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PL
W artykule przedstawiono metodę oraz wyniki badań obejmujące próbę dostosowania przyrostowej technologii selektywnego łączenia ziaren proszku do wytwarzania indywidualizowanych ceramicznych uzupełnień ubytków kostnych z zastosowaniem syntetycznego hydroksyapatytu. W dobie intensywnego rozwoju nowoczesnych technologii wytwórczych pojawia się coraz więcej możliwości ich wykorzystania w medycynie, szczególnie z uwagi na zapewnienie precyzyjnego odwzorowania anatomii pacjenta, opartego na danych pochodzących z obrazowania medycznego. Przyrostowe wytwarzanie znalazło już zastosowanie w wytwarzaniu trójwymiarowych modeli fizycznych umożliwiających szczegółową analizę skomplikowanych przypadków oraz służących do planowania i symulacji operacji w celu zmniejszenia ryzyka oraz skrócenia czasu trwania zabiegu. Znane są również przypadki przeprowadzenia implantacji z wykorzystaniem indywidualizowanych implantów. Najczęściej wykorzystywanym materiałem w takich przypadkach są stopy tytanu, co niesie liczne ograniczenia: brak dopasowania własności mechanicznych, brak degradacji czy niepożądane reakcje obronne organizmu. Z tego powodu nieustannie trwają badania nakierowane na wytwarzanie bioakceptowalnych i biodegradowalnych materiałów, które posłużą wytwarzaniu czasowych konstrukcji wspomagających odbudowę naturalnej tkanki w miejscach ubytków. W artykule zaprezentowano metodę wytwarzania oraz przygotowania wszczepów z zastosowaniem biomateriału ceramicznego. W ramach prowadzonych badań wykonano analizę oraz dobrano odpowiednie materiały, parametry procesowe i przeanalizowano ich wpływ na jakość wytwarzanych modeli. Otrzymany w przygotowanej metodzie materiał do zastosowań medycznych poddano testom in vitro, w celu weryfikacji właściwości biologicznych.
EN
The paper presents the method and results comprising adjustment of the incremental technology of selective connection of the powder particles. It is used for the manufacturing of ceramic restorations of individualized bone defects based on synthetic hydroxyapatite. In the era of intensive development of modern technologies of manufacturing, there are more and more opportunities to use their extensive capabilities in medicine, particular by the precise mapping of the patient’s anatomy based on data from medical imaging. Incremental manufacturing has already found application in the manufacture of three-dimensional physical models enabling a detailed analysis of complicated cases and used for planning and simulation of operations to reduce the risk and duration of treatment. There are also known some cases of carrying out the implantation with the use of individualized implants. The most commonly used material in such cases are titanium alloys which cause many restrictions i.e., no matching of mechanical properties, lack of degradation or adverse reactions of the body’s defenses. For this reason, many research is being continuously conducted focusing on manufacturing bioacceptable and biodegradable materials, which will be used in manufacture of temporary structures supporting the restoration of the natural tissue in places of cavities. This paper presents a method of manufacturing and preparing implants using ceramic biomaterial. In this study, appropriate materials as well as process parameters have been chosen and their impact on the quality of the generated models was analyzed. Obtained material for medical use has been tested in vitro to verify biological properties.
EN
A comparison of poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) and poly(l-lactide)/hydroxyapatite (PLLA/HAp) biocomposite microspheres fabricated by emulsion solvent evaporation technique designed for laser sintering (LS) applications is presented. Key properties such as thermal and structural as well as geometry, size distribution and powder flowability, which are crucial for this technique, are characterized to validate the applicability of microspheres for LS. The biocomposite microspheres turns out to be more suitable for the LS process than PLLA due to the higher thermal stability, broader sintering window and higher powder flowability.
PL
Porównano właściwości mikrosfer z poli(l-laktydu) (PLLA) i z biokompozytu poli(l-laktyd)/ hydroksyapatyt (PLLA/HAp), przygotowanych metodą emulsyjną z odparowaniem rozpuszczalnika, przeznaczonych do procesu spiekania laserowego (LS). W celu weryfikacji przydatności mikrosfer do LS scharakteryzowano kluczowe dla tej techniki właściwości: termiczne i strukturalne oraz geometrię, rozkład wymiarów i sypkość proszku. Wykazano, iż mikrosfery biokompozytowe wykazują lepsze właściwości predestynujące je do przetwarzania metodą LS niż mikrosfery PLLA, w tym większą stabilność termiczną, szersze okno parametrów spiekania i większą sypkość proszku.
EN
Metalic materials intended for bone implants should exhibit not only appropriate mechanical properties, but also high biocompatibility. The surface treatment modifications, for example acidic treatment, laser treatment, ion implantation and deposition of highly biocompatible coatings, are practiced. One of the most popular methods of surface modification is to deposit hydroxyapatite (HAp) coatings. HAp naturally occurs in human body, but can be also synthesized in laboratory conditions. Among diverse deposition techniques, electrophoretic deposition (EDP) is a cost-effective method in which charged particles, dispersed in an organic medium, after applying voltage migrate to the counter charged electrode forming a thin coating. There are several parameters that can be controlled during the process and that directly affect the morphology of the surface. The zeta potential and pH of prepared colloidal suspension are closely related to suspension stability and affect the susceptibility for agglomeration of the particles. Electrical settings, especially applied voltage, affect primarily the mass of deposition, but also the porosity of the coating, as well as its homogeneity. One of the basic parameters of EDP method is time of process. With increasing process time, the thickness of the deposited coating increases. Importantly, its mechanical properties also decrease. Moreover, the particles shape and size also affect the morphology of the deposited coating. The analysis of many variables is necessary to choose the right parameters to obtain the coating with desired morphology. In this paper, the influence of each parameter on the morphology of hydroxyapatite coatings is discussed.
PL
W artykule omówiono parametry procesu osadzania elektroforetycznego (EDP) ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem wykorzystania tej metody do osadzania powłok hydroksyapatytowych (HAp) na metalicznych implantach kostnych. Bazując na obszernym przeglądzie najnowszej literatury, przedstawiono wpływ każdego z parametrów na strukturę powstającej powłoki.
4
Content available remote Sorption of hydrogen chloride in the fluidized bed reactor
EN
Combustion of fuels, including renewable fuels and thermal treatment of waste (CFCs, pesticides), is associated with emissions of pollutants including halogens. The reversible process of sorption/desorption of HCl, in a fluidized (bubbling) bed reactor (BFB), during co-combustion of Cl-materials, was carried out. The thermal decomposition of methylene chloride (DCM, CH2Cl2) in an inert sand bed with the addition of the hydroxyapatite sorbent (HAp, Ca5(PO4)3(OH)) was investigated. The process parameters were as follows: temperature - 930 °C, the air excess - 1.3, stream rate of CH2Cl2 - 50 cm3/h. The concentration of HCl, CCl4, CHCl3, CH2Cl2, CH3Cl, COCl2 in the exhaust gases were monitored online with FTIR spectroscopy. The main chlorine product was hydrogen chloride. Samples of unprocessed HAp, taken from the bed during the process, and solid apatite residues were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The content of chlorapatite (Ca5(PO4)3Cl) in the analyzed samples was respectively 11, 53 and 19 %. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis showed the molar ratio of Ca:P:Cl was: 1.00:0.36:0.01, 1.00:0.36:0.09, 1.00:0.37:0.04 respectively. The HAp could be used as an sorbent of the HCl(g) during combustion of materials containing chlorine.
EN
Nanocrystalline apatites Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 (HAp) non-doped and doped with Ag+ and Eu3+ ions were synthesized by different wet chemistry methods. The obtained hydroxyapatite was loaded with Ag0, as well as nitroimidazole antimicrobials: metronidazole and tinidazole. The antimicrobial activity of the obtained materials against Prevotella bivia and Parabacteroides distasonis was studied. The method used for the antibacterial susceptibility testing was broth microdilution, according to the CLSI – Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute – standard M11-A8; agar Schaedler, enriched with 50% LHB - Lysed Horse Blood, was used as a medium for culturing strains. The antibacterial activity increased for the immobilized antibiotics – HAp doped with metronidazole and tinidazole was six times more bactericidal than non-immobilised metronidazole for both clinical isolates. In comparison with non-immobilised tinidazole, HAp immobilised with tinidazole was six thousand times more effective against P. distasonis and two hundred times more effective against P. bivia. HAp doped with tetracycline was over two times more bactericidal than tetracycline non-immobilised (according to the literature data). The exact MIC for bionanocomposites of HAp and silver was not obtained. The research shows that bionanocomposites of hydroxyapatite are good drug carriers for both antibiotics and silver particles and ions. The use of bionanocomposites of apatite immobilised with antibiotics in dentistry could result in a prolonged antibacterial activity of these compounds.
EN
AISI 316L–hydroxyapatite biomaterials were produced by the conventional powder metallurgy technology. In the case of materials such as these, proper and long-term functioning in the aggressive environment of body fluids is very important. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of hydroxyapatite content and sintering temperature on the properties including sintered density, open porosity, and in particular corrosion resistance of AISI 316L–hydroxyapatite biomaterials in Ringer’s solution. The measurement of sintered density and open porosity of studied materials was carried out by the water-displacement method. The corrosion behaviour was studied by open circuit potential measurement and potentiodynamic polarization method. It was stated that the properties of studied biomaterials are dependent on chemical composition of powders mixture and sintering temperature. The results showed that higher sintering temperature ensured to obtain lower values of corrosion current density and corrosion rate, and higher value of polarization resistance. The addition of 5 wt % hydroxyapatite provided to a significant improvement of corrosion resistance in Ringer’s solution in comparison to AISI 316L steel, while a slight decrease in corrosion resistance was observed for AISI 316L–10 wt % hydroxyapatite biomaterials. Passivation ability and better corrosion resistance indicate that sintered at 1240°C AISI 316L–5 wt % hydrohyapatite biomaterials is more appropriate for long-term functioning implants than AISI 316L steel. This biomaterial possessed good densification and the best corrosion resistance among all studied materials, as evidenced by the lowest corrosion current density and corrosion rate combined with the highest polarization resistance.
PL
W przypadku biomateriałów właściwe i długotrwałe funkcjonowanie w agresywnym środowisku płynów ustrojowych jest bardzo ważne. Austenityczne stale nierdzewne przy dobrych właściwościach mechanicznych wykazują jednak znaczną podatność na korozję elektrochemiczną, natomiast hydroksyapatyt charakteryzuje się bardzo dobrą biozgodnością i odpornością na korozję. Wprowadzenie dodatku hydroksyapatytu może wpłynąć na poprawę odporności korozyjnej, biozgodności, ale także właściwości tribologicznych stali AISI 316L. W pracy dokonano oceny odporności na korozję w roztworze Ringera spiekanych biomateriałów AISI 316L– hydroksyapatyt. Ponadto określono gęstość i porowatość otwartą otrzymanych materiałów. Na podstawie przeprowadzonych badań potencjodynamicznych i wyznaczonych parametrów korozyjnych określono wpływ zawartości hydroksyapatytu i temperatury spiekania na odporność na korozję badanych materiałów.
PL
Badania dotyczyły zastosowania metody Chemicznego Zapotrzebowania Tlenu (ChZT) do oznaczenia ilości lecytyny związanej z hydroksyapatytem (HAp-LE), otrzymanym w procesie chemicznej precypitacji. Dokładność metody zweryfikowano wykonując bilans tlenu zużytego do całkowitego utlenienia lecytyny zawartej w mieszanie poreakcyjnej, osadzie oraz supematancie. Zawartość lecytyny w proszkach mieściła się w granicach od 1% do 30%. Zaproponowana metoda analityczna może być wykorzystywana do oznaczenia innych dodatków organicznych związanych z syntetycznym HAp.
EN
The research concerned the application of the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) method lor determining the amount of lecithin bonded with hydroxyapatite (HAp-LE) obtained in the wet chemical precipitation process. The accuracy of method was verified using a balance of oxygen consumed to completely oxidize the lecithin contained in post-reaction mixture, precipitate and supernatant. The content of lecithin in obtained powders ranged from 1% to 30%. The proposed analytical method can be used in the determination of other organie additives bonded with synthetic HAp.
EN
Because of excellent properties, similar to natural bone minerals, and variety of possible biomedical applications, hydroxyapatite (HAp) is a valuable compound among the calcium phosphate salts. A number of synthesis routes for producing HAp powders have been reported. Despite this fact, it is important to develop new methods providing precise control over the reaction and having potential to scale-up. The main motivation for the current paper is a view of continuous synthesis methods toward medical application of produced hydroxyapatite, especially in the form of nanoparticles.
EN
Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)-based bone cement is a well-known polymer in the medicine, especially orthopedic. However it has some drawbacks like lack of enough biocompatibility and poor mechanical properties. These problems can be addressed by incorporation of nano-materials. Hydroxyapatite has been proved to enhance biocompatibility of acrylic bone cements. This bioceramic can affect the mechanical properties of polymeric cements as well. In this study, a number of fracture tests were carried out to investigate the influence of nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) on the fracture behavior of acrylic bone cement under combined tension-shear (mixed mode) loading conditions. Semi-circular specimens were prepared by incorporating different amounts of HA powder into the cement matrix. It was found that adding up to 10 wt% HA into the cement causes an increase in the fracture toughness of PMMA/HA nano-composite in all modes. However, pure cement exhibited the greatest fracture resistance among all samples. Moreover, the comparison between the experimental and theoretical results showed that the generalized maximum tangential stress criterion could estimate the experimental data satisfactorily.
EN
The paper presents the main results of development and optimization of the synthesis of hydroxyapatite and the application of the micro-plasma spraying technique for biocompatible coatings. The hydroxyapatite synthesis was optimized using the mathematical modelling method. Synthesized hydroxyapatite was studied by IR spectrometry and X-ray diffraction analysis for assessment of the compatibility of the chemical and phase composition to the bone tissue. The Ca/P ratio of the obtained hydroxyapatite was 1.65, which is close to that of bone tissue (1.67). To increase the adhesion strength of the HA coating to the surface of the titanium implant, it was suggested to apply a titanium sublayer to the implant surface. Microplasma spraying (MPS) of biocompatible coatings from titanium wires and synthesized HA powders onto substrates made of medical titanium alloy has been carried out. Microplasmatron MPN-004 is used to obtain the two-layer coatings for titanium implants. The two layer coating includes a sub-layer of a porous titanium coating with a thickness in range from 200 up to 300 μm and the porosity level of about 30%, and an upper layer of HA about 100 μm thick with 95% level of HA phases and 93% level of crystallinity. The pore size varies from 20 to 100 μm in both coatings. The paper describes the technology and modes of microplasma deposition of two-layer coatings, including the mode of gas-abrasive treatment of the surface of implants made of titanium alloy before spraying. The synthesized HA powder and the Ti/HA coatings were investigated by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with the energy dispersion analysis and the X-ray diffraction analysis.
EN
Porous and alternative biografts for possible usages in orthopaedic applications were synthesized by the substitution of gelatin (G), cuttlefish backbone (C), meerschaum sepiolite (S) and hydroxyapatite (H). The effects of different proportions of the Gelatin substitutions on the mechanical properties and structure and cell viability properties of the fabricated biografts were investigated. Throughout the structure and mechanical evaluations, it was found that Gelatin substitution in the fabricated biografts increased the total porosity fraction, particularly for C13G75 and S13G75 biografts. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) were used for characterization of the synthesized biografts. Furthermore, the cell viability tests for the synthesized biografts were carried out by using the osteoblast cell culture. Throughout the analysis, the synthesized C13G75 and S13G75 biografts generated the highest porosity and better correlation between mechanical properties and structural results contributing with highest cell viability rates.
PL
Przeprowadzono badania, mające na celu określenie, jakie zjawiska wpływają na usuwanie azotu amonowego i fosforanów podczas filtracji ścieków przez złoże w warunkach zmiennego hydraulicznego czasu zatrzymania HRT. Stwierdzono, że podstawą usuwania tych związków w złożu z naturalnym wypełnieniem (wyprażoną opoką) nie była biofiltracja, lecz procesy chemiczne. Zaobserwowano tworzenie się kryształów struwitu oraz hydroksyapatytu zarówno na powierzchni, jak i wewnątrz filtru, co było przyczyną bardzo wysokiej efektywności usuwania jonów N-NH4+ oraz PO43- i bakterii grupy coli. Badania mikroskopowe próbek osadu powstałego na powierzchni złoża, czyli w miejscu, gdzie dopływały ścieki, oraz wewnątrz filtru potwierdziły powstawanie kryształów fosforanu amonowo-magnezowego oraz apatytu.
EN
The N-NH4+ and PO43- ions and coli bacteria-contg. preliminary purified sewage was filtered through CaO beds (for up to 192 h) and studied for formation of struvite and hydroxyapatite crystals to det. the removal degree of the contaminations. The N-NH4+ ions were removed in 96.8%, the PO43-ions in 99.8% and coli bacteria in 100%.
13
Content available remote Microstructural study of plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings
EN
Purpose: The aim of this study is to present microstructure and mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite coatings sprayed by means novel plasma system with axially injection of powder. Design/methodology/approach: Coatings were deposited with Axial III plasma spraying system and examined by SEM, XRD and by a nanoindentation technique (Nanovea) with a Berkovitz indenter. Surface of coatings was analysed by means of a Talysurf CCI-Lite non-contact 3D profiler. Findings: This study shows the microstructure and mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite coatings (HA) obtained by plasma spraying from the powder with a cauliflower-like high porous structure consisting of nanograins with dimension below 100 nm. The cross-section of plasma sprayed HA coating reveals lamellar structure containing pores in the interior of the lamellae. Moreover, between lamellae, some microcracks were detected. Hardness and elastic modulus measured by nanoindentation were found to be around 0.085 and 6.82 GPa respectively, what was comparable with HA coatings sprayed by a modified cold spray system. Both XRD patterns are practically identical, so no new phases were created in hydroxyapatite coating in comparison with feedstock powder during the spray process. High values of a geometry of HA coating; maximum peak height, maximum pit height and maximum height confirmed significant roughening of a surface, which is a result of the interaction of melted powder grains with the surfaces during the plasma spraying. Research limitations/implications: Obtained properties of coatings will be the base for comparison with suspension plasma sprayed coatings. Practical implications: Hydroxyapatite coatings deposited by means novel plasma system are designated for spraying implants. Originality/value: Properties of hydroxyapatite coatings plasma sprayed with novel axially injection of powder.
PL
Badania dotyczyły otrzymywania nanocząstek hydroksyapatytu metodą chemicznej precypitacji w obecności lecytyny w różnych temperaturach procesu w reaktorze półokresowym. Otrzymano kuliste cząstki o rozmiarze 100 nm i powierzchniowym potencjale zeta około 0 mV. Te właściwości nie zależą od temperatury. Analiza chemiczna produktu wykazała natomiast wpływ temperatury na obecność lecytyny w produkcie precypitacji. Zjawisko to będzie przedmiotem dalszych badań, w celu określenia dokładnego stężenia lecytyny w nanocząstkach hydroksyapatytu modyfikowanego lecytyną.
EN
Hydroxyapatite nanopaiticles preparation using lecithin-based wet chemical precipitation process in different temperatures in a semi-batch reactor was investigated. Particles characterized by spherical shape of about 100 nm size and surface zeta potential of about 0 mV were obtained. Precipitation temperature did not affect these properties of nanopaiticles. Chemical analysis showed the influence of precipitation temperature on lecithin presence in precipitation products. The phenomenon of lecithin presence and concentration in hydroxyapatite nanopaiticles will be investigated in further research.
PL
Wykorzystanie produktów ubocznych pochodzących z produkcji wyrobów spożywczych i ferm wylęgowych, jakimi są skorupki jaj kurzych, stanowi interesującą alternatywę dla klasycznych metod otrzymywania potencjalnego materiału implantacyjnego - fosforanów wapnia. Popularność ceramiki hydroksyapatytowej w środowisku medycznym spowodowana jest właściwościami jakimi obdarzone są te materiały tj. bioaktywność, biozgodność oraz osteokonduktywność. Celem badań było wykorzystanie skorupek jaj kurzych jako surowca do produkcji fosforanów wapnia. Wstępnie oczyszczone skorupki zostały poddane jednostopniowej kalcynacji w piecu komorowych w zmiennych warunkach temperaturowych, które miały na celu zbadanie wpływu temperatury na właściwości finalnego produktu. Skorupki jaj kurzych zawierają w swym składzie ok. 94% (m/m) węglanu wapnia, który w procesie termicznym ulega rozkładowi do tlenku wapnia. Syntezę hydroksyapatytu przeprowadzono metodą mokrą, stosując jako substraty zawiesinę wodorotlenku wapnia pozyskanego z produktu kalcynacji skorupek oraz roztwór kwasu fosforowego(V). Otrzymane proszki poddano analizie fizykochemicznej potwierdzającej występowanie hydroksyapatytu.
EN
The use of by-products from the production of food industry and farms hatching such as shell chicken eggs is an interesting alternative to conventional methods for the preparation of the potential implant material – calcium phosphates. Because of unique properties of hydroxyapatite such as bioactivity, biocompatibility and osteoconductive, this material is commonly use in the medical community. The main goal of this research is development of calcium phosphate synthesis method from waste material such as eggshells. Pre-cleaned eggshells were subjected to a single-stage calcination in furnace chamber in varying temperature condition, which were intended to examine the effect of temperature on the properties of the final product. Chicken eggshells contain approx. 94% (m/m) calcium carbonate, which in the thermal process decomposed to calcium oxide. HAp synthesis was carried out by wet methods, using as a starting materials calcium hydroxide suspension obtained from calcined eggshells and solution of phosphoric acid. The obtained powders were characterized using physicochemical method to confirm the presence of hydroxyapatite.
EN
Cobalt radionuclide is one of the prime contaminants generated during operation of pressurized heavy water. The paper reports the study of cobalt adsorption on hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoceramic. A modified wet chemical precipitation method is used for HAp synthesis. The HAp nano-material is characterized by XRD, FTIR, TG/DTA, AFM, SEM, and EDAX. Experiments are performed in batches to observe the effect of cobalt adsorption on HAp matrix. The adsorption of cobalt on HAp is examined at room temperature. The isotherm and kinetic studies showed that the Freundlich isotherm and pseudo-second order model are the best choices to describe the nature of adsorption.
EN
Dextransucrase (DS) from Leuconostoc mesenteroides and dextranase (DN) from Penicillium funiculosum were co-immobilized by entrapment in calcium alginate and used to produce isomaltooligosaccharides (IMOs) from sucrose. DS convert sucrose into dextran, which is thesubstrate for DN, so that IMOs are products of dextran hydrolysis. Before the co-immobilization DS was cross-linked with glutardialdehyde (GA), while DN was adsorbed on hydroxyapatite (HAp). Cross-linking was essential for the stability of DS and pre-immobilization of DN to prevent enzyme from leaking out of the alginate beads. Operational stability of co-immobilized preparations of DS and DN was estimated based on amounts of isomaltose and isomaltotriose formed during successive 24h processes of IMOs synthesis, carried out at 30oC, pH 5.4 and 200 rpm in 10% (w/v) sucrose solutions. Preparation characterized by the initial DS/DN activities ratio of 1/14 was found to maintain these activities at least 100 h of IMOs synthesis (5 repeated batch reaction).
18
Content available remote Hydroxyapatite deposition on the laser modified Ti13Nb13Zr alloy
EN
The Ti13Nb13Zr alloy was subjected to laser modification with the Nd:YAG laser provided that such treatment would increase the surface roughness followed improved adhesion of hydroxyapatite (HAp) coatings The hydroxyapatite was deposited by electrophoretic method in suspension of 0.5 g HA powder and 100 ml ethyl alcohol. The deposition was carried out for 10 min at 10 V voltage followed by drying at room temperature for 24 h and heating at 800°C for 1 h in vacuum. The thickness of the HAp coatings was found as of about 4.06 μm to 9.05 μm. The examinations of surfaces were carried out at each stage of the experiment with the ultra-high resolution scanning electron microscope. The measurements of surface roughness after laser treatment and after HAp deposition were performed with the Hommel Etamic Waveline profilograph.
EN
Laser-treated Ti6Al4V surfaces were coated by the single-layer hydroxyapatite (HA) and double-layer hydroxyapatite reinforced by the reduced nano-graphene oxide (rGO) using the sol-gel method. The effects of rGO reinforcement at different ratios and sintering temperatures on surface morphology and adhesion strength of the single and double layer coatings (rGO/HA) were analysed. As the initial treatment process, a laser texturing was patterned on the alloy and then, prepared samples were coated. The coated laser-modified HA and HA/rGO-coated Ti6Al4V surfaces were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) and the adhesion strength between the coat and substrates were determined by the standard adhesion tests. The conducted analyses indicated that the substitution of rGO into HA matrix revealed a homogeneous morphology and relatively crack-free coatings on the laser-treated Ti substrate surfaces. Adhesion tests showed that, the HA + rGO (1.0 wt. %) biocomposites exhibited a significant increase in adhesion strength compared to untreated surfaces and to the single HA-coated Ti6Al4V substrates.
EN
A biocompatible hydroxyapatite (HA) coating with a thickness of about 18–20 microns was successfully deposited by radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering on titanium substrates VT1-0. The data obtained for the optimal composition and structure of hydroxyapatite can be used to create coating which will interact with a titanium substrate. Using the methods of optical and SEM, AFM, electron microprobe, FTIR and X-ray analysis, surface morphology, phase and elemental composition, structure of hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings were studied. Structural and phase transformations after heat treatment using X-ray diffraction and microscopic methods of analysis were studied. It was found that after annealing coating phase analysis showed the presence of not only hydroxyapatite (Ca5(PO4)3OH), but also compounds of tricalcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) and titanium oxide. Adhesivetribological durability, friction and deformation characteristics of hydroxyapatite coating on titanium substrate were determined. The obtained coatings had high hardness, wear resistance and adhesion to the substrate and low modulus of elasticity and coefficient of friction.
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