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1
Content available remote Efektywność enzymatycznej konwersji biomasy sorgo i konopi do glukozy
PL
Biomasę sorgo (Sucrosorgo 506) i konopi (Tygra) rozdrobniono w młynie nożowym, a następnie przeprowadzono chemiczną obróbkę wstępną przy użyciu wodorotlenku sodu. Na podstawie oznaczeń aktywności celulolitycznej i ksylanolitycznej do badań wytypowano preparaty enzymatyczne Flashzyme Plus 200 i Celluclast 1.5 L. Wykonano testy enzymatyczne i metodą Millera oznaczono ilość uwolnionych cukrów redukujących. Następnie dokonano wyboru kompleksu enzymatycznego dla procesu SHF (separate hydrolysis and fermentation). Metodą płaszczyzny odpowiedzi, na podstawie ilości uwolnionej glukozy, ustalono parametry hydrolizy enzymatycznej. Zastosowanie kompleksu enzymatycznego o składzie Flashzyme Plus 200, ksylanaza i glukozydaza zapewniło efektywną konwersję biomasy zarówno sorgo, jak i konopi do glukozy.
EN
The biomass of sorghum (Sucrosorgo 506) and hemp (Tygra) were ground on a knife mill, then chem. pretreated with NaOH, tested for cellulolytic and xylanolytic activity and hydrolyzed with enzyme prepns. Flashzyme Plus 200 and Celluclast 1.5 L. The amt. of released reducing sugars was detd. by the Miller method. The enzyme complex was then selected for the separate hydrolysis and fermentation process. The enzymatic hydrolysis parameters were detd. by the response plane method, on the basis of the amt. of released glucose. The use of an enzyme complex composed of Flashzyme Plus 200, xylanase and glucosidase resulted in effective conversion of both sorghum and hemp biomass. The glucose contents were 60 g/L (sorghum) and 37 g/L (hemp).
EN
Waste paper is known to be the major component of organic solid waste. In this research, waste paper was used as a feedstock for the production of fermentable sugar with the aid of two (2) microorganisms. The waste papers used included newspaper, office paper and foolscap paper. Enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out on the waste papers after the alkaline treatment using Aspergillus niger and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at different temperatures of 25°C, 37°C and 42°C. The highest yield was obtained from the foolscap paper, which produced reducing sugar at a maximum concentration of 486.66 mg/L after two weeks using Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 37°C. On the other hand, hydrolysing using Aspergillus niger, produced reducing sugar at a maximum concentration of 365 mg/L at an optimum temperature of 25°C with office paper.
EN
The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in the level of total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, and glucose in older women with spondyloarthrosis, who underwent whole-body cryotherapy treatments. The experimental group, which comprised 69 older women between 65 and 70 years of age, was randomly divided into three sub-groups. Each subgroup was exposed to different physiotherapeutic procedure for two weeks: cryotherapy, kinesiotherapy, and cryotherapy combined with kinesiotherapy. The control group comprised 25 women who did not get any therapeutic intervention. The level of total cholesterol, LDL fraction, HDL fraction, triglycerides, and glucose was assessed for each group. No significant changes in any of the studied parameters of fat fractions were observed. In women exposed to both cryotherapy and kinesiotherapy, the level of fasting glycemia decreased significantly. Applying whole-body cryotherapy to older women with spondyloarthrosis does not cause changes in the level of cholesterol and triglycerides, but may cause changes in the level of glucose.
PL
Celem pracy była ocena zmian poziomu cholesterolu całkowitego, frakcji HDL i LDL, trójglicerydów i glukozy u starszych kobiet ze zmianami zwyrodnieniowymi kręgosłupa lędźwiowego, poddanych krioterapii ogólnoustrojowej. Grupa badanych złożona z 69 kobiet pomiędzy 65 a 70 rokiem życia, została losowo podzielona na trzy grupy, z których każda poddana została innemu rodzajowi terapii: krioterapii, krioterapii połączonej z kinezy-terapią, tylko kinezyterapii. Grupę kontrolną stanowiło 25 kobiet, niepoddanych żadnej interwencji terapeutycznej. Poziomy cholesterolu całkowitego, LDL, HDL, trójglicerydów i glukozy na czczo zostały oznaczone w każdej grupie. Badane wskaźniki frakcji tłuszczowych nie uległy istotnym zmianom w żadnej z grup. U kobiet poddanych zarówno krioterapii, jak i kinezyterapii poziom glikemii na czczo znacząco się obniżył. Zastosowanie krioterapii ogólnoustrojowej nie wpływa na stężenie cholesterolu i trójglicerydów u starszych kobiet, lecz może wywołać zmiany poziomu glukozy.
4
Content available Biomasa - źródło cennych związków organicznych
EN
So far, much attention was paid to processes which allow to obtain biofuels from biomass and less important was receiving from biomass valuable chemical compounds. Biomass is a source of a variety of compounds, such as: hydrocarbons, triglycerides, glycerol, hydroksymetylofurfural, cellulose, hemicellulose and pentoses, lignin and lignocellulose. Taking into account the application of the mentioned above compounds, a large number of articles describing catalytic conversion of biomass to valuable chemical compounds has been written during last 10 years. The articles presented specific types of reactions for compounds contained in biomass, such as: hydrolysis, hydrogenation or isomerization, which allow to obtain valuable products. The reactions are catalyzed among others by: metals deposited on the activated carbon, metal oxides, alloys and zeolites. Researchers still improve processes, adapting them to the structure of highly functionalized particles contained in biomass and process needs. At the same time, scientist focused on cost reduction. Renewable raw materials are converted to the intermediates in physical, chemical and physicochemical processes. Next, obtained intermediates are used for receiving valuable chemicals, such as: lubricants, solvents and products that were previously obtained from petroleum. This work presents the conversion of biomass to compounds which have been already prepared by conventional synthetic methods. Besides chemical pure compounds, catalytic reactions with using metals, lead to obtain mixtures of compounds which can be used for the large volume production: additives for paper, paints, resins, foams, surfactants, lubricants and plasticizers. In the chemical industry for many years it has been placed emphasis on processes that are environmentally friendly. Scientists have also focused on improving the activity of used catalysts and the selectivity of products.
5
Content available Kamienie milowe w chemii klinicznej
EN
Clinical chemistry is the science on the border of the two disciplines: medicine and chemistry. It is defined as the application of the chemistry in the study of biological samples in order to diagnose, treat, cure diseases as well as in monitoring and prognosis [1]. Development of clinical chemistry is dated on the 19th century. Biuret test, and a method for detection of sugar in the urine were then described, also blood gases were extracted [13, 17]. In the mid of 19th century blood could be analyzed for the presence of potassium, sodium, phosphorus and calcium [31]. In the second half of 19th century Duboscq built first colorimeter. This model was widely adapted in laboratories and was in use till the 20-ties of 20th century [44]. Colorimetry also became the most popular technique in the clinical chemistry. In the 80ties of 19th century was developed a method for estimating the concentration of creatinine and detection of bilirubin [36, 39]. Increasing number of available laboratory tests resulted in the separation laboratory diagnostic as a distinguish branch of science. At the beginning of 20th century has been introduced quantitative analytical methods for determination of ammonia, urea, creatinine, cholesterol, uric acid, nitrogen, phosphorus, and chloride in biological fluids as well as measurements of blood gases. In 1930 was introduced clinical enzymology with the first method for assessing the activity of alkaline phosphatase. In the mid of 20th century in the medical laboratories routinely were measured amylase, lipase, acid and alkaline phosphatase, phosphocreatine kinase, alanine and asparagine aminotransferases [78, 79]. Development of electrical engineering and computing resulted with intensive development of laboratory instruments. First automated spectrophotometer was invented in 1957 (Autoanalyzer, Technicon company). In 1970, Automatic Clinical Analyzer f. Du Pont was able to perform determinations in any configurations not as so far in the series [99].
EN
This paper presents an example model of human body with particular focus on glucose level modeling designed for type 1 diabetes. The first part of the work describes motivation of the research, necessary simplifications of the model, parameters identification methods and implementation method. The second part is focused on an example examinations based on preliminary database of patients. It contains verification and evaluation of the presented model and plans of future work.
PL
Przeprowadzono hydrolizę enzymatyczną celulozy do glukozy w obecności furfuralu. Celulozę wyodrębniono z drewna topoli. Zbadano wpływ dodatku inhibitora na aktywność celulazy. Na podstawie otrzymanych wyników stwierdzono, że dodatek furfuralu powoduje znaczny spadek wydajności otrzymywanej glukozy.
EN
Poplar wood cellulose was enzymatic hydrolyzed to glucose with cellulase in presence of furfural to study the inhibition of the reaction. The addn. of furfural resulted in a significant decrease in the glucose yield.
EN
The dominating carbohydrates in fruits are monosaccharides like fructose, glucose, sorbose and mannose. In dehydrated fruits, concentration of monosaccharides is higher than in fresh fruits resulting in the formation of sugar crystallites. In most of dried fruits, crystalline fructose, and glucose dominate and appear in proportion near to 1:1. Irradiation of dried fruits stimulates radiation chemical processes resulting in the formation of new chemical products and free radicals giving rise to multicomponent EPR signal which can be detected for a long period of time. For that reason, it is used as a marker for the detection of radiation treatment of dried fruits. It has been found that EPR spectra recorded in dried banana, pineapple, papaya, and fig samples resemble the EPR spectrum obtained by computer addition of fructose and glucose spectra taken in proportion 1:1. The decay of radiation induced EPR signals proceeds in dried fruits fast during the first month of observation and becomes much slower and almost negligible after prolonged storage. However, it remains intense enough for EPR detection even one year after processing. The radiation induced EPR signal is easily detected in dried fruits exposed to 0.5 kGy of gamma rays. Thus, the EPR method of the detection of irradiated fruits can be used for the control of dried fruits undergoing quarantine treatment with 200–300 Gy of ionizing radiation.
PL
Celem pracy była ocena parametrów produkcyjnych procesu ciągłej biosyntezy kwasu cytrynowego z glukozy przez drożdże Yarrowia lipolytica Wratislavia 1.31, w zależności od stężenia źródła azotu. Przeprowadzono trzy 700-godzinne hodowle w podłożach zawierających 2, 4 oraz 6 g/L NH4Cl, na podstawie których potwierdzono wpływ stężenia azotu na efektywność ciągłej biosyntezy kwasu cytrynowego z glukozy. Najlepsze wyniki uzyskano w procesie z 4 g/L NH4Cl, w którym, w stanie ustalonym, drożdże produkowały 90 g/L kwasu cytrynowego z produktywnością 1,18 gL-1h-1 i szybkością właściwą produkcji 0,045 gg-1h-1.
EN
The aim of this study was to examine the production parameters of continuous citric acid biosynthesis from glucose by Yarrowia lipolytica Wratislavia 1.31 yeast in dependence on the nitrogen source concentration. On the basis of three 700-hr cultivations performed in media containing 2, 4 and 6 g/L NH4Cl, it was confirmed that concentration of nitrogen source influenced the efficiency of continuous biosynthesis of citric acid from glucose. The best results were achieved in the process with 4 g/L NH4Cl where yeast produced 90 g/L of citric acid with the productivity of 1.18 gL-1h-1 and specific production rate of 0.045 gg-1h-1.
10
Content available remote Modeling of metabolic diseases – a review of selected methods
EN
Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases caused by malfunction of blood sugar regulatory processes and has been reported as related to 8.3% of adult population, i.e. nearly 400 million people worldwide. This paper provides a review of facts and principles important for understanding the regulation mechanisms and the role of insulin. The author relies on mathematical modeling of these mechanisms and provides few formulas and computer applications dedicated for use in diabetes. The modeling aims to find a correct dose of insulin as a response to a series of measurement results on glucose concentration. In conclusion, the author recommends selected methods for personal self-check of glucose level and stresses on the importance of regularly checking blood-related parameters.
PL
Określono wpływ temperatury hydrolizy oraz doboru preparatów enzymatycznych na ilość glukozy uzyskiwanej z surowców lignino-celulozowych (słoma pszenna i łęty ziemniaczane) po procesie hydrolizy kwasowej rozcieńczonym roztworem H2SO4. Wykazano, że zwiększenie temperatury hydrolizy pozwalało na zwiększenie ilości uzyskiwanej glukozy w przypadku obydwu zastosowanych surowców. Zastosowanie dodatkowych preparatów enzymatycznych w procesie hydrolizy łętów ziemniaczanych (bez oddzielania płynów poreakcyjnych po obróbce wstępnej), również powodowało zwiększenie wydajności glukozy z jednostki masy surowca.
EN
Lignocellulosic raw materials (wheat straw, potato stalks) were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis after pretreatment with a dild. acid. The increase in reaction temp. (from 35 to 45°C) resulted in an increase in the glucose yield by 50–60 g/kg. The addn. of supportive enzymes (hemicelulases) resulted also in increasing the sugar yield by 3-15% in comparison to only cellulase-catalyzed hydrolysis.
EN
Crystalline D-glucose extracted from dried resins was irradiated with 60Co gamma rays. The multicomponent EMR spectra of the samples kept at ambient temperature were compared with those heated at 105°C – the temperature close to the melting point of glucose. Normalized EMR spectra recorded with both samples were subtracted, resulting in a differential EMR spectrum. Spectral analysis of all three spectra has been done resulting in the identification of isotropic doublet of doublets assigned to less stable radical derived from parent glucose molecule.
EN
We present the first analysis of the influence of climate change on carbon and oxygen isotope fractionation factors for two saccharides (glucose and α-cellulose ) of pine wood. The conifers grew in the Niepołomice Forest in Poland and the annual rings covered a time span from 1935 to 2000 AD. Glucose samples from acid hydrolysis of α-cellulose were extracted from annual tree rings. The carbon and oxygen isotope fractionation factors between glucose and α-cellulose were not stable over time. The mean value for the carbon isotope fractionation factors between glucose and α-cellulose was greater than unity. The mean value for the oxygen isotope fractionation factors be-tween glucose and α-cellulose was lower than unity. We established, with respect to climate change, the significance of the interannual and intraannual variation in the carbon and oxygen isotope frac-tionation factors between both saccharides. We used moving interval correlation results for May of the previous year through September of the current year using a base length of 48 years. The relation-ship with summer temperature is the main climate signal in the carbon isotope fractionation factor be-tween glucose and α-cellulose. The relationship with autumn sunshine is the main climate signal in the oxygen isotope fractionation factor between glucose and α-cellulose for the tree ring chronology.
EN
Studies on the amylolytic activity were carried out with used ten (10) Bacillus strains (B. pumilus, B. cereus, B. mycoides and B. subtilis), isolated from soil samples and water of Turawa Lake. The amylolytic activity was estimated on the basis of reduction in the intensity of the blue colour resulting from enzymatic hydrolysis of starch, in depending on the carbon sources and their concentration. The cultures were maintained at 30ºC with the following substrates as carbon sources: potato starch, corn starch, maltose and glucose. Conducted research indicate, that among an analyzed strains the most active appear the B. mycoides G3 and B. subtilis G2. They preferred the maltose as the source of the carbon. Moreover, in comparison with all examined strains, B. subtilis G2 showed the amylolytic activity on all tested media.
PL
Celem badań była ocena aktywności amylolitycznej 10 szczepów Bacillus sp. (B. pumilus, B. cereus, B. mycoides i B. subtilis) wyizolowanych z gleby i wody z jeziora Turawa. Na podstawie stopnia zmniejszenia się zabarwienia z jodem oznaczono ilość rozłożonej skrobi, w zależności od źródła węgla i jego koncentracji. Hodowle prowadzono w temperaturze 30ºC z zastosowaniem następujących źródeł węgla: skrobia ziemniaczana, skrobia kukurydziana, maltoza oraz glukoza. Uzyskane wyniki badań wykazały, iż spośród badanych szczepów Bacillus sp. najbardziej aktywnymi okazały się B. mycoides G3 i B. subtilis G2, które preferowały maltozę jako źródło węgla. Ponadto, w porównaniu do wszystkich szczepów, Bacillus subtilis G2 wykazał największą aktywność na wszystkich testowanych podłożach.
PL
W artykule opisano właściwości i warunki rozwoju biosensorów elektrochemicznych, na przykładzie biosensorów do oznaczania glukozy. Omówiono czynniki, które mają wpływ na handlowy sukces produkcji elektrochemicznych biosensorów glukozy na dużą skalę.
EN
The development and characterization of electrochemical biosensors is described from the perspective of the development of biosensors for the determination of glucose. The factors that have influenced the large scale commercial development of electrochemical glucose biosensors are discussed.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono koncepcję rozwoju przyrządów wielosensorowych do oceny parametrów życiowych człowieka. Omówiono możliwości pomiaru zmian glikemii człowieka sposobem nieinwazyjnym w trybie pracy quasi on-line. Przeanalizowano zalety urządzenia w zastosowaniach monitoringu sprawności psychofizjologicznej żołnierzy na polu walki oraz pojawiające się możliwości zastosowań cywilnych.
EN
The article comprises a concept of development of multi-sensor devices for evaluation of human life-parameters. Possibility of human glycaemia changes sensing is presented with the use of non-invasive and quasi- on-line mode of operation. The advantages of such a measurements are discussed considering psycho-physiologic efficiency of soldiers on battlefield and possible civilian applications.
18
PL
w pracy badawczej zaprezentowanej w artykule suszono rozpyłowo (temperatura powietrza wlotowego 180°C, szybkość zasilania surowcem 0,9 cm3/s) wodne roztwory miodu z maltodekstryna oraz roztwory modelowe - mieszaniny glukozy i fruktozy z maltodekstryna o stężeniach 20, 30 i 40% s.s. Zawartość wody w otrzymanych proszkach wynosiła od 1,1 š 0,1 do 3,7 š 0,1 %. Zauważono utrzymywanie się stałej zawartości wody w proszkach otrzymanych z roztworów miodu niezależnie od ich stężenia. W proszkach otrzymanych z roztworów modelowych wraz ze wzrostem stężenia roztworu wyjściowego zawartość wody rosła, co było skorelowane z zaobserwowanym mikroskopowo wzrostem wielkości otrzymanych cząstek proszku. Stwierdzono, że zawarte w miodzie cukry proste nie są substancjami decydującymi o przebiegu suszenia i właściwościach proszku. Na podstawie wielkości współczynników Hausnera i Carra stwierdzono, że proszki charakteryzowały się średnią lub dobrą sypkością.
EN
The aim of work was to investigate the possibility to spray-dry bee honey with the use of maltodextrin as a carrier material. The following systems were dried: glucose+fructose+maltodextrin model solutions (GF), honey+maltodextrin solutions (M) at concentrations 20, 30, 40% db. In all experiments inlet air temperature and feed ratio speed were kept at 180°C and 0,9 cm3/s respectively. Water content of obtained powders were in a range from 1,1=0,1 to 3,7 =0,1 %. Increased initial concentration of solutions GF resulted in increased size of particles, water content and water activity of powders. However, it did not influenced the properties of dried honey M, meaning that sugars present in honey did not decide on the spray drying process performance and powder properties. Basedon Hausner ratio and Carr index values the powders were classified as powders ofintermediate cohesiveness and ofweak and good flowability.
EN
Seven different thin-layer chromatography stationary phases, one additional stationary layer pretreatment, eight mobile phases, two spotting techniques, and three detection reagents were evaluated for the determination of glucose in mouse fecal samples. Quantitative analysis was performed by slit-scanning densitometry. The optimal system was found to be Merck silica gel HPTLC plates with a concentrating zone developed with 1-butanol-glacial acetic acid-diethyl ether-deionized water 27:18:5:3. α-Naphthol-sulphuric acid detection reagent was found to give the best quantitative results, while the naphthoresorcinol reagent was the most useful for qualitative analysis. Semiautomatic application of samples with a CAMAG Linomat was found to give more compact bands and better separations than manual application. Using this system, quantification of glucose was achieved in mouse fecal samples. The amounts of glucose in the fecal samples of BALB/c mice infected with the intestinal trematode E. caproni were compared to control samples of uninfected mice. On the third and tenth days of postinfection, it was determined that the amount of glucose in the infected fecal samples was significantly greater than in the control samples. This indicates that metabolic profiling of glucose using TLC is possible in the mouse model and that TLC may potentially be used to test for the presence of E. caproni in humans.
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