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The mouth of the Vistula River, which is a river outlet located in tideless area, is analyzed. The Vistula River mouth is a man-made, artificial channel which was built in the 19th century in order to prevent the formation of ice jams in the natural river delta. Since the artificial river outlet was constructed, no severe ice-related flood risk situations have ever occurred. However, periodic ice-related phenomena still have an impact on the river operation. In the paper, ice processes in the natural river delta are presented first to refer to the historical jams observed in the Vistula delta. Next, the calibrated mathematical model was applied to perform a series of simulations in the Vistula River mouth for winter storm condition to determine the effects of ice on the water level in the Vistula River and ice jam potential of the river outlet.
Content available remote Numerical Modeling of Ice Jam Formation in the Wloclawek Reservoir
Ice jam formation in a run-of-the-river reservoir and the effects of ice jam on water levels and water velocity were simulated using a two-dimensional model for simulating river ice dynamics (DynaRICE). The record ice jam of January 1982 in the Wloclawek Reservoir is also examined here. The simulation showed that the ice jam in question was formed by surface ice produced in the Vistula River, upstream of the reservoir. The effect of thermal production of suspended frazil in the reservoir on ice jam was negligible. The simulated water level as well as the ice jam profile were in agreement with the observed data. The ice discharge upstream of the reservoir and the volume of ice in the Wloclawek Reservoir were calculated. The results showed that there was less ice in the reservoir than claimed in previous literature. Suspended frazil and the undercover transport mechanism were not taken into account in this study.
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