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EN
In Special Olympics, athletes’ foot deformities, abnormal postural patterns and overweight and obesity were observed to be more common than in the general population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between body composition and foot posture index. Additionally, the effect of gender and other factors on the body composition and foot posture index in athletes with intellectual disability (ID) were analyzed. Methods: 131 athletes with ID participated in this study: 36 table tennis players, 66 cross country skiers and 29 downhill skiers. Their body composition was assessed using the bioimpedance analysis InBody 230 (Biospace, Korea). The foot screening included the assessment of foot posture index, which evaluates the degree of pronated, supinated and neutral position of the foot, gait speed and the last part of the procedure consisted of a short questionnaire, providing the information about the type of housing, age, and the usage of orthotics. Results: A low correlation between body composition and some of the foot posture index criteria was observed. The mean foot posture index score in athletes with ID was observed to be slightly pronated, as also described in the general population, with no statistically significant difference between female and male athletes. The gender differences were observed only in body composition. Conclusions: The high body weight and body fat percentage observed in this study highlight the need for healthy lifestyle education in athletes with ID.
EN
The quality of body posture and its balance depends on the efficiency of the receptors, the good work of the central nervous system integrating and coordinating the postural system and the effective musculoskeletal system. Physical activity of people with intellectual disability can stimulate the processes of improving the posture and its postural stability, improving the quality of life. Methods: The study was conducted in 2017. 20 randomly selected volleyball players with intellectual disabilities and 10 healthy players took part in it. Body posture was recorded using a photogrammetric system. To evaluate the use of the Frohner Posture Index and the Dolphens classification, stability of the posture was assessed on the Zebris FDM power plate, analyzing the basic stabilographic parameters sway path and sway area. Results: Athletes with intellectual disabilities had significantly poorer posture and body balance than healthy players. There were no differences in postural stability between the groups studied. Some linear correlations were found between the quality of posture and balance and stabilographic variables. Conclusions: Incorrect postural patterns, observed in people with intellectual disabilities, require the development of special recovery programs. Qualified physical activity can help them improve their balance systems, reducing the risk of falls and injuries. The lack of the possibility of an unequivocal relationship between the quality of body posture and its stability requires research on a larger research material. New evaluation methods used (Frohner Posture index and Dolphens classification) confirmed their usefulness and gave new possibilities of application in postural research.
EN
Purpose: Maintaining balance in humans involves continuous changes in parameters. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of hippotherapeutic exercises on development of the sense of balance in boys aged 15 to 17 years with mild intellectual disability. Methods: The study examined 50 randomly chosen boys aged 15 to 17 years with mild intellectual disability from the special education centre in Leżajsk, Poland. The study participants were divided into two groups: experimental group, who participated for 3 months in hippotherapeutic classes and the control group, with boys attending outdoor or indoor physical education classes. Before and after completion of the study, both experimental and control groups were diagnosed by means of Accu SwayPlus force plate. The force plate was used to determine alterations in the position of the centre of pressure (COP) on the platform in the frontal and sagittal planes in relaxed standing position with feet spread to the shoulder width and with eye control with respect to the base of support (BOS). The description was based on mean displacement of the centre of gravity (COG), mean velocity of displacements of the COG, mean radial displacement and total length of the COP pathway. Results: In the experimental group, equestrian exercises induced a series of significant changes that pointed to the improved balance reactions. The character of these changes in the positions analysed was similar: values of body sway in the sagittal plane and their range and mean displacements decreased statistically significantly after training. The same tendency was observed for mean radial displacements in the free open position and with closed support surface. Furthermore, the velocity of displacement and the length of the COP’s projection pathway on the support surface in the free open position was also reduced. All significant changes and trends found for the experimental group, which occurred after 3 month of hippotherapeutic classes, suggest improved parameters of balance. Conclusions: The lack of changes in balance parameters in the control group shows that the hippotherapeutic classes significantly develop balance abilities in boys aged 15 to 17 years with mild intellectual disability.
EN
The article presents the possibility of using a computer with specialized software to support education of students with communication disorders. It also presents the results of preliminary tests based on the original program developed for students with intellectual disabilities in moderate and significant degree of disability in the field of alternative communication with using pictograms and pcs.
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