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PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki obserwacji zmian pola grawitacji ziemskiej rejestrowanych w czasie występowania wstrząsów górotworu wywołanych podziemną eksploatacją węgla na terenie Górnośląskiego Zagłębia Węglowego. Zmiany pola grawitacji rejestrowane są w sposób ciągły przez dwa grawimetry pływowe gPhoneX zainstalowane w dwóch, różnych pod względem sejsmiczności górniczej rejonach Zagłębia. Jeden z grawimetrów zainstalowano w południowej części GZW, w rejonie kopalni ROW w Rybniku. Na tym obszarze odbywa się intensywna eksploatacja pokładów węgla na głębokości około 1 km. Ogniska wstrząsów powodowanych eksploatacją znajdują się w odległościach epicentralnych od 0 do 3 km od miejsca instalacji stacji grawimetrycznej, tj. w bliskim polu falowym zdarzeń sejsmicznych. Drugi grawimetr rejestruje zmiany siły ciężkości w północnej części GZW, na terenie pogórniczym w Katowicach, gdzie eksploatacja została dawno zakończona. Zarejestrowane przez ten instrument antropogeniczne zdarzenia sejsmiczne pochodzą z odległości od kilku do kilkudziesięciu kilometrów - z obszaru odległych aktywnych kopalń węgla, a tym samym z pola dalekich zdarzeń sejsmicznych. Celem artykułu jest analiza zbioru danych sygnałów sejsmo-grawitacyjnych pochodzących od wstrząsów górniczych zarejestrowanych przez grawimetry w okresie blisko 14 miesięcy, od listopada 2018 r. do grudnia 2019 r. w aspekcie ich przydatności do badania ruchów górotworu wywołanych sejsmicznością towarzyszącą eksploatacji. Wykonywane za pomocą układu grawimetrów pływowych mogą istotnie wzbogacić informację sejsmologiczną uzyskiwaną z tradycyjnych górniczych sieci sejsmologicznych w przedziale bardzo niskich częstotliwości ruchów górotworu.
EN
The article presents the results of observations of changes in the Earth’s gravity field recorded during the occurrence of rock mass shocks caused by underground coal mining in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. Changes in the gravitational field are recorded continuously by two gPhoneX tidal gravimeters installed in two regions of the USCB, different in terms of mining seismicity. One of the gravimeters was installed in the southern part of the USCB, near the ROW mine in Rybnik. Intensive exploitation of coal seams takes place in this area at a depth of about 1 km. The foci of mining tremors are located at distances from 0 to 3 km from the place of installation of the gravimetric station, i.e. in the near field of seismic events. The second gravimeter records changes in gravity in the northern part of the USCB, in the post-mining area in Katowice, where exploitation has ended. The anthropogenic seismic events recorded by this instrument come from a distance of several to several dozen kilometers - from the area of distant active coal mines, and thus from the distant field of seismic events. The purpose of the article is to analyze the set of seismo-gravity signals coming from mining tremors recorded by gravimeters over a period of almost 14 months, from November 2018 to December 2019 in the aspect of their usefulness for the study of mining induced rock mass movements. Due to their distinctness, observations conducted by tidal gravimeters system can significantly enrich seismological information obtained from traditional mining seismological in a very low frequency range of rock mass motions.
PL
Artykuł przedstawia zarys problemu antropogenicznych anomalii grawitacyjnych. W odróżnieniu od innych prac, koncentrujących się głównie na anomaliach pochodzenia górniczego, podjęto w nim próbę całościowego ujęcia tematu. W początkowej części artykułu zwrócono uwagę na problemy związane z wyznaczeniem przyspieszenia siły ciężkości oraz znaczenie tej wielkości dla konstrukcji geoidy i dokładności pomiarów geodezyjnych. Zdefiniowano antropogeniczną anomalię grawitacyjną i podano opracowaną przez autora systematyczną klasyfikację jej źródeł. Sformułowano uproszczone modele obliczeniowe dla charakterystycznych typów źródeł. Używając tych modeli, oszacowano wartości anomalii grawitacyjnych, powodowanych przez wymienione w klasyfikacji, reprezentatywne przykłady źródeł i przedyskutowano ich znaczenie.
EN
This article presents the outline of the anthropogenic gravity anomalies problem. In contrast to other papers concerning mining-related anomalies, here a holistic approach to the subject was attempted. In the introductory part of the article, the attention is given to the problems with determination of the gravity acceleration, and the importance of this estimation to the geoid construction and accuracy of measurements in land surveying. An anthropogenic gravity anomaly was defined and a systematic classification of its sources was developed and given by the author. Simplified computational models for the characteristic source types were formulated. Using those models, the values of gravity anomalies were estimated. The anomalies are caused by enumerated in the classification representative examples of sources and their significance was discussed.
EN
The paper is devoted to study the effect of gravity, magnetic field and laser pulse on the general model of the equations of generalized thermoelasticity for a homogeneous isotropic elastic half-space. The formulation is applied under four theories of generalized thermoelasticity: the coupled theory, Lord-Schulman theory, Green-Lindsay theory as well as Green-Naghdi theory. By employing normal mode analysis, the analytical expressions for the displacement components, temperature and the (mechanical and Maxwell’s) stresses distribution are obtained in the physical domain. These expressions are also calculated numerically and corresponding graphs are plotted to illustrate and compare the theoretical results. The effect of gravity, magnetic field and laser pulse are also studied and displayed graphically to show the physical meaning of the phenomena. A comparison has been made between the present results and the results obtained by the others. The results indicate that the effects of magnetic field, laser pulse and gravity field are very pronounced.
PL
Zbadano wpływ stężenia poszczególnych składników roztworów oraz konfiguracji układu membranowego na wartość objętościowych strumieni osmotycznych (Jr vi) w układzie jednomembranowym, w którym membrana polimerowa usytuowana w płaszczyźnie horyzontalnej rozdziela wodę i roztwór składający się z wody, etanolu i/lub CuSO4. Na podstawie otrzymanych wyników pomiarów obliczono współczynnik asymetrii (ki) oraz współczynnik osmotycznej polaryzacji stężeniowej (ζ r i ). Współczynnik ζ r i , poprzez grubość stężeniowej warstwy granicznej (δr i, związano ze stężeniową liczbą Rayleigha (Rr C), tj. parametrem sterującym przejściem ze stanu bezkonwekcyjnego do konwekcyjnego. Wykazano, że liczba ta pełni również funkcję przełącznika między stanami konwekcyjnym i bezkonwekcyjnym. Funkcjonowanie tego przełącznika świadczy o regulatorowej roli grawitacji ziemskiej w odniesieniu do transportu membranowego.
EN
Two cylindrical vessels connected with a horizontally placed membrane were used to det. the osmotic fluxes of aq. and aq.-alc. CuSO4 solns. at 295 K. The tested solns. and water were placed alternately in the upper or lower tank to det. an effect of gravitational acceleration on the osmotic fluxes. Location of the tested solns. in the upper cylinder resulted in an increase in osmotic flux compared to the inverse option. The asymmetry coeffs. of osmotic fluxes and concn. polarization as well as the values of Rayleigh nos. for both types of solns. were calcd.
EN
In this study, concentrability by a Multi-Gravity-Separator (MGS) of the chromite tailings with content 23.84% Cr2O3 from Yeşilova-Burdur (Turkey) is investigated. Mineralogical analyses showed that the chromite tailings contain chromite and serpentine which formed as a result of alteration of serpantine group minerals such as olivines, chrysotile and talc. The tailings generated from chromite beneficiation plants in Turkey are generally concentrated by slime tables (Deister shaking tables) for producing the desirable saleable grade. However, slime tables are concentrating with low recovery for chromite minerals which are very fine particle size. MGS is an efficient method for separation of minerals by gravity at very fine particle size. In experimental studies, the effects of feed rate, washwater rate, drum speed and tilt angle, which are important for operating parameters of MGS observed for the low grade chromite tailings were investigated. As a result of the experimental studies performed, it was obtained a concentrate with saleable chromite grade and recovery from the tailings which is having size fraction under 0.075 mm.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wzbogacalność w separatorze grawitacyjnym (MGS) odpadów chromitowych o zawartości 23,84% Cr2O3 z Yeşilova-Burdur (Turcja). Analizy mineralogiczne wykazały, że odpady chromitowe zawierają chromit i serpentyn, które powstały w wyniku zmian minerałów z grupy serpenitu, takich jak oliwiny, chryzolit i talk. Odpady wytwarzane w zakładach wzbogacania chromitu w Turcji są na ogół wzbogacanie na stołach koncentracyjnych dla drobnych ziaren (stoły wytrząsające Deister) w celu uzyskania produktu nadającego się do sprzedaży. Jednak stoły koncentracyjne się charakteryzują się z niskim uzyskiem minerałów chromitowych o drobnym uziarnieniu. MGS to skuteczna metoda wydzielania grawitacyjnego bardzo drobnych cząstek. W badaniach eksperymentalnych zbadano wpływ prędkości podawania, prędkości wody do wzbogacania, prędkości bębna i kąta pochylenia, które są ważne dla parametrów operacyjnych MGS badanych odpadów chromitowych niskiej jakości. W wyniku przeprowadzonych badań eksperymentalnych uzyskano z odpadów o uziarnieniu poniżej 0,075 mm koncentrat chromitu o jakości handlowej.
EN
Western Anatolia has been formed by the motions of the African plate, Arabian plate and Hellenic Subduction zone. The Hellenic Subduction zone, which has high seismicity, is the main tectonic feature of the eastern Mediterranean Sea related to the subduction of the African Plate beneath the Aegean Sea Plate. The Hellenic Subduction zone has a complex lithospheric structure and shows complex differences in the Aegean Sea in terms of continental crust thickness and mantle velocity. In the study area, the directions of Global Positioning System (GPS) velocity vectors which are towards SE change towards S from North of Western Anatolia to Hellenic Subduction zone. It is thought that the factor which controls this mechanism is the shear force or subduction zone located in Aegean Sea. Western Anatolia region, which is located in Western Anatolia Extensional province, includes several morphologically significant N–S trending active normal faults. Besides, the NE–SW and NW–SE trending faults, which their kinematic features change from north to south, are very effective on the tectonic regime of the region. Additionally, for determining the boundaries of these tectonic elements, the Complete Spherical Bouguer (CSB) gravity anomaly of study area was calculated by using World Gravity Map (WGM2012) model. Moreover, in historical and instrumental studies, the high seismicity of the study area is remarkable. It is thought that this case is also related with the mechanism which oriented the GPS velocity vectors to southward. Consequently, the dominant kinematic structure of the region was classified by combining the GPS velocity vectors computed for Izmir and its surroundings bounded by Western Anatolia, Aegean Sea and Eastern Mediterranean and the CSB gravity anomaly. Finally, the results were interpreted together with focal depth distributions of earthquakes and Bouguer gravity data.
EN
There is an exceptional opportunity of achieving simultaneous and complementary data from a multitude of geoscience and environmental near-earth orbiting artificial satellites to study phenomena related to the climate change. These satellite missions provide the information about the various phenomena, such as sea level change, ice melting, soil moisture variation, temperature changes and earth surface deformations. In this study, we focus on permafrost thawing and its associated gravity change (in terms of the groundwater storage), and organic material changes using the gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) data and other satellite- and ground-based observations. The estimation of permafrost changes requires combining information from various sources, particularly using the gravity field change, surface temperature change, and glacial isostatic adjustment. The most significant factor for a careful monitoring of the permafrost thawing is the fact that this process could be responsible for releasing an additional enormous amount of greenhouse gases emitted to the atmosphere, most importantly to mention carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane that are currently stored in the frozen ground. The results of a preliminary numerical analysis reveal a possible existence of a high correlation between the secular trends of greenhouse gases (CO2), temperature and equivalent water thickness (in permafrost active layer) in the selected regions. Furthermore, according to our estimates based on processing the GRACE data, the groundwater storage attributed due to permafrost thawing increased at the annual rates of 3.4, 3.8, 4.4 and 4.0 cm, respectively, in Siberia, North Alaska and Canada (Yukon and Hudson Bay). Despite a rather preliminary character of our results, these findings indicate that the methodology developed and applied in this study should be further improved by incorporating the in situ permafrost measurements.
EN
Bone loss is one of the serious health issues in bedridden patients or young generation due to lack of physical activities. Mechanical forces are exerted on the bones through ground reaction forces, liquid loadings and by other contraction activities of the muscles. We are assuming an isotropic half-space with mechanical properties equivalent to that of bone exhibiting microstructures. Consistent couple stress theory introduces an additional material parameter called characteristic length which accounts for inner microstructure of the material. Dispersion relations for leaky Rayleigh waves are derived by considering a model consisting of couple stress half space under the effects of gravity and loaded with inviscid liquid layer of finite thickness or a liquid half space. Impact of the gravity, liquid loadings and microstructures of the material are investigated on propagation of leaky Rayleigh type waves. Phase velocity of leaky Rayleigh waves is studied for five different values of characteristic length parameter which are of the order of internal cell size of the considered material. Variations in phase velocity of leaky Rayleigh waves are also studied under the effect of gravity parameter and thickness of liquid loadings.
EN
This article studies the effect of the gravity field and the diffusion on micropolar thermoelastic medium with dependence on the temperature properties. The analytic method used to obtain the exact formula of the physical quantities was the normal mode analysis. The comparisons established graphically in the presence and the absence of the gravity, the temperature-dependent properties, the diffusion and the micropolar in the context of two types of Green-Naghdi (G-N) theory II and III.
EN
Seismic events in gravity measurements are considered as disturbances and are usually removed from the records. However, the physical properties of tidal gravimetric instruments allow researchers to record seismic surface waves of very long periods. In the case of a superconducting gravimeter, periods of even up to 400 s can be determined. Simultaneous seismic and gravity records at the same locations allow the study of a wider response for incoming seismic waves by using two quite different instruments. For test purposes 4 seismometer-gravimeter pairs were temporarily deployed in Poland at three locations: Borowa Gora Geodetic-Geophysical Observatory (BG), Jozefoslaw Astro-Geodetic Observatory (JO), and Lamkowko Satellite Observatory (LA). During the test period from December 2016 to May 2017 several large teleseismic events were observed with well-formed surface waves. Group velocity dispersion curves for long surface waves, as well as periods of free oscillations are presented for selected events. The correlation of a broadband seismometer signal with different types of gravimetric sensors signals gives the opportunity to analyse gravimeter noise components, in the instrumental and micro-seismic domains.
PL
Zjawiska sejsmiczne w pomiarach grawimetrycznych są traktowane jako zakłócenia i zwykle ich efekty są usuwane z zapisów grawimetrycznych. Jednakże, grawimetry dzięki swojej konstrukcji umożliwiają rejestrację sejsmicznych fal powierzchniowych o bardzo długich okresach. W przypadku grawimetru nadprzewodnikowego, możliwe jest zaobserwowanie fal powierzchniowych, generowanych przez trzęsienia ziemi, o okresach nawet do 400 s. Przeprowadzenie równoczesnych rejestracji sejsmicznych i grawimetrycznych instrumentami zlokalizowanymi w tym samym miejscu, powinno umożliwić przeanalizowanie szerszego zakresu częstości sygnału sejsmicznego niż w przypadku użycia tylko jednego typu instrumentu. W celu sprawdzenia prawdziwości powyższego stwierdzenia, 4 pary instrumentów: sejsmometrów i grawimetrów zostały zainstalowane w Polsce w trzech lokalizacjach, w Obserwatorium Geodezyjno-Geofizycznym Borowa Góra (BG), Obserwatorium Astronomiczno-Geodezyjnym Józefosław (JO) oraz Obserwatorium Satelitarnym Lamkówko (LA). W czasie projektu pilotażowego, trwającego od grudnia 2016 do maja 2017 roku, zarejestrowano kilka dużych trzęsień ziemi z dobrze wykształconymi falami powierzchniowymi. W pracy zaprezentowano krzywe dyspersji grupowych prędkości fal powierzchniowych, jak również okresy oscylacji swobodnych dla wybranych zjawisk. Korelacja szerokopasmowego sygnału sejsmicznego z sygnałem zarejestrowanym przez różnego typu grawimetry umożliwi analizę szumu grawimetrycznego w zakresie częstości pływowych instrumentów, jak i w zakresie mikrosejsmicznym.
EN
The southeastern Karoo Basin is considered to be one of the most prospective areas for shale gas exploration in South Africa. An interesting magnetic anomaly, the Beattie magnetic anomaly (BMA), and geologic intrusions are seen on the magnetic map. To date, the source of the BMA and interconnectivity of the igneous intrusions are not well understood. In this study, we investigate the interconnectivity of the igneous intrusions and possible location of the source of the BMA using gravity and magnetic methods. The gravity model results showed that igneous intrusions are interconnected at depth, which probably pose threat by increasing the risk of fracking the Karoo for shale gas exploration. The magnetic results revealed that the BMA becomes stronger with depth. The average depths to the top of the shallow and deep magnetic sources were estimated to be approximately 0.6 and 15 km, respectively.
EN
The purpose of the present article is the study of the effect of the gravity field on an initially stressed micropolar thermoelastic medium with microtemperatures. The analytical method used to obtain the formula of the physical quantities is the normal mode analysis. The comparisons are established graphically in the presence and the absence of gravity, initial stress and micropolar thermoelasticity. The main conclusions state that the gravity, initial stress and the micropolar thermoelasticity are effective physical operators on the variation of the physical quantities. The microtemperatures are very useful theory in the field of geophysics and earthquake engineering.
EN
This study integrates potential gravity and magnetic field data with remotely sensed images and geological data in an effort to understand the subsurface major geological structures in Afghanistan. Integrated analysis of Landsat SRTM data was applied for extraction of geological lineaments. The potential field data were analyzed using gradient interpretation techniques, such as analytic signal (AS), tilt derivative (TDR), horizontal gradient of the tilt derivative (HG-TDR), Euler Deconvolution (ED) and power spectrum methods, and results were correlated with known geological structures. The analysis of remote sensing data and potential field data reveals the regional geological structural characteristics of Afghanistan. The power spectrum analysis of magnetic and gravity data suggests shallow basement rocks at around 1 to 1.5 km depth. The results of TDR of potential field data are in agreement with the location of the major regional fault structures and also the location of the basins and swells, except in the Helmand region (SW Afghanistan) where many high potential field anomalies are observed and attributed to batholiths and near-surface volcanic rocks intrusions. A high-resolution airborne geophysical survey in the data sparse region of eastern Afghanistan is recommended in order to have a complete image of the potential field anomalies.
EN
The Hakata hot springs area is located in Fukuoka City, which is in the southwestern part of Japan. Gamma-ray and gravity surveys were conducted to understand the relationship between the low-temperature hydrothermal systems and geophysical data of the area. The depth of the reservoir basement, which was derived from gravity data, gradually deepens toward the east; it includes some steep depth gradients in the Hakata hot springs area. High intensities of gamma-rays were detected around these gradients. In addition, higher hot spring temperatures and flow rates can be observed in this area. These results indicate that some part of the level of the basement where the hot springs are concentrated is a part of the Kego Fault and is similar to the fracture zone created by past activities of the fault. Moreover, these steep depth gradients act as a path for hot spring water from the deeper side of the granitic body to the surface.
EN
The paper concerns the problem of discontinuity in high pressure die castings (HPDC). The compactness of their structure is not perfect, as it is sometimes believed. The discontinuities present in these castings are the porosity as follow: shrinkage and gas (hydrogen and gas-air occlusions) origin. The mixed gas and shrinkage nature of porosity makes it difficult to identify and indicate the dominant source. The selected parameters of metallurgical quality of AlSi9Cu3 alloy before and after refining and the gravity castings samples (as DI - density index method), were tested and evaluated. This alloy was served to cast the test casting by HPDC method. The penetrating testing (PT) and metallographic study of both kinds of castings were realized. The application of the NF&S simulation system allowed virtually to indicate the porosity zones at risk of a particular type in gravity and high-pressure-die-castings. The comparing of these results with the experiment allowed to conclude about NF&S models validation. The validity of hypotheses concerning the mechanisms of formation and development of porosity in HPDC casting were also analyzed.
EN
Due to increase in population and agricultural activities, the aquifer of Quetta Valley is under tremendous stress and the water table is declining at an increasing rate. This situation necessitates evaluation of the aquifer system, for which information about geometry of the aquifer is a prerequisite. However, there are no drilling-to-bedrock data available; therefore, electrical resistivity, seismic reflection and gravity methods were employed to determine geometry of the aquifer. Interpretation of vertical electrical soundings provided information about the depth-tobedrock at some specific points, whereas seismic reflection delineated bedrock topography along two lines. The depths to bedrock inferred from electrical resistivity and seismic reflection data were used as constraints in the modeling of gravity data. 2.75D gravity models were constructed along lines with a regular spacing. Map of depth-to-bedrock was prepared by contouring the depth given by the gravity models. Combination of these geophysical methods depicted the geometry of the aquifer. This example shows that in a similar geological setting proper integration of geophysical exploration methods can determine the aquifer geometry with an acceptable reliability and at an appropriate cost.
EN
The article presents the results of compliance with effects of impact wave course and the resulting orbital motions on the accuracy of the gyrocompass.
EN
The aim of the present paper is to investigate surface waves in an anisotropic, elastic solid medium under the influence of gravity. First, a theory of generalised surface waves was developed and then it was employed to investigate particular cases of waves, viz., Stoneley and Rayleigh, Love type. The wave velocity equations were obtained for different cases and they are in well agreement with the corresponding classical result, when the effect of gravity, viscosity as well as parameters for fibre-reinforcement of the material medium are ignored.
EN
This paper aims to study the propagation of Love waves in fiber-reinforced layer lying over a gravitating anisotropic porous half-space. The closed form of dispersion equation has been derived for the Love waves in terms of Whittaker function and its derivative, which are further expanded asymptotically, retaining the terms up to second degree. The frequency equation shows that the transverse and longitudinal rigidity of reinforced material, as well as gravity and porosity of the porous halfspace have significant effect on the propagation of Love waves. The study reveals that the increment in width of reinforced layer decreases the phase velocity. For a particular width of the reinforced layer, it is also observed that the phase velocity increases with increasing porosity of the half-space, but it decreases with increasing gravity.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono rozwój metody mikrograwimetrycznej na przestrzeni ostatnich 30 lat, jej uwarunkowania metodyczne i możliwości prospekcyjne . Na kilku przykładach zaprezentowano wynik zastosowania badań mikrograwimetrycznych w zakresie rozpoznawania przypowierzchniowej warstwy ośrodka skalnego/glebowego. Szczególną uwagę poświęcono obszarom zdegradowanym działalnością eksploatacyjną i działanianiom zmierzającym do przywracania funkcji użytkowej terenom pogórniczym.
EN
The results of experiences at the application microgravity research for detection and exploration of the underground mining cavities done by the authors for 30 years are presented in the paper. The results several application are presented. The special attention was paid to postexploited mining ground surface in the parts of the inhabited regions. The satisfied result were reached for protection railways lines, main roads and highway. The microgravity researches are also very important for postexploited mining areas to restore them as a ground for building purpose.
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