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1
PL
SuperDARN (Super Dual Auroral Radar Network) jest światową siecią radarów koherentnego rozpraszania w paśmie wysokich częstotliwości HF (High Frequency) do badań górnych warstw atmosfery, mezosfery, jonosfery, termosfery oraz ich sprzężenia z magnetosferą i wiatrem słonecznym. Do głównych tematów badawczych SuperDARN z dziedziny fizyki atmosfery należą echa mezosferyczne, fale planetarne i związane z nimi przemieszczające się zaburzenia jonosferyczne oraz inne przejawy oddziaływania atmosfery neutralnej ze zjonizowaną. W artykule przedstawiamy perspektywy dla rozwoju badań atmosfery z użyciem radarów SuperDARN w kraju, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem badań z dziedziny elektryczności atmosferycznej.
EN
SuperDARN (Super Dual Auroral Radar Network) is a global network of coherent scatter radars in the HF (High Frequency) band for studying the upper atmosphere, mesosphere, ionosphere, thermosphere and their coupling with the magnetosphere and solar wind. SuperDARN research topics in the field of atmospheric physics include mesospheric echoes, planetary waves and associated travelling ionospheric disturbances, and other manifestations of the interaction of neutral and ionised atmosphere. In the article we present prospects for the development of atmospheric research in Poland using SuperDARN radars, with particular emphasis on research studies in the field of atmospheric electricity.
2
Content available SuperDARN w Polsce – perspektywy
PL
SuperDARN (Super Dual Auroral Radar Network) jest światową siecią radarów do badania górnych warstw atmosfery, jonosfery i ich sprzężenia z magnetosferą i wiatrem słonecznym (Greenwald i in. 1995; Chisham i in. 2007; Lester 2008, 2013, Nishitani i in. 2019). W artykule przybliżamy szczegóły techniczne, tematy badawcze i publikacje związane z działalnością SuperDARN oraz korzyści płynące z polskiego w nim udziału, który mógłby wzmocnić badania krajowe, jak i współpracę międzynarodową oraz otworzyć nowe tematy badawcze. Zanim to będzie możliwe, należy rozwiązać kilka technicznych kwestii, których tło i perspektywy nakreślamy.
EN
SuperDARN (Super Dual Auroral Radar Network) is a global radar network for studying the upper atmosphere, ionosphere, thermosphere and mesosphere and their coupling with the magnetosphere and solar wind (Greenwald et al. 1995; Chisham et al. 2007; Lester 2008, 2013, Nishitani et al. 2019). In the article we bring closer to national readers the SuperDARN network through describing its technical details, projects and publications. In addition to strengthening present research Polish participation in SuperDARN could result in development of new topics in national research and in international cooperation. Before it is possible, several technical issues should be solved, the background and perspectives of which we outline in the article.
PL
Radary SuperDARN powstały jako narzędzie do badań górnych warstw atmosfery i ich związków z magnetosferą i wiatrem słonecznym (Greenwald i in. 1995; Chisham i in. 2007; Lester 2008, 2013). Pracują w zakresie częstotliwości HF, pomiędzy 8 a 20 MHz. Ich zasada działania opiera się na wykorzystaniu rozpraszania Bragga na periodycznych strukturach przestrzennych o skalach odległości porównywalnych z długością fali sondującej. Radary te umożliwiają obserwacje formacji jonosferycznych zorientowanych wzdłuż linii pola geomagnetycznego. W artykule opisano podstawowe bloki funkcjonalne przykładowego radaru SuperDARN: tor nadawczy, odbiorczy oraz system antenowy. Omówiony został sposób modelowania wiązki sondującej. Jedną z kluczowych kwestii przy wyborze lokalizacji dla nowopowstającej stacji SuperDARN jest określenie jej potencjalnych możliwości obserwacyjnych. Można wykorzystać do tego oprogramowanie dokonujące śledzenia dróg propagacji impulsu emitowanego przez radar i określania punktów, w których wektor fali jest prostopadły do lokalnego pola magnetycznego Ziemi. Warunek taki pozwoli na uzyskanie rozproszenia wyemitowanej przez antenę radaru fali z powrotem, w kierunku nadawania. W artykule przedstawiono wyniki symulacji dla hipotetycznej stacji SuperDARN, zlokalizowanej w południowo-zachodniej Polsce. W obliczeniach użyto programu do ray tracingu, bazującego na algorytmie Jones i Stephenson (1975) oraz modelu jonosfery IRI-2012.
EN
SuperDARN radars were developed as a tool for testing the upper atmosphere regions and their coupling with the magnetosphere and solar wind (Greenwald et al. 1995; Chisham et al. 2007; Lester 2008, 2013). They work in the HF frequency range, between 8 and 20MHz. Their principle of operation is based on the use of Bragg scattering on periodic spatial structures with scales of distance comparable to the length of the sounding wave. These radars allow observation of ionospheric formations oriented along the geomagnetic field lines. The article describes basic functional SuperDARN radar blocks: transmitting path, receiving path, and the antenna system as well. The method of modeling the sounding beam is also presented. One of the key issues when choosing a location for a new SuperDARN station is to determine its potential for observation. You can use a special software to track the propagation paths of the pulse emitted by the radar and determining points in which the wave vector is perpendicular to the local geomagnetic field. Such a condition will allow to obtain the scatter of the wave emitted by the radar antenna back into the direc¬tion of transmission. The article presents simulation results for a hypothetical SuperDARN station, located in south-western Poland. The calculation were based on a ray tracing program based on the Jones and Stephenson algorithm (Jones, Stephenson 1975) and the IRI-2012 ionosphere model.
EN
This review paper presents research results on geodetic positioning and applications carried out in Poland, and related to the activities of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) Commission 4 “Positioning and Applications” and its working groups. It also constitutes the chapter 4 of the national report of Poland for the International Union of Geodesy and Geodynamics (IUGG) covering the period of 2015-2018. The paper presents selected research, reviewed and summarized here, that were carried out at leading Polish research institutions, and is concerned with the precise multi-GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) satellite positioning and also GNSS-based ionosphere and troposphere modelling and studies. The research, primarily carried out within working groups of the IAG Commission 4, resulted in important advancements that were published in leading scientific journals. During the review period, Polish research groups carried out studies on multi-GNSS functional positioning models for both relative and absolute solutions, stochastic positioning models, new carrier phase integer ambiguity resolution methods, inter system bias calibration, high-rate GNSS applications, monitoring terrestrial reference frames with GNSS, assessment of the real-time precise satellite orbits and clocks, advances in troposphere and ionosphere GNSS remote sensing methods and models, and also their applications to weather, space weather and climate studies.
EN
The ionospheric plasma electric field plays an important role in space physics and space meteorology, and it constitutes an essential physics magnitude for all phenomena occurring in the ionosphere, such as plasma convection, wave–particle interactions, and wave emissions. We used the direct measurements of DEMETER satellite which gives the total electric field, i.e., natural and induced fields, to show the effect of the induced field on the total electric field measurements. For that purpose, the induced electric field, generated by the satellite motion through the Earth’s magnetic lines, is calculated by selecting different velocity satellite and geomagnetic field components. The induced field is calculated by using two different methods: one according to the satellite different axes and the other by using the double-probe method. It is found that the calculated induced electric field dominates on the total electric measurements, therefore leadings to misestimation of the true value of ionospheric electric field.
6
Content available Refrakcja fal radiowych w jonosferze ziemskiej
PL
Dokładna znajomość zagadnień dotyczących transmisji fal radiowych w jonosferze jest kluczowa w przypadku projektowania nowych systemów teleinformatycznych z wykorzystaniem satelitów. W artykule omówiony zostanie wpływ uwarunkowań panujących w jonosferze ziemskiej na propagację transjonosferyczną, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem zjawiska refrakcji fal radiowych oraz scyntylacji. Ponieważ warunkiem niezbędnym propagacji transjonosferycznej jest odpowiednia wartość częstotliwości fali radiowej, na ogół większa niż 30 MHz, uwzględniając izotropowy poziom tła szumów kosmicznych, maksimum i minimum temperatury szumowej promieniowania galaktycznego oraz czynniki takie jak: błąd refrakcji czy scyntylacje jonosferyczne – przyjmuje się, że dolna granica zakresu dogodnego do łączności satelitarnej wynosi 1 GHz. Kolejno wymienione i sklasyfikowane w artykule zjawiska przyczyniły się do optymalnego doboru częstotliwości wykorzystywanych na potrzeby łączności satelitarnej (II okno kosmiczne).
EN
Paper discussed the impact of refraction in the earth’s ionosphere on the propagation of radio waves. Particular attention was paid to the total electron content and irregularities among the propagation paths (one of the effects is ionospheric scintillation). In this context the Author calls attention the frequencies from the second cosmic window.
EN
This paper considers a dataset of ionograms recorded by the CADI ionosonde installed at São José dos Campos (SJC; 23.2°S, 45.9°W, magnetic latitude 14.1°S), Brazil, to compare two autoscaling systems: Autoscala, developed by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, and the UDIDA-scaling, developed by the Universidade do Vale do Paraíba. The analysis, focused on the critical frequency of the F2 layer, foF2, shows that the two systems work differently. The UDIDA-scaling gives always a value of foF2 as output, regardless of the presence of the ionogram trace and its definition, while Autoscala tends to reject ionograms for which the digital information is considered insufficient. As a consequence, the UDIDA-scaling can autoscale more foF2 values than Autoscala, but Autoscala can discard a larger number of ionograms for which the trace is unidentifiable. Discussions are made on the accuracy of the foF2 values given as output, as well as on the main shortcomings characterizing the two systems.
EN
We studied variation characteristics of ionospheric total electron contents (TEC) and performance of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI)-2012 model in predicting TEC at the BJFS (Beijing Fangshan station), China. Diurnal and seasonal variations were analyzed with TEC data derived from dual-frequency global positioning system (GPS) observations along with the solar activity dependence of TEC at the BJFS station. Data interpolated with information from IGS Global Ionosphere Maps (GIMs) were also used in the analysis. Results showed that the IRI-2012 model can reflect the climatic characteristics and solar activity dependence of ionospheric TEC. By using time series decomposition method, ionospheric daily averaged TEC values were divided into the periodic components, geomagnetic activity component, solar activity component and secular trend. Solar activity component and periodic components are supposed to be the main reasons which account for the difference between the GIMs TEC and the TEC from the IRI-2012 model.
EN
The hourly values of the F-layer critical frequency from the ionospheric sounder in Dourbes (50.1°N, 4.6°E) during the time interval from 1957 to 2010, comprising five solar cycles, were analyzed for the effects of the solar activity. The hourly time series were reduced to hourly monthly medians which in turn were used for fitting a single station foF2 monthly median model. Two functional approaches have been investigated: a statistical approach and a spectral approach. The solar flux F10.7 is used to model the dependence of foF2 on the solar activity and is incorporated into both models by a polynomial expression. The statistical model employs polynomial functions to fit the F-layer critical frequency while the spectral model is based on spectral decomposition of the measured data and offers a better physical interpretation of the fitting parameters. The daytime and nighttime foF2 values calculated by both approaches are compared during high and low solar activity. In general, the statistical model has a slightly lower uncertainty at the expense of the larger number of fitting parameters. However, the spectral approach is superior for modeling the periodic effects and performs better when comparing the results for high and low solar activity. Comparison with the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI 2012) shows that both local models are better at describing the local values of the F-layer critical frequency.
EN
The mid-latitude ionospheric trough is a depleted region of ionospheric plasma observed in the topside ionosphere. Its behavior can provide useful information about the magnetospheric dynamics, since its existence is sensitive to magnetospherically induced motions. Midlatitude trough is mainly a night-time phenomenon. Both, its general features and detailed characteristics strongly depend on the level of geomagnetic disturbances, time of the day, season, and the solar cycle, among others. Although many studies provide basic information about general characteristics of the main ionospheric trough structure, an accurate prediction of the trough behavior in specific events is still understood poorly. The paper presents the mid-latitude trough characteristics with regard to the geomagnetic longitude and season during a solar activity minimum, as based on the DEMETER in situ satellite measurements and the data retrieved from FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC radio occultation measurements.
EN
The LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR) is a new radio interferometer that consists of an array of stations. Each of them is a phase array of dipole antennas. LOFAR stations are distributed mostly in the Netherlands, but also throughout Europe. In the article we discuss the possibility of using this instrument for solar and space weather studies, as well as ionosphere investigations. We are expecting that in the near future the LOFAR telescope will bring some interesting observations and discoveries in these fields. It will also help to observe solar active events that have a direct influence on the near-Earth space weather.
EN
This paper describes certain aspects of the F region storm morphology based on vertical incidence measurements at single ionosonde station Chilton (51°.60′N, 358°.70′E). The topics discussed include requirements for better understanding of the ionospheric F region morphology and its forecasting under geomagnetically quiet and disturbed conditions. A few common storms during the years of low (1996 and 1997) and high (2000 and 2001) solar activity are considered as well as the Short-Term Ionospheric Forecasting (STIF) method by using two representative examples. The merits are stressed of near-real-time use of data to provide more accurate specification of the geomagnetically disturbed ionosphere and forecast its structure few hours in advance.
EN
By analyzing the variations of global electron content (GEC) during geomagnetic storm events, the ratio “GEC/GECQT” is found to be closely correlated with geomagnetic Kp index and time weighted Dst index, where GECQT is the quiet time reference value. Moreover, the GEC/GECQT will decrease with the increase of the solar flux F10.7 index. Furthermore, we construct a linear model for storm-time response of GEC. Eighty-two storm events during 1999-2011 were utilized to calculate the model coefficients, and the performance of the model was tested using data of 8 storm events in 2012 by comparing the outputs of the model with the observed GEC values. Results suggest that the model can capture the characteristics of the GEC variation in response to magnetic storms. The component describing the solar activity influence shows a counteracting effect with the geomagnetic activity component; and the influence of Kp index causes an increase of GEC, while the time weighted Dst index causes a decrease of GEC.
EN
This article presents the results of the experimental research into the ionospheric influences on the accuracy of the GNSS measurements by comparing single and dual frequency GNSS observations. In the research, GNSS data from three reference stations in central Poland were used. The selection of the observation period depended on the calm and disturbed ionospheric conditions. The purpose of the research was to determine the differences between the control coordinates of the stations and the coordinates of these stations received after processing the results of single and dual frequency GNSS observations. For a better visibility, these differences were presented as horizontal and vertical components. The values of these components are compared with the global magnetic activity and regional ionospheric index I95. The results obtained show that the ionosphere has a considerable impact on single frequency GNSS measurements according to the geodetic requirements, although this impact depends more on the state of ionosphere rather than on its space-time changes.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań dotyczących poprawy pozycjonowania absolutnego na obszarze powiatu ryckiego. W ramach eksperymentu wykorzystano obserwacje kodowe GPS ze stacji referencyjnej RYKI. Współrzędne stacji referencyjnej RYKI zostały wyznaczone na dwa sposoby w programie RTKLIB, przy zastosowaniu metody punktowego pozycjonowania absolutnego. W pierwszym teście poprawka jonosferyczna została określona za pomocą modelu Klobuchara, zaś w drugim teście mapy jonosfery VTEC w formacie IONEX zostały zaimplementowane do obliczeń. Wstępne wyniki dokładnościowe pozycjonowania podkreślają tezę o potrzebie asymilacji lokalnego modelu jonosfery do poprawy pozycjonowania. Parametry jonosfery VTEC w teście II poprawiają dokładność pozycji nawet do 8 m, w porównaniu z testem I. Dodatkowo błąd RMS-3D został obliczony i osiąga wartości do ponad 11 m.
EN
Article presents studies results regard to standalone positioning correction over Ryki District area. In the experiment GPS code observations from RYKI reference station were utilized. Station coordinates were estimated based on two ways in RTKLIB software using Single Point Positioning mathematical formulation. In first test ionosphere delay was determinated using Klobuchar model, but in second case ionosphere VTEC maps were implemented in computations also. Preliminary results of positioning accuracy underline thesis that local ionosphere model should be assimilated to positioning correction. Ionosphere VTEC parameters in test II improves positioning accuracy to 8 m, in comparison to test I. Additionally RMS-3D error was calculated and it can reach up to 11 m.
16
Content available Positioning and applications
EN
The paper presents national report of Poland for IAG on positioning and applications. The selected research presented was carried out at leading Polish research institutions and concern precise multi-GNSS satellite positioning - relative and absolute - and also GNSS-based ionosphere and troposphere modelling and studies. The research resulted in noticeable advancements in these subjects confirmed by the development of new algorithms and methods. New and improved methods of precise GNSS positioning were developed, and also GNSS metrology was studied. New advanced troposphere models were presented and tested. In particular, these models allowed testing IPW variability on regional and global scales. Also, new regional ionosphere monitoring web-based services were developed and launched.
EN
Ionospheric time delay (VΔt) variability using Global Positioning System (GPS) data over Akure (7.15°N, 5.12°E), Nigeria, has been studied. The observed variability of VΔt in comparison to older results of vertical total electron content (TEC) across similar regions has shown equivalent signatures. Higher monthly mean values of VΔt (MVΔt) were observed during daytime as compared to nighttime (pre- and post- midnight) hours in all months. The highest MVΔt observed in September during daytime hours range between ~6 and ~21 ns (~1.80 and ~6.30 m) and at post-midnight, they are in the range of ~1 to ~6 ns (~0.3 to ~1.80 m). The possible mechanisms responsible for this variability were discussed. Seasonal VΔt were investigated as well.
EN
An original model of atmospheric wave propagation from ground sources to the ionosphere in the atmosphere with a realistic high-altitude temperature profile is analyzed. Shaping of a narrow domain with elevated pressure in the resonance region where the horizontal phase wave velocity is equal to the sound velocity is examined theoretically within the framework of linearized Eq.s. Numerical simulations for the model profiles of atmospheric temperature and viscosity confirm analytical result for the special feature of wave fields. The formation of the narrow domain with plasma irregularities in the D and low E ionospheric layers caused by the acoustic gravity wave singularity is discussed.
EN
The changes of the ionospheric electric field before and after four huge earthquakes, which include the Ms 8.7 earthquake of 2004 and the Ms 8.5 earthquake of 2005 in Sumatra of Indonesia, the Ms 8.0 Wenchuan earthquake of 2008 in China, the Ms 8.8 earthquake of 2010 in Chile, and their strong aftershocks are studied in this paper. The significant results revealed that the power spectral density of low-frequency electric field below 20 Hz in the ionosphere, a kind of electromagnetic radiation phenomena, increased abnormally before and after the earthquakes and partially corresponded to the increased power spectral density of the low-frequency geoelectric field in time. This research preliminarily indicates that the low-frequency electromagnetic radiation during the imminent stages before such earthquakes could be detected by the observation of the ionospheric electric field. However, the spatial, temporal, and intensive complexities of the electric field anomalies in the ionosphere before earthquakes have come in sight also.
EN
The F2-layer response to the moderate storm of 5-7 April 2010 was investigated using data from two equatorial stations (Ilorin: lat. 8.5°N, 4.5°E; Kwajalein: lat. 9°N, long. 167.2°E) and mid-latitude (San Vito: lat. 40.6°N, long. 17.8°E; Pruhonice: lat. 50°N, long. 14.6°E). Before storm commencement, enhancement, and depletion of NmF2 values were observed in the equatorial and mid-latitude stations, respectively, indicating the latitudinal dependence of the pre-storm event. All the stations with the exception of Kwajalein show positive phase in NmF2 response at the storm onset stage. Positive phase in NmF2 continues over Ilorin and appears on the daytime ionosphere of Kwajalein on 6 April, whereas negative phase suppressed the positive feature in Pruhonice and San Vito until the recovery condition. The differences in the response of F2-layer to the storm for the two equatorial stations were attributed to their longitudinal differences. On the average, both the AE and Dst indices revealed poor correlation relationship. More studies are required to ascertain this finding.
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