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PL
Zwiększające się zużycie materiałów ma znaczący wpływ na środowisko, stąd jednym z ważnych wskaźników zrównoważonego rozwoju są zmiany wielkości w krajowej konsumpcji materialnej. W Polsce wskaźnik ten oscyluje w granicach 16–19 Mg na mieszkańca. Analiza przepływu materiałów w 24 działach sekcji C oraz wartości produkcji sprzedanej pozwalają na zidentyfikowanie tzw. hotspot-ów. Wykazano, że przemysł chemiczny jest czwartym działem pod względem zużycia materiałów w Polsce oraz jednym z największych konsumentów wody i energii, odznaczając się dużą wartością produkcji sprzedanej.
EN
Statistical data on consumption of biomass, metals, energy, water and other materials showed the necessity of more efficient use of resources and minimizing generation of wastes according to the circular economies. The chem. industry was found the most significant consumer of H₂O.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono charakterystykę rud żelaza i koncentratów pod kątem oceny ich wpływu na proces spiekania oraz na właściwości fizykochemiczne spieku. Opisano metodykę prowadzenia laboratoryjnych prób spiekania na misie z wykorzystaniem istniejącej w Zespole Procesów Surowcowych Łukasiewicz - Instytutu Metalurgii Żelaza linii do półprzemysłowej symulacji procesu spiekania rud żelaza i odpadów jak i innych urządzeń pomocniczych. Zamieszczono również wyniki dotyczące wpływu udziału różnych składników pylastych (koncentratów), drobnoziarnistych rud żelaza (aglorud) i dodatku wapna palonego do mieszanki na podstawowe parametry procesu spiekania. Zaprezentowano również wyniki badań właściwości wyprodukowanego spieku z różnych mieszanek spiekalniczych.
EN
The article presents the characteristics of iron ores and concentrates in terms of assessing their impact on the sintering process and on the physicochemical properties of the sinter. The article describes the methodology for conducting laboratory sintering tests on a pan using the line for semi-industrial simulation of sintering of iron ore and waste as well as other auxiliary devices at the Primary Processes Unit of the Łukasiewicz - Institute of Ferrous Metallurgy. The results of the influence of various dusty components (concentrates), fine-grained iron ores (sinter ores) and addition of quicklime to the mixture on the basic parameters of the sintering process are also included. The results of tests on the properties of sinters made from various sintering mixtures are also presented.
EN
The article presents a model of operational fuel consumption by a passenger car from the B segment, powered by a spark ignition engine. The model was developed using artificial neural networks simulated in the Stuttgart Neural Network Simulator (SNNS) package. The data for the model was obtained from longterm operational tests, during which data from the engine control unit were recorded via the OBDII diagnostic interface. The model is based on neural networks with two hidden layers, the size of which was selected using an original iterative algorithm. During the structure selection process, a total of 576 different networks were tested. The analysis of the obtained test errors made it possible to select the optimal structure of the 6-19-17-1 model. The network input values were: vehicle speed and acceleration, road slope, throttle opening degree, selected gear number and engine speed. The networks were trained using the efficient RPROP method. A correctly trained network, based on the set parameters, was able to forecast the instantaneous fuel consumption. These forecasts showed a high correlation with the measured values. Average fuel consumption calculated on their basis was close to the real value, which was calculated on the basis of two consecutive fuelings of the vehicle.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono model eksploatacyjnego zużycia paliwa przez samochód osobowy z segmentu B, zasilany silnikiem o zapłonie iskrowym. Model opracowano przy wykorzystaniu sztucznych sieci neuronowych, których działanie symulowano w pakiecie Stuttgart Neural Network Simulator (SNNS). Dane do modelu pozyskano z długotrwałych badań eksploatacyjnych, podczas których rejestrowano przez interfejs diagnostyczny OBDII dane pochodzące z jednostki sterującej silnikiem. Model oparto na sieciach neuronowych o dwu warstwach ukrytych, których wielkość dobrano przy pomocy autorskiego, iteracyjnego algorytmu. Podczas procesu doboru struktury przebadano łącznie 576 różnych sieci. Analiza uzyskanych błędów testowania pozwoliła na wybór optymalnej struktury modelu 6-19-17-1. Wielkościami wejściowymi sieci były: prędkość i przyspieszenie pojazdu, nachylenie drogi, stopień otwarcia przepustnicy, numer wybranego biegu oraz prędkość obrotowa silnika. Sieci uczono przy użyciu wydajnej metody RPROP. Poprawnie nauczona sieć na podstawie zadanych parametrów była w stanie prognozować chwilowe zużycie paliwa. Prognozy te wykazywały wysoką korelację ze zmierzonymi wartościami. Obliczone na ich podstawie średnie zużycie paliwa było zbliżone do rzeczywistej wartości, którą obliczono na podstawie dwu kolejnych tankowań pojazdu.
EN
Most vehicles are powered by internal combustion engines. Due to the nature of their operation they emit, among others, carbon dioxide which contributes to the greenhouse effect. CO2 production is strictly correlated with fuel consumption. The article presents the results of road tests of a passenger car with a spark-ignition engine meeting the Euro 6 emission norm. The test vehicle was equipped with a classic exhaust gas aftertreatment system – a three-way catalytic converter. The aim of the study was to verify the impact of the cruise control use on the vehicle fuel consumption. The measurements were based on Portable Emission Measurement System type mobile equipment for exhaust emission tests. The tests were carried out in real driving conditions travelling on an express way. Test drives took place on a route with variable topographic profile. Three test drives with different speeds were carried out, but the aim was to obtain an average speed of 130 km/h.
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PL
W artykule przedstawiono mobilne stanowisko badawcze w postaci pojazdu samochodowego z zamontowaną instalacją zasilania paliwem LPG. W pojeździe zainstalowano aparaturę rejestrującą liczne parametry pracy układu zasilania jednostki napędowej paliwem benzynowym i LPG. Na tak zbudowanym stanowisku badawczym można będzie przeprowadzać badania w rzeczywistych warunkach eksploatacyjnych. W pracy przedstawiono szczegółowy opis zamontowanej instalacji LPG, a także opisano aparaturę pomiarowo-rejestrującą badane wskaźniki i parametry pracy jednostki napędowej. Omówiono możliwości badawcze wykonanego mobilnego stanowiska badawczego. Wykonano również badania rozruchowe w postaci pomiarów mocy na hamowni podwoziowej przy zasilaniu silnika paliwem benzynowym jak i LPG. Uzyskane wyniki świadczą o poprawności działania układów zasilania.
EN
This article is focused on the cause and effects of an incorrectly mounted cylinder sleeve of a car's internal combustion engine. Damage to the individual parts of the engine are shown in detail. The directions of the forces acting on the specific damaged parts are discussed.
EN
The value of tire pressure affects a number of important vehicle features. The article pays attention to assessing the impact of the change in the tire pressure on both the rolling resistance and fuel consumption. The measurements were performed with four different values of tire pressure. The impact of the change in the tire pressure on the rolling resistance was measured during the driving tests. In order to measure the rolling resistance during tests, the measurement methodology was devised and a device for measuring the rolling resistance was constructed. The measurement of the impact the tire pressure change on the fuel consumption was performed via vehicle dynamometer. The result showed a linear dependence between the tire pressure and rolling resistance. These results measured points to the importance of keeping the correct value of the tire pressure in relation to the fuel consumption.
EN
In recent years, the development of IT systems for fleet monitoring was observed. Tire pressure monitoring systems are constantly improved. Decreased values in tire pressure can cause deformation of tires. Monitoring of tire pressure is an important function in oversized transport trucks. Tire pressure and rolling resistant influence fuel consumption. The purpose of this paper was to determine the impact of tire pressure on fuel consumption in a fleet of trucks with tire pressure monitoring system installed and to determine the impact of other factors that may affect fuel consumption, such as the vehicle weight, brake usage and cruise control usage. The results of the research were developed using a multiple regression model describing the above dependence.
EN
The paper presents the experimental results from a complex study of the fuel consumption of a hybrid car Toyota Yaris. Original data for motion at different constant speeds are obtained. The economical and energy characteristics of the car are observed and analyzed. Three typical urban and three inter-city routes are investigated. A significant decrease in the fuel consumption of the hybrid car is witnessed when it runs in urban conditions at “Eco Mode”. The motion on inter-city route, including short town passages and highway parts, is also investigated. The obtained original data are higher than the fuel consumption given by the producer and, practically, equal to the ones of the conventional gasoline car. The study indicates that the effect of a hybrid system is significant in urban conditions and is more evident at “Eco Mode”.
PL
Jeśli maszyna spala zbyt dużo lub zbyt mał paliwa, musisz szybko znaleźć przyczyny i podjąć działania korygujące. Mówię o przyczynach w liczbie mnogiej, bo praiwe zawsze jest ich kilka.
PL
Porównano strukturę zużycia paliw w transporcie drogowym w państwach członkowskich Unii Europejskiej oraz ceny emisji ditlenku węgla ze spalania tych paliw. Ceny emisji ditlenku węgla z transportu kształtują podatki od paliw silnikowych. Aż 98% CO₂ w transporcie drogowym pochodzi ze spalania benzyny i oleju napędowego a paliwa te są objęte najwyższymi podatkami. W 2016 r. średnia „ukryta” cena emisji 1 t CO₂ z oleju napędowego wyniosła 163 euro, a z benzyny 235 euro. Stawki podatkowe, mające zastosowanie do gazu płynnego i gazu ziemnego, były dużo niższe (odpowiednio 70 i 51 euro). Do stosowania paliw gazowych i płynnych biopaliw zachęcały dodatkowo ulgi i zwolnienia podatkowe. Pomimo tego wsparcia, konsumpcja paliw alternatywnych w transporcie drogowym wciąż jest nieduża.
EN
A review, with 24 refs., of issues related with share of traditional fuels (gasoline, diesel fuel, liquefied natural gas) as well as alternative fuels based on biomass in total consumption in the transport sector in 2016 as well as issues related with tax payments for their use introduced in individual member countries.
EN
The problem of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in shipping is currently addressed by many research works and related industries. There are many existing and visionary technologies and ideas, which are conceptually defined or practically realised. This goal can be achieved in different ways, and reducing fuel consumption is one of the major methods. In these circumstances, the aim of this study is to analyse the possibility of fuel consumption reduction by using an alternative control strategy for low-speed marine diesel engines which would take into account the interactions between hull, propeller and main engine. For this purpose, a mathematical model including ship hull and propulsion system is developed. A case study is conducted for a ship for which the results of both the ship hull and screw propeller model tests are available. A low-speed two-stroke diesel engine is then selected for the considered ship. Two different governors are included in the model and their parameters are changed to investigate the dynamic behaviour of the system when simulating the forward acceleration mode in calm sea conditions. The research is mainly focused on variations of fuel consumption by the ship passing a certain distance to reach the nominal constant speed. It is concluded that, for a given travel distance, it is possible to save considerable amount of fuel at the expense of slight increase of journey time.
EN
This paper represents the first stage of research into a multi-objective method of planning safe trajectories for marine autonomous surface ships (MASSs) involved in encounter situations. Our method applies an evolutionary multiobjective optimisation (EMO) approach to pursue three objectives: minimisation of the risk of collision, minimisation of fuel consumption due to collision avoidance manoeuvres, and minimisation of the extra time spent on collision avoidance manoeuvres. Until now, a fully multi-objective optimisation has not been applied to the real-time problem of planning safe trajectories; instead, this optimisation problem has usually been reduced to a single aggregated cost function covering all objectives. The aim is to develop a method of planning safe trajectories for MASSs that is able to simultaneously pursue the three abovementioned objectives, make decisions in real time and without interaction with a human operator, handle basic types of encounters (in open or restricted waters, and in good or restricted visibility) and guarantee compliance with the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea. It should also be mentioned that optimisation of the system based on each criterion may occur at the cost of the others, so a reasonable balance is applied here by means of a configurable trade-off. This is done throughout the EMO process by means of modified Pareto dominance rules and by using a multi-criteria decision-making phase to filter the output Pareto set and choose the final solution.
PL
W artykule poruszono zagadnienie zużycia paliwa w kontekście wydajności maszyny, a także kwestie analizy czasu pracy według kryterium sprawności technicznej i lokalizacji maszyn. Szczegółowo omówiono również problematykę przeliczania motogodzin na godziny.
EN
The article discusses the issue of fuel consumption in the context of machine performance. The issues of work time analysis were discussed according to the criterion of technical efficiency and machine location. The problem of converting motohours to hours was also discussed in detail.
PL
Jednym z najwyższych kosztów generowanych przy wydobyciu kopalin jest zużycie paliwa związane z załadunkiem i transportem urobku. Optymalizując ten koszt, należy obserwować jednostkowe zużycie paliwa, które można ograniczyć poprzez zwiększenie wydajności układu.
EN
The mining industry generates high production costs and one of the highest ones is associated with the transport of mined material. As part of the optimisation of expenditures in this area, it is necessary to scrutinise where and with what methods it is possible to limit the use of vehicles and thus reduce fuel consumption.
EN
Natural gas production in Europe does not meet the demand for this raw material. The solution is the import of raw materials, and LNG, i.e. liquefied natural gas, is becoming increasingly popular. The LNG supply chain includes natural gas production, liquefaction, and then transport to the unloading terminal, where it is regasified and sent to the final recipient. There are many import terminals in Europe and their number is constantly growing, which shows the increased demand for a different source of raw material than pipelines. The aim of the article is to present the extraction, consumption and import of natural gas in the Polish and Europe, as well as the presentation of the LNG supply chain and a discussion of the import terminals located in European countries.
EN
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) have an increasing presence in passenger transport segment. They have been designed to minimize energy consumption and pollutant emission. However, the actual performance of HEVs depends on the dynamic conditions in which they are used, and vehicle speed is one of the key factors. A lot of excess emission and fuel consumption can be attributed to rapid changes of vehicle speed, i.e. accelerations and decelerations. On the other hand, dynamic driving favours energy recovery during braking. This study examines the relationship between HEVs speed, pollutant emission and fuel consumption. The considerations were based on the results of testing vehicles in WLTC and NEDC driving cycles, performed on a chassis dynamometer. The test objects were two light-duty passenger vehicles, one with series-parallel, gasoline-electric hybrid system and the other, used as a reference, with conventional spark-ignition engine. Both vehicles had similar technical parameters and combustion engines supplied with gasoline. The driving cycles were divided into several parts according to the speed range. For each part, pollutant emission and fuel consumption were determined and appropriate values of selected parameters of driving pattern were calculated. Combining the results of empirical research and calculated parameters allowed to obtain characteristics. Their analysis provided valuable insight into the impact of driving pattern on actual emission and fuel consumption of HEV.
EN
One of the ways to reduce exhaust emissions from vehicles is to replace worn-out shunting locomotives with road-rail tractors. The main purpose of this solution is to reduce the negative environmental impact of the vehicle and to reduce the fuel consumption compared to a shunting locomotive performing the same work. The tests on exhaust emissions of rail vehicles are carried out on an engine test bench, making it impossible to determine the environmental performance of these vehicles during real operation. Therefore, it is advisable to carry out measurements in real operating conditions in order to obtain reliable reference results. This enables the verification of vehicles ecological indicators in a wide range of operational work parameters. It is possible to obtain reliable results regarding the impact of the tested vehicle on the natural environment in this way and compare them with the applicable emission standards.
EN
Vehicles are equipped with more and more devices to improve the comfort of traveling. They are usually powered by electricity generated by the engine, which translates into an increase in its loads and, as a consequence, fuel consumption and emission. However, there is no information about the possible increase in the amount of other harmful components contained in the exhaust gases. Often this result is inadequate to that obtained during the operation of the vehicle, where the obtained fuel consumption is higher. As part of this article, tests were carried out in real hybrid vehicle traffic conditions on the same test route using an analyzer from the PEMS (Portable Emission Measurement System) ¬ SEMTECH DS Sensors Inc. The analysis of gaseous components of exhaust gases together with the exhaust mass flow probe and the GPS system made it possible to calculate the pollutant emission. On this basis, the actual mileage fuel consumption of the tested vehicle was calculated using the road emission of carbon-containing compounds (carbon balance method).
EN
Fuel consumption achieved in the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) could be 50% lower than the fuel consumption in real driving conditions and in the case of emissions of regulated toxic compounds the differences could even be much greater. In order to bring the results achieved in official tests closer to real life figures, the European Commission introduced in 2017 the Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP), which replaced the NEDC. In this article the results of fuel consumption and exhaust emissions for 3 cars fitted with engines of the same displacement but with direct and indirect gasoline injection, determined according to the NEDC and WLTC were presented. The results show that the effect of driving cycle on the fuel consumption is equivocal - for one car, fuel consumption was higher in the WLTC; for the other one in the NEDC; and for the third one, fuel consumption achieved in both driving cycles was practically the same. Emissions of regulated exhaust compounds, except for THC, obtained in the WLTC were higher than in the NEDC driving cycle.
EN
The article discusses the issue of the impact of wind force and direction on fuel consumption and the emission of harmful exhaust gases on the selected flight route. The focus was on percentage changes in fuel consumption and emissions of individual harmful exhaust gas compounds depending on the wind speed and the direction from which it interacts with the aircraft. The analysis was carried out for three different flight levels, in order to compare changes in fuel consumption and emissions also in terms of flight altitude, however the following article focuses only on one level - FL240.
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