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EN
The small-sized enterprises, i.e. micro, small and medium enterprises (SMEs), constitute the basis of the Polish economy. They are considered as a key element among all economic entities, primarily driving economic growth by strengthening GDP, but also employment growth and social integration. Most of the Polish workers are employed in enterprises of "small size". Therefore, effective management of work safety in micro, small and medium-sized enterprises is essential. It is very important to ensure appropriate and safe working conditions for employees of "small size" economic entities, but also for their long-term functioning on the market. Unfortunately, the results of publicly available reports indicate a relatively low level of occupational health and safety in "small size" enterprises. Occupational safety is considered primarily through the analysis of the basic triad of factors, which are - "technical safety at work" (T), "organizational safety at work" (O) and "human factor" (L). The paper presents the results of research conducted in "small-sized" enterprises (micro and small enterprises), including the analysis of technical, organizational and human factors. The tools that were used to implement the research assumptions include a questionnaire for the identification of threats in "small-sized" enterprises and the assessment of factors that affect work safety - with statistical analysis.
PL
Celem artykułu jest przedstawienie innowacyjności w różnych gałęziach polskiego przemysłu z uwzględnieniem produkcji artykułów spożywczych. Omówione zostały istota oraz znaczenie innowacji i innowacyjności, uwarunkowania działalności innowacyjnej przedsiębiorstw, rodzaje innowacji oraz czynnik ludzki w organizacjach innowacyjnych jak również działalność innowacyjna przedsiębiorstw w latach 2016–2018 w świetle analiz statystycznych przeprowadzonych przez Główny Urząd Statystyczny.
EN
The aim of the article is to present innovation in various branches of Polish industry, including the production of food products. The essence and significance of innovation and innovation, determinants of innovative activity of enterprises, types of innovation and human factor in innovative organizations as well as innovative activity of enterprises in 2016–2018 in the light of statistical analyzes carried out by the Statistics Poland were discussed.
EN
The problem considered in the paper is as follows. The patient with lumbal pain is coming to General Practitioner (GP). The undesirable result is GP’s decision to treat the patient by him/herself in spite of the patient should be directed to medical specialist or hospital. In order to find the ways how the adverse outcomes occur, a system approach called Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM) has been applied. The examples of emerging the unwanted GP’s decision, as a consequence of functional resonance have been given. Proposals how to avoid unwanted outcomes have been suggested.
PL
W pracy podjęto zagadnienie podjęcia leczenia pacjenta przez lekarza podstawowej opieki zdrowotnej (POZ), mimo że pacjent powinien być skierowany do szpitala lub specjalisty. Do znalezienia sposobów zaistnienia niepożądanego skutku zastosowano jedno z podejść systemowych, a mianowicie metodę analizy rezonansu funkcjonalnego (FRAM). Przedstawiono dwa przykłady wyłaniania się błędnej decyzji w konsekwencji rezonansu funkcjonalnego i propozycje zapobiegania podjęciu takich decyzji.
4
Content available remote Counteracting unmanned aerial systems in the operational area of airports
EN
Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are treated as an opportunity, a challenge and a threat to airports, but the author decided to focus on the last aspect, in particular on countering UAS in operational area of airports. Due to the above, this article aims to address the characteristics of systems used to counteract and combat (neutralize) UAV in the airport's operational area. There are used the following research methods: analysis, synthesis, inference, comparison, abstracting and expert interview. To achieve the assumed aim, the author performed two research tasks: presentation of the importance of unmanned aerial systems as well as identification and discussion of the selected threats to airports resulting from the use of unmanned aerial systems. The presented material shows that countering unmanned aerial systems is a complex issue which requires the use of a combination of different solutions.
PL
Bezzałogowe systemy powietrzne stanowią jednocześnie szansę, wyzwanie i zagrożenia dla lotnisk, przy czym autor postanowił skupić się na ostatnim aspekcie, głównie na przeciwdziałaniu BSP w rejonie operacyjnym lotnisk. W związku z powyższym, za cel artykułu przyjęto: charakterystykę systemów służących przeciwdziałaniu i zwalczaniu BSP w rejonie operacyjnym lotnisk. Przy opracowywaniu materiału autor posłużył się następującymi metodami badawczymi: analiza, synteza, wnioskowanie, porównanie, abstrahowanie oraz wywiad ekspercki. By zrealizować założony cel pracy, autor wykonał dwa zadania badawcze: przedstawienie istoty bezzałogowych systemów powietrznych oraz identyfikacja i omówienie wybranych zagrożeń dla lotnisk, powstałych w wyniku wykorzystania bezzałogowych systemów powietrznych. Z zaprezentowanego materiału wynika, że przeciwdziałanie bezzałogowym systemom powietrznym to złożony problem, wymagający stosowania kombinacji różnych rozwiązań.
5
Content available remote Analysis of the operation of the ground handling agent in the aspect of safety
EN
The role of the human factor in aviation is a critical element for the safety of flight operations. It is described by methods such as SHELL and BowTie, which propose solutions to minimize the risk of occurrence of aviation events. The work presents the development of these concepts by introducing the method of testing the predisposition of airport staff using a specialized system which is the Polipsychograph - a system dedicated to designing and carrying out psychological tasks testing human mental, cognitive and motor skills in connection with the assessment of his professional capabilities. The work contains the results of 40 tests performed on employees dealing with airport ground handling on a daily basis. Research has shown that the employee's predisposition depends on the quality of work entrusted to him. The paper presents a method of assessing the psychophysical predisposition of an employee allowing him to be directed to work corresponding to his qualifications.
PL
Rola czynnika ludzkiego w lotnictwie stanowi krytyczny element dla bezpieczeństwa operacji lotniczych. Opisują go takie metody jak SHELL oraz BowTie, które proponują rozwiązania w celu minimalizacji ryzyka występowania zdarzeń lotniczych. Praca przedstawia rozwinięcie tych koncepcji poprzez wprowadzenie metody badania predyspozycji personelu lotniskowego przy użyciu specjalistycznego sytemu, jakim jest Polipsychograf – przeznaczonego do projektowania i przeprowadzania psychologicznych zadań testujących sprawności umysłowe, poznawcze i motoryczne człowieka w związku z oceną jego możliwości zawodowych. Praca zawiera wyniki 40 testów wykonanych na pracownikach zajmujących się na co dzień obsługą naziemną portu lotniczego. Badania wykazały istnienie zależności predyspozycji pracownika od jakości wykonania powierzonej mu pracy. W pracy przedstawiono metodę oceny predyspozycji psychofizycznych pracownika pozwalającą na skierowania go do pracy odpowiadającej jego kwalifikacjom.
EN
Introduction: Pedestrians aged over 65 are known to be a critical group in terms of road safety because they represent the age group with the highest number of fatalities or injured people in road accidents. With a current ageing population throughout much of the developed world, there is an imminent need to understand the current transportation requirements of older adults, and to ensure sustained safe mobility and healthy. Objectives: The aim of this study is to capture and analyze the key components that influence the identification of design solutions and strategies aimed at improving the safety of pedestrian paths for elderly. Method: A survey was conducted in 5 different locations in Catania, Italy. The locations were specifically chosen near to attraction poles for elderly pedestrians (e.g. centers for the elderly, squares, churches). Participants were recruited in person, so as to select exclusively people over 70. The sample comprised 322 participants. Both Hierarchical and K-Means clustering were used in order to explore which solutions elderly pedestrian propose for improving the safety of pedestrian path. Results: The results show that the judgment expressed by the elderly on the solutions for improving pedestrian safety is linked to the gender, to the experience as road users, and to mobility and vision problems. All solutions proposed regard road infrastructure (improvement of pedestrian crossings and of sidewalks, implementation of traffic calming measures, improvement of lighting), except for police supervision. Conclusion: This study has identified the factors that influence the identification of the best solutions to increase the safety level of pedestrian paths for elderly people. The aspects related to human factors considered were the gender, the factors associated with the experience as road users and the factors related to age related problems (mobility, vision and hearing problems). The results of this research could support traffic engineers, planners, and decision-makers to consider the contributing factors in engineering measures to improve the safety of vulnerable users such as elderly pedestrians.
EN
In this article, the Crew Resource Management (CRM) is described as an important element of the flight safety system aimed at preparing and supplying the aircraft crews with the necessary knowledge and competencies in the area of personal and group performances and limitations (Human Factor – HF). It also presents the CRM training requirements for both flight and cabin personnel in commercial aviation, as well as selected issues regarding the training of the military aviation personnel in the field of human factors and CRM. This paper identifies the common CRM training areas in the field of civil and military, and also presents the fundamental differences and challenges faced by the military aviation in the area of CRM training, based on one of the five key factors of the “5M model” by James Reason influencing the aviation incidents – “Media” (Environment).
EN
The paper focuses on the issues related to motivating employees to work safely in the enterprise. The characteristics of the motivational process and definitions are presented. The general approach to the process of employee motivation is discussed, including the instruments used to stimulate work motivation, both pay and non-pay methods of motivation, e.g. the possibility of promotion, participation. The chosen model of activities shaping safe behavior of employees was also presented, as well as specific methods and means of motivating to work safely.
EN
This article looks at the role of flight training devices in the process of instruction and training pilots. It also examines the impact of pilot training using flight simulators on reducing the human factor in accidents.
EN
Today, every industry is striving for the highest efficiency and best economic results possible, with the greatest possible competitiveness. But in maritime affairs, human safety and environmental protection are the foundations of sustainability. To achieve this, marine systems must be reliable, high quality and easy to maintain. Because of this, reliability has become an important factor in safety, which remains relevant throughout the lifetimes of ship systems, including fire alarm systems. In this paper we address a number of issues connected with the reliability – and ‘availability’ of these systems. Firstly, ship fire alarm systems consist of various components whose individual reliability affect the system’s overall reliability. Discussions of reliability in ship fire alarm systems normally focus on the length of a system’s useful life or performance during design-based fire events. In addition to the reliability of systems, their availability for use is also crucial given the possibility that the system may need to operate at any point in time.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań odporności taśm przenośnikowych na ścieranie. Badania ścieralności wykonano w celu uzyskania odpowiedzi na pytanie: Dlaczego w różnych laboratoriach wykonujących badania ścieralności tej samej taśmy często dochodzi do sytuacji, w której otrzymuje się wyniki odbiegające od siebie? Badania ścieralności wykonano w trzech laboratoriach: laboratorium akredytowanym, akademickim oraz producenta taśm przenośnikowych. W celu zachowania poufności danych nie podano nazw laboratoriów. Laboratoria oznaczono symbolami 1, 2 oraz 3, nie podając, który numer odpowiada konkretnemu laboratorium. Aby ograniczyć wpływ błędów, wynikających z czynników ludzkich, które popełniane są przez laborantów w trakcie wykonywania badań ścieralności, zdecydowano, że badania wykona jedna osoba we wszystkich trzech laboratoriach [1]. W celu porównania wyników badań ścieralności uzyskanych w różnych laboratoriach poddano je wielokryterialnej analizie statystycznej przy pomocy programu Statgraphics.
EN
The paper presents the results of testing the resistance of conveyor belts to abrasion. Abrasion tests were carried out in order to obtain an answer to the question: why in various laboratories performing abrasion tests of the same belt many times results deviate from each other? Abrasion tests were carried out in three laboratories: an accredited, academic laboratory and a manufacturer of conveyor belts. In order to keep data confidential, the names of the laboratories were not given. The laboratories are marked with the symbols 1, 2 and 3 without stating which number corresponds to a specific laboratory. In order to limit the impact of errors resulting from human factors that are committed by laboratory technicians in the course of abrasion tests, it was decided that one person would perform tests in all three laboratories [1]. In order to compare the results of abrasion tests obtained in different laboratories, they were subjected to multicriteria statistical analysis using the Statgraphics program.
EN
Improvement of maritime safety has previously been based on a reactive regulatory approach, where regulatory improvements have been imposed to prevent recurrence of a specific type of accidental event or accidental scenario, after such an accidental event has happened. The ISM Code requires that hazardous situations are to be reported to the company, investigated and analyzed in order to prevent future happenings. Near-miss reporting is positively evaluated in this respect, because, near-misses are represented experiences and mistakes that should be shared to learn from in order to prevent the occurrence of accidents. The expression “that was too close” on ships’ bridges between the master and the officers is rarely transferred to a near miss report form, preserving the probability of reoccurrence. Near misses occurred and near misses reported might present a big difference in number. Officers easily forget the near miss situation when the safety of the ship is restored. Hazards identification will be based on documented management system (SMS- TMSA- ISO). The analysis of the documented safety and quality management will address the gap in order to improve the implemented systems. The objective of this research is to find out the best practices about near-miss reporting from the companies considered to have high level of commitment to safety within their organization. The study is based on interviews with a total of 35 seafarers who are joining on Greek ocean going vessels, and 4 representatives from safety departments of Greek maritime companies. The research also aims to address the seafarers’ perspective of reporting all near misses which have been experienced while they were in charge of specific duties (bridge watch, engine room watch) or any other operation (mooring, maintenance, drill) carried out on board. The majority of both the seafarers and the companies’ representatives believe that prior to the near miss reporting issue a safety culture environment on board is the real gain pursuit. In their perspective this is first priority to improve the general safety on board. It seems that near miss reporting is carried out on board as a compulsory compliance to the regulatory framework (ISM implementation). Further, it seems that the companies are not yet utilizing the reported data to improve feedback and the follow-up within the organization. The authors would like to thank companies’ representatives and seafarers who have participated in this study.
EN
Growth prospects for ocean economy are promising because ocean industries are addressing challenges such as food security, energy security and climate change. However, safety and efficiency are the general challenges of ocean operations. Increased automation is believed to solve these problems. This paper discusses the impact of automation on safety and efficiency. A literature review of ‘Human factors’ mainly from the aviation and maritime industries is presented to untangle the human-machine relationship characteristics when increased automation is introduced to operators. A literature review of Hydrodynamics, Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) technologies is presented to introduce the state-of-art and associated limitations. It is concluded that, if the industry’s drive is safety and efficiency, then full-autonomy is, at present, not the way to go. Remote control, instead, could facilitate a feasible future, while focused research and development are in need.
EN
Maritime education and training (MET) has a long tradition of using simulator training to develop competent seafarers and relevant seafaring skills. In a safety critical domain like maritime industry, simulators provide opportunities to acquire technical, procedural and operational skills without the risks and expense associated with on-the-job training. In such training, computer-generated simulations and simulators with higher realism are inferred to better training outcomes. This realism, or the extent to which simulators replicate the experience of a real work environment, is referred to as the “fidelity” of a simulator. As the simulation technology develops, the maritime industry adapts to more advanced, higher fidelity simulators. However, the cost of a simulator generally increases with increasing fidelity, and thus practical and economic constraints must be considered. In this paper, we investigated two types of simulators on perceived skill development of the students at engine room simulation training. We compared the self-efficacy levels of 11 second year marine engineering students and their perceived skill development between two different fidelity engine room simulators. The result suggests that students have higher motivation and prefer to train with immersive training simulators compared to the traditional training. This article aims to add to existing knowledge on the influence of fidelity of simulators in training effectiveness in maritime education and training.
EN
The study presents general assumptions of policies related to fire protection and evacuation of public buildings. Have been defined groups of human factors that have a significant impact on the efficiency of preventive actions taken and in the event of a threat. Next, the research methodology and results of questionnaire surveys carried out in randomly selected student groups are presented. A number of management actions aimed at increasing the safety of people staying on public facilities have been identified. The article ends with conclusions from the conducted research.
PL
Wstęp i cele: W pracy przedstawiono problem kształtowania czynnika ludzkiego w aspekcie nowoczesnego zarządzania bezpieczeństwem pracy. Głównym celem pracy jest omówienie czynników kształtujących kulturę bezpieczeństwa pracy oraz polityki w zakresie bezpieczeństwa i kultury pracy. Materiały i metody: Materiał stanowią źródła dotyczące zarządzania i kultury bezpieczeństwem pracy. Zastosowano metodę analizy i syntezy. Wyniki: Szereg rozwiązań z zakresu techniki i organizacji pracy nie wyklucza możliwości wystąpienia wypadku. Stan pożądanego bezpieczeństwa jest trudny do zrealizowania, ale możliwy dzięki nowoczesnemu zarządzaniu systemem TOL. Zarządzanie czynnikiem ludzkim opiera się na kształtowaniu kultury bezpieczeństwa, dzięki której ukształtowane zostanie poczucie osobistej odpowiedzialności każdego człowieka za stan bezpieczeństwa. Wnioski: Człowiek jest nośnikiem wiedzy, umiejętności i postaw, które stanowią jego bogactwo intelektualne, ale zarazem są największym zagrożeniem. Jedynym sposobem eliminacji zagrożeń jest kształtowanie i zarządzanie czynnikiem ludzkim.
EN
Introduction and aims: The paper presents the problem of shaping the human factor in the aspect of modern work safety management. The main purpose of the work is to discuss the factors that shape the culture of job safety as well as safety and work culture policies. Material and methods: The material are sources on management and culture of work safety. The method of analysis and synthesis have been used. Results: A number of solutions in the field of technique and organization of work do not exclude the possibility of an accident. The state of desired security is difficult to implement, but possible thanks to modern management of the TOL system. Human factor management is based on shaping a security culture that will shape the sense of personal responsibility of each person for the state of security. Conclusion: Man is a carrier of knowledge, skills and attitudes that constitute his intellectual wealth, but at the same time are the greatest threat. The only way to eliminate threats is to shape and manage the human factor.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono znaczenie analizy zagrożeń związanych z czynnikiem ludzkim w systemie transportu kolejowego. Opisano miejsce i rolę czynnika ludzkiego w dyrektywie w sprawie bezpieczeństwa kolei. Przeanalizowano zdarzenia kolejowe w latach 2010-2017 pod kątem zdarzeń wywołanych bezpośrednim działaniem pracowników na stanowiskach związanych z bezpieczeństwem i prowadzeniem ruchu kolejowego. Wskazano metody, które zarządcy infrastruktury i przewoźnicy kolejowi mogą wykorzystać dla prawidłowego zdefiniowania miejsca i roli poszczególnych stanowisk pracy w organizacji i ich wpływu na bezpieczeństwo ruchu kolejowego oraz zaproponowano procedurę identyfikacji zagrożeń w obszarze czynnika ludzkiego oraz zdefiniowano interfejsy związane ze stanowiskiem pracy dyżurnego ruchu.
EN
The article presents the significance of the analysis of threats related to the human factor in the rail transport system. The place and role of the human factor in the Directive on railway safety is described. Railway incidents in 2010-2017 were analyzed in terms of events caused by the direct action of employees in positions related to the safety and conduct of railway traffic. Methods that infrastructure managers and rail operators can use to correctly define the place and role of individual work posts in the organization and their impact on rail traffic safety are indicated. In addition, the article proposes a procedure for identifying threats in the area of the human factor, the interfaces associated with the work position of the traffic dispatcher are defined.
EN
The modern period of industrial development of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the conditions of competition and sustainable development requires innovative activity. Activity in this area manifests itself best when development and innovations related to it are properly managed. Therefore, innovation management and their development become the basis for the development of enterprises in Kazakhstan. Management procedures now, and even more in the near future, must take into account innovation in both manufacturing processes, services and education at all levels from primary to university. Particular attention should be paid to preparing especially young people to understand and accept the upcoming changes. Because success depends on the people who implement innovations and those who use innovations. The key to success is undoubtedly the proper management of this process. To find out how important the success of implementations from employees were, the Impact Studies of employees who directly face these changes were conducted. This study analyzes the stages of industry development with their characteristic management strategies and their impact on employees. The purpose of this study is to analyze the readiness of future employees in Kazakhstan to make new management decisions related to the rapidly growing development of technical progress in industrial enterprises. Comparative study of development, and also presents the methodology for its calculation. The study was conducted at universities in Kazakhstan, Russia and Uzbekistan. The results obtained show that any new management decisions in the work of enterprises in Kazakhstan and other countries, implemented using new approaches and tools, ensuring the efficiency and satisfaction of the company's employees, are also considered as the basis for the continuous development of employees.
PL
Współczesny okres rozwoju przemysłowego Republiki Kazachstanu w warunkach konkurencji i zrównoważonego rozwoju wymaga innowacyjnej aktywności. Aktywność w tym obszarze przejawia się najlepiej gdy rozwój i innowacje z tym związane są odpowiednio zarządzane. Dlatego zarządzanie innowacjami i ich rozwój stają się podstawą rozwoju przedsiębiorstw w Kazachstanie. Procedury zarządcze już teraz, a jeszcze bardziej w najbliższej przyszłości muszą uwzględniać innowacyjność zarówno w procesach wytwarzania, usługach jak i w edukacji na każdym jej stopniu od szkół podstawowych do wyższych uczelni. W sposób szczególny należy zwracać uwagę na przygotowanie szczególnie młodych ludzi do zrozumienia i akceptacji nadchodzących zmian. Bo sukces zależy właśnie od ludzi tych wdrażających innowacje i tych korzystających z innowacji. Kluczem do sukcesu jest niewątpliwie odpowiednie zarządzanie tym procesem. Aby przekonać się jak istotne jest powodzenie wdrożeń od pracowników przeprowadzono Badania wpływu pracowników, którzy bezpośrednio zmierzą się z tymi zmianami. W niniejszym badaniu przeanalizowano etapy rozwoju branży z ich charakterystycznymi strategiami zarządzania i ich wpływem na pracowników. Celem tego opracowania jest analiza stanu gotowości przyszłych pracowników w Kazachstanie do podejmowania nowych decyzji zarządczych związanych z szybko rosnącym rozwojem postępu technicznego w przedsiębiorstwach przemysłowych. Studium porównawcze rozwoju, a także przedstawia metodologię jego obliczania. Badanie zostało przeprowadzone na uniwersytetach w Kazachstanie, Rosji i Uzbekistanie. Uzyskane wyniki pokazują, że wszelkie nowe decyzje zarządcze w pracy przedsiębiorstw w Kazachstanie i innych krajach, wdrażane przy użyciu nowych podejść i narzędzi, zapewniające wydajność i satysfakcją pracowników przedsiębiorstwa, są również uważane za podstawę ciągłego rozwoju pracowników.
19
Content available remote Crude oil transfer safety analysis and oil spills prevention in port oil terminal
EN
The paper describes the problem of crude oil transfer in a port oil terminal and includes the safety analysis of this operation and analysis of potential causes and possible scenarios of oil spill events in a port terminal. The operation process of crude oil transfer is described and its statistical identification is given. The reliability and availability analysis of the system of crude oil transfer in a port terminal is performed. Moreover, analysis of crude oil transfer process taking into account the human factor is provided. The Fault Tree Analysis and sensitivity analysis for oil spill event in a port terminal is proposed to identify and analyse potential causes and possible scenarios of oil spill. Introducing methods for the prevention of oil spills, special attention is paid to safety procedures during liquid cargo transfer. Technical solutions used in oil terminals are described and recommendation regarding the Emergency Shutdown System are given. Additionally, associated safety systems, such as surge relief system, are described. Emphasizing the role of human factor in the process of crude oil transfer and its safety, trainings on the Liquid Cargo Handling Simulator are proposed to improve skills and knowledge of personnel on board and ashore.
20
Content available remote Human factor as a determinant of reliability and safety of technical systems
EN
The article presents the analysis of the state of knowledge about the impact of the human factor on selected aspects of reliability of technical systems based on selected papers delivered at the ESREL 2018 conference, which took place on June 17-22, 2018 in Trondheim, Norway. In the first part, statistical analysis was carried out in the area of thematic and methodological conference papers. Next, the impact of the human factor on the correct functioning of selected technical systems was discussed, using conference papers on the role of man in ensuring an appropriate level of cyber security, the role of expert knowledge in risk assessment, and innovative risk management methods. In summary, challenges for scientists were identified and further research directions in the analysed area.
PL
Artykuł prezentuje analizę stanu wiedzy o wpływie czynnika ludzkiego na wybrane aspekty niezawodności systemów technicznych na podstawie wybranych referatów wygłoszonych na konferencji ESREL 2018, która odbyła się w dniach 17-22 czerwca 2018 r. w Trondheim w Norwegii. W pierwszej części przeprowadzono analizę statystyczną w zakresie obszarów tematycznych i metodologicznych referatów konferencyjnych. Następnie omówiono wpływ czynnika ludzkiego na poprawność funkcjonowania wybranych systemów technicznych posiłkując się referatami konferencyjnymi nt. roli człowieka w zapewnieniu odpowiedniego poziomu bezpieczeństwa cybernetycznego, roli wiedzy eksperckiej w szacowaniu ryzyka czy też nowatorskimi sposobami zarządzania ryzykiem. W podsumowaniu wskazano wyzwania dla naukowców i dalsze kierunki badań w analizowanym obszarze.
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