potential evapotranspiration was calculated using the Blaney-Criddle’s formula that was modified for the Polish conditions by Żakowicz. The water needs of the ash-leaved maple were assessed for five agro-climatic regions of Poland, in the years 1981-2010. The water needs of the ash-leaved maple in the growing period (April-October) were the highest in the C-E (638 mm) and C-N-W (637 mm) regions, and the lowest in the N-E (598 mm) and S-E (601 mm) regions. In July, the highest water needs were noted in the C-N-W region (149 mm) and the lowest in the S-W region (129 mm). In the studied thirty-years period, there was a significant upward trend in the water needs of the ash-leaved maple both during the growing season (except for the C-N-W region) and in July, in all the considered regions.
8
Content available Water Economy Balance of the Almaty City
EN
This article provides and analyses the detailed water balances of the Almaty city in regards to the water resources, the share of which for different water bodies is 50%, 75% or 95% at the present level of surface and groundwater use. We have quantitatively assessed such surface water resources for specific water bodies and for the whole city. We have analysed the field studies of channel water balances of small rivers conducted in 2006, 2007 and 2013 (Almaty city) to identify the areas of abstraction losses and groundwater outcrop in riverbeds. The water balance analysis shows that Almaty city suffers from significant deficits in water resources. On the basis of the population growth dynamics, we assume that it will only increase. We have clarified the methods for calculating hydrometeorological characteristics and gained the updated information about the stream flows in a number of control sections and the channel water balances of the Karasu.
EN
The aim of this study was to estimate the water needs of grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) in the different regions of Poland. The requirements of grapevines water, considered as the crop evapotranspiration, were determined using the plant coefficient method. The grapevine plants crop evapotranspiration was measured using the reference evapotranspiration and plant coefficients. The plant coefficients were adapted to the reference evapotranspiration that was calculated using the Blaney‑Criddle’s formula, modified for Polish conditions by Żakowicz. The water needs of grapevines were determined for five agro‑climatic regions of Poland with the representative meteorological stations. The calculations of grapevines water requirements were carried out for the thirty‑year period determined from 1981 to 2010. The study was based on the six‑month growing season established from May 1 to October 31. Four months, including May, June, July and August, were considered as the irrigation period. The highest grapevines water requirements (440 mm) during the growing season, were observed in the north‑west and central‑east region of Poland. In turn, the lowest water requirements were revealed in the south‑east (414 mm) and north‑east (415 mm) region of the country. During the irrigation period, the highest grapevines water needs occurred in the central‑north‑west (355 mm) and central‑east (353 mm) region of Poland, while the lowest (329 mm) – in the south‑east region of the country. The upward time trend of the grapevines water requirements was observed both in the growing season and in the irrigation period. With the exception of the central‑north‑west region, this time trend was significant throughout Poland. The highest increase in the water needs of grapevines during the growing season (by 6.9 mm in each subsequent ten‑year period) occurred in the central‑east and south‑east region of Poland. In the irrigation period, the highest rise of grapevines water requirements was noted in the south‑west (7.4 mm decade ‑1) and south‑east (7.6 mm decade ‑1) region of the country. The highest rainfall deficit was observed in the central‑north‑west region of Poland; 125 mm during the growing season, and 117 mm in the irrigation period.
EN
Water shortages occurring in the natural environment are the result of progressing climate changes, including the decreasing amount of atmospheric precipitation. In Poland, during the vegetation periods, droughts occur every 4-5 years, which causes losses in the field production and in forest communities. Reducing the negative effects of drought is possible by retention of water within a catchment. This method of improving the water balance has been included in the provisions of the Water Framework Directive and Water Law. On the meliorated valley objects, there are melioration devices that enable regulation of the moisture content, including irrigation during periods of drought. Drainage ditches can also retain water in the early spring periods with high flows in rivers. The studies carried out on the Lower Supraśl river site showed that about 40% of drainage devices used for water damming (dams and ramps), as well as for water distribution (feeders and detailed ditches) are not technically efficient and do not fulfil the function of moisture content regulation. Fibrous-muck soils occurring on this object, due to the lack of rainfall and irrigation, reduced the water retention capacity by approximately 30%. Modernization and reconstruction of drainage devices on valley objects will enable increasing the retention within individual catchments.
EN
The paper presents the evaluation of the possibility to use the water from five quarry lakes located in County Strzelin for the purposes of agricultural irrigation. The evaluation was based on the guidelines provided by FAO and in PN-84/C-04635. The average values of water quality indicators were as follows: electrical conductivity – 0.365 mS×cm-1; Sodium Adsorption Ratio – 0.75; Total Dissolved Solids – 233.9 mg×dm-3; water pH – 7.8; BOD5 – 1.6 mgO2×dm-3, while the average ion concentrations were: nitrates – 1.6 mgN-NO3×dm-3; sulphates – 188.5 mg SO4×dm-3; chlorides – 30.95 mg Cl×dm-3; sodium 22.6, mg Na×dm-3; manganese – 0.05 mg Mn×dm-3; and iron – 0.04 mg Fe×dm-3. The values of the analysed indicators were similar to the concentrations noted in natural lakes and unloaded water reservoirs. The water from the analysed quarry lakes met (with some minor limitations) the requirements that enable its use for agricultural irrigation, in particular sprinkler irrigation.
EN
Drought is generally associated with the persistence of low precipitation amount, decreased soil moisture and water availability relative to the normal levels in a designated area. The effects of drought, range from the morphological to molecular levels, and are evident at all phenological stages of the plant growth, at whatever stage the water deficit occurs. Determination of the surface water demands for irrigation purposes comes out from the assumption of hydrologic processes stationarity. This paper shows our research prerequisite that water stress participates in an important part on the volume changes of over ground parts, which is predictive for the irrigation demand. Malus domestica var. Yellow Transparent was chosen for the measurement of volume changes of the surface plant parts. Our measurements were realised by the Diameter dendrometer small (DD-S) from 24.08. to 13.09.2017. One tree was irrigated by the dose of 50 mm. We compared the dendrometric changes to soil moisture and rainfall on both irrigated and non-irrigated trees. The experiment showed the differences between the irrigated apple tree (the diameters of the branches fluctuated between 11.9 and 12.1 mm) and the non-irrigated apple tree (the diameter of the branches increased after three-day rain from 8.35 to 8.61 mm), in order to determine the water stress of plants based on dendrometric changes and optimize irrigation during the drought period.
EN
Greywater is an important water resource at the household level. The reuse of greywater is one of the most promising ways of conserving water because it has an important role in increasing plant productivity at the garden level. It is an important option to increase the efficiency of water use at the household level in rural Iraq. Through the implementation of a greywater treatment unit, this project sought to develop the treatment technology and encourage the local community in the target areas to reuse it. In this study, a greywater treatment unit that consists of a septic tank, up-flow anaerobic filter, and a storage tank is constructed on a specified area in the Khairi village in Al Diwaniyah province in Iraq. In order to ensure the quality of the treated greywater used in irrigation, an experimental verification and analysis of results were performed to demonstrate the improvement of physical, chemical and biological parameters. These parameters are COD, BOD, and TSS. According to the results of the study, the anaerobic filter (Subsurface Flow) was designed with one septic tank and three compartments. The total removal efficiency of COD, BOD, and TSS by greywater treatment unit was 92.27%, 96.9%, and 99.0%, respectively. The quality of the water produced by the greywater treatment unit was consistent with the FAO guidelines for reuse of treated water to irrigate domestic gardens.
EN
The deployment of appropriate technologies to enhance modern agricultural practices and improve crop yields is imperative for sustainability. This paper presents the development of a standalone automated irrigation system. The system design features good automation and control, which was achieved using an array of electronic timing system, soil feedback sensor and wireless communication system. Autonomous irrigation events are based on the states of the timing system, the soil feedback system and the wireless communication system. The control and automation of these systems was done using an AVR microcontroller, which was programmed to trigger intelligent and independent farm irrigation operation through a water pump attached to the system. The system also operates remotely via SMS command from mobile device and sends operational status feedback via SMS to preprogrammed mobile user(s). It also sends soil moisture condition to a remote user upon query. The system package was produced using additive manufacturing technique. The power supply system was implemented using solar power system in order to achieve a standalone, autonomous and reliable power supply necessary for an independent operation. The performance evaluation of the developed system show impressive response time, good reliability and excellent stability. Furthermore, the numerical experiment conducted using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) produced a mathematical model for the optimization of the irrigation process for optimum performance and cost effectiveness.
EN
Efforts on the management of water resources, especially irrigation and drainage, in arid-semiarid areas are extremely important for the sustainability of irrigated agriculture. Groundwater level should be constantly monitored and kept at the desired level in the project which is achieve the expected benefits from investments made for this goal. The research was done in right bank irrigation area which is located in Southeast Turkey, Suruc Plain in 2017. The spatial and temporal fluctuations of the groundwater table depth and groundwater salinity were measured in the course of five-month-periods; from July to October. The results of depth (m) and salinity (µmhos cm-1) of the groundwater observation wells were mapped using geographical information system (GIS). The results showed that groundwater was not found in many observation wells, while groundwater depth reached to a critical threshold level (2 m (risk free for drainage) from July to October in the study area. The groundwater salinity was found to be less than 2250 µmhos cm-1 at the research area. Depending on the research findings, it was noted that there were not any waterlogging, drainage and salinity problems stemming from the rise of groundwater table due to short-term irrigated agriculture in the plain.
PL
W pracy dokonano analizy klimatycznej, glebowo-wodnej, hydrologicznej i przyrodniczo-ekologicznej względnej zasadności rozwoju rolniczych odwodnień i nawodnień w skali województw, jak również względnej przyrodniczej zasadności, będącej syntezą tych cząstkowych zasadności. Podstawę analizy stanowiły wartości rodzajowych indeksów zasadności rozwoju melioracji w województwach, jak również wartości syntetycznych wskaźników zasadności. Ustalono, że największą przyrodniczą zasadnością rozwoju odwodnień może charakteryzować się województwo łódzkie, a najmniejszą - województwo lubuskie. Największa zasadność rozwoju nawodnień może istnieć w województwie opolskim, najmniejsza zaś w województwie małopolskim.
EN
The article constitutes an analysis of the climate, soil and water, hydrological, as well as environmental and ecological relative validity of development of agricultural drainage and irrigation systems at the province level. It also presents the relative environmental validity being a synthesis of these partial rationales. The analysis is based on the values of different indicators concerning the validity of land melioration development in provinces, as well as the values of synthetic validity indicators. It indicates that the highest environmental validity for drainage systems development occurs in the Łódzkie Province, and the lowest - in the Lubuskie Province. The highest validity for development of irrigation systems may occur in the Opolskie Province, while the lowest - in the Małopolskie Province.
PL
Na podstawie danych z bazy GIS Mapy Hydrogeologicznej Polski w skali 1:50 000 ustalono optymalne warunki dla intensywnego poboru wody studniami wierconymi z poziomów wodonośnych podczas długotrwałej suszy hydrologicznej na obszarze pasa nizin środkowopolskich o najniższych w kraju opadach atmosferycznych i głębokich niedoborach wody na terenach upraw rolnych w okresie suszy. Zależnie od warunków hydrogeologicznych i rodzaju gleb, pobór z pojedynczej studni może w okresie głębokiej suszy hydrologicznej pokryć wysokie niedobory wody na terenach upraw rolnych na powierzchni najczęściej 15–50 ha, natomiast czas odbudowy retencji sczerpanych zasobów w ujętym poziomie wodonośnym wyniesie najczęściej 1–5 lat.
EN
Based on the GIS database for the 1: 50,000 Hydrogeological Map of Poland, the optimum conditions have been established for intensive water abstraction by drilled wells from aquifers during a long-lasting hydrological drought in the central regions of the Polish Lowlands. It is the area of country’s lowest precipitation and high water deficits for agriculture during droughts. Depending on the hydrogeological conditions and the type of soils, water abstraction from a single well can cover high water deficit for agriculture during a period of deep hydrological drought in an area of most frequently 15–50 hectares. The time of retention recovery in the aquifer for depleted resources will usually be 1–5 years.
18
Content available remote Water Requirements of Bird Cherry (Padus avium Mill.)
EN
Bird cherry (Padus avium Mill.) is a medicinal and ornamental plant. Its flowers, fruits and bark are used in herbal medicine. Bird cherry is planted in parks, along roads and also used in the landscape and reclamation plantations. The first three years after planting determines the seedling survival rate of introduced plants. During this period, the plants should have adequate soil moisture, which can be provided by the properly designed and operated irrigation system. The aim of the research was to assess the bird cherry water needs during the first three years after planting. As a measure of water requirements, the potential evapotranspiration (Etp) of the plants was applied. The modified for Polish conditions by Żakowicz (2010) Blaney-Criddle’s formula using the adjusted crop coefficients was applied. It was assumed that the growing season of plants starts on April 1 and ends on October 31. The estimates were carried out for five agro-climatic regions of Poland during the years 1981-2010. The rainfall deficiency (or excess) in the period from April to October was calculated based on the difference between the plants water needs (showed as Etp) and the precipitation totals. The average water requirements of bird cherry in all studied regions during the period of the highest water needs (July-August) were 233 mm. The highest water requirements (around 242 mm) in the period July-August occurred in the central-north-western and central-eastern regions. The lowest water requirements (227 mm) were noted in the north-eastern and south-eastern regions. In each decade of the long-term, a significant rising tendency of water needs in the period July-August by 5 mm was noted. During the years 1981-2010, the rainfall deficiency in the period July-August occurred in 29 years in the north-eastern and central-eastern regions, in 28 years in the central-north-western region, in 27 years in the south-western region and in 25 years in the south-eastern region. In all studied regions during the long-term, the increasing tendency of bird cherry water requirements during the growing season was noted. The temporal variability of bird cherry water needs, with the exception of the central-north-western region, was important for each region.
PL
Czeremcha zwyczajna (Padus avium Mill.), nazywana również czeremchą pospolitą, jest rośliną leczniczą i ozdobną. Jej kwiaty, owoce i kora są wykorzystywane w ziołolecznictwie. Bywa sadzona w parkach i przy drogach, a także stosowana w zadrzewieniach krajobrazowych i rekultywacyjnych. Decydującym o wysokiej udatności nasadzeń jest zwłaszcza okres pierwszych trzech lat po nasadzeniu roślin wprowadzanych na dany teren. Wymaga to zapewnienia wystarczającej ilości wody poprzez dobrze zaprogramowane nawodnienia. Celem podjętych badań była próba oszacowania potrzeb wodnych czeremchy zwyczajnej w pierwszych trzech latach po nasadzeniu. Jako miarę zapotrzebowania wody przez rośliny przyjęto ewapotranspirację potencjalną. Wykorzystano do tego celu, zmodyfikowany dla warunków Polski przez Żakowicza (2010), wzór Blaney-Criddle’a, z użyciem dostosowanych do niego współczynników roślinnych. Przyjęto, że sezon wegetacyjny czeremchy zwyczajnej rozpoczyna się 1 kwietnia a kończy 31 października. Obliczenia przeprowadzono dla różnych regionów agro-klimatycznych Polski w latach 1981-2010. Niedobory (lub nadmiary) opadów w okresie kwiecień-październik obliczono z różnicy pomiędzy potrzebami wodnymi czeremchy, wyrażonymi, jako Etp dla tego okresu, a sumą opadów atmosferycznych. Potrzeby wodne czeremchy w okresie jej największego zapotrzebowania na wodę (lipiec-sierpień) w 5 regionach Polski wyniosły 233 mm. Największe potrzeby wodne w lipcu i w sierpniu, wystąpiły w dwóch regionach Polaki: środkowo-północno-zachodnim i środkowo-wschodnim (około 242 mm). Najmniejsze potrzeby wodne (średnio 227 mm), stwierdzono w północno-wschodnim i południowo-wschodnim regionie Polski. W każdej dekadzie analizowanego wielolecia zaznaczyła się istotna tendencja wzrostu zapotrzebowania na wodę o 5 mm w okresie lipca i sierpnia. W badanym trzydziestoleciu, niedobory opadów w okresie lipiec-sierpień wystąpiły w 29 latach w regionach północno-wschodnim i środkowo-wschodnim, w regionie środkowo-północno-zachodnim w 28 latach, w południowo-zachodnim w 27 latach, a w południowo-wschodnim niedobory opadów wystąpiły w 25 latach. We wszystkich badanych regionach rozpatrywanego trzydziestolecia, zaznaczyła się tendencja do zwiększenia się potrzeb wodnych czeremchy w okresie wegetacji. Trend zmienności czasowej potrzeb wodnych był, z wyjątkiem regionu środkowo-północno-zachodniego, istotny w przypadku każdego regionu.
EN
The uncertainty of water availability is the main problem in planning for water resources in watersheds of agricultural drylands. Water availability for different uses depends on the runoff that is generated in the upper portion of the watersheds, where there are higher elevations and lower temperatures. Proximity to the ocean is a main factor that defines rainfall amounts. In this research we linked the effects of El Niño to a regional Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the subsequent impact on runoff production and irrigation water allocation. Findings indicate the cascading impacts of the El Niño on the SPI, the SPI on the runoff discharge to the irrigation reservoir, and the final impact on the planted area within the irrigation district. An optimization procedure was applied to maximizing net income in agriculture under different water availability scenarios. The restrictions to the optimization model were: total available water, crop water demand, and available land. Local criteria for defining the maximum allowable planted area by crop also were taken into account. The analysis with various water availability scenarios demonstrated that with limited amounts of water for irrigation, forage area would be limited, thereby increasing the area of crops with lower water demands. In both scenarios the area of forage maize was reduced from 11300 to 1764 ha. Increasing irrigation water use efficiency may save water for expanding the irrigated area, or for other uses.
EN
The Hamadian groundwater table ensures water supply for the agricultural perimeter of Wadi Mehiya region in the North-East of Tindouf city. In order to determine the behaviour of this groundwater table, a piezometric map have been realized, followed by physicochemical analyses to assess the chemical facies, the suitability of this water for irrigation and drinking purposes, as well as its vulnerability to different pollutants. This groundwater table is essentially composed of fine to coarse and clayey sands, surmounted by a silicified limestone slab. It is a free groundwater table with a thickness of 18 to 99 m. The sampling has been done in June 2010. Then, the physicochemical analyses have been performed on 7 samples taken from 7 boreholes. The piezometric study proved that the flow of groundwater table follows a North-East to South- -West direction, towards the Sebkha of Tindouf. The graphic representation of chemical facies, using Piper and Schoeller– Berkaloff diagrams, reveals that the water of Wadi Mehiya contains mainly magnesium sulphate. The graphical representation of irrigation water quality, using Wilcox diagram, revealed an acceptable quality with a high salinity. Moreover, this water is potable with hard-mineralized character. Nitrates contamination has been also noted, which is a logical result of the excessive use of chemical fertilizers.
PL
Poziom wodonośny Hamadi zapewnia dostawy wody dla rolniczych terenów regionu Wadi Mehiya na północny wschód od miasta Tindouf. W celu określenia właściwości poziomu wodonośnego wykonano mapę piezometryczną, a następnie przeprowadzono analizy fizyczne i chemiczne do oceny składu wody, jej przydatności do nawodnień i zaopatrzenia ludności w wodę pitną, jak również podatności zasobów na różne zanieczyszczenia. Poziom wodonośny znajduje się w warstwie gliniastego piasku o zmiennym uziarnieniu podścielonego warstwą krzemionkowo-wapienną. Jest to poziom o swobodnym zwierciadle wody o miąższości od 18 do 99 m. Próbki wody pobrano w czerwcu 2010 r. Analizy fizyczne i chemiczne wykonano w 7 próbkach pobranych z 7 odwiertów. Badania piezometryczne wykazały, że woda gruntowa płynie z północnego wschodu na południowy zachód w kierunku Sebkha k. Tindouf. Graficzna prezentacja wyników z wykorzystaniem diagramów Pipera i Shoellera–Berkaloffa dowodzi, że w składzie chemicznym wody Wadi Mehiya dominuje siarczan magnezu. Graficzne przedstawienie jakości wody do nawodnień wg diagramu Wilcoxa wykazało akceptowalną jakość z dużym zasoleniem. Ta wysoce zmineralizowana woda nadaje się do celów spożywczych. Zanotowano także zanieczyszczenie azotanami, co jest skutkiem nadmiernego stosowania nawozów mineralnych.
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