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EN
In this paper, a semi-analytical approach is proposed for free vibration analysis of a multi-span, orthotropic bridge deck with rubber bearings. This allows more realistic modeling of vibration transmission from a bridge’s deck to its supports. The approach is based on modal superposition incorporating intermodal coupling. The bridge deck was modeled as a continuous, multi-span, orthotropic rectangular plate with equivalent rigidities. The rubber bearings were inserted between the girders and rigid supports to absorb traffic induced vibrations. The rubber bearing was modeled by linear elastic, vertical supports as very flexible in rotation and highly rigid in the vertical direction. The method’s efficacy was validated against two numerical examples. The absolute error was less than 10%.
EN
The free vibration model of a steel-polymer concrete beam based on Timoshenko beam theory is presented in this paper. The results obtained on the basis of the model analysis, describing the values of the natural frequencies of the beam vibrations, were compared with the results obtained by the solution of the model formulated on the basis of the classical Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, the finite element model and the results of experimental studies. The developed model is characterized by high compliance with experimental data: the relative error in the case of natural vibration frequencies does not exceed 0.4%, on average 0.2%.
EN
The paper presents the results of investigations concerning the influence of gray cast iron modification on free vibration frequency of the disc casting. Three different chemical composition melts of gray cast iron were prepared in induction furnace. During gravity casting 0.05% and 0.3% mass of the Inolate modifier was added on stream of metal for changing graphite flakes in castings. Sound signal vibration of cast iron sample was registered by means on microphone for free vibration frequency measurements. Decreasing of free vibration frequency of modified cast iron in comparison with non modified castings was observed. Higher contents of modifier causes more decreasing of free vibration frequency. Cast iron with smaller contents of carbon and silicon have higher free vibration frequency in comparison with eutectic composition cast iron. Hardness of examined cast iron is lower when the more modifier is added during modification process. Free frequency is smaller with smaller Brinell hardness of disc casting. It was concluded that control of free vibration frequency of disc castings by means of chemical composition and modification process can improved comfort and safety of working parts.
EN
In this work, transient and free vibration analyses are illustrated for a functionally graded Timoshenko beam (FGM) using finite element method. The governing equilibrium equations and boundary conditions (B-Cs) are derived according to the principle of Hamilton. The materials constituents of the FG beam that vary smoothly along the thickness of the beam (along beam thickness) are evaluated using the rule of mixture method. Power law index, slenderness ratio, modulus of elasticity ratio, and boundary conditions effect of the cantilever and simply supported beams on the dynamic response of the beam are studied. Moreover, the influence of mass distribution and continuous stiffness of the FGM beam are deeply investigated. Comparisons between the current free vibration results (fundamental frequency) and other available studies are performed to check the formulation of the current mathematical model. Good results have been obtained. A significant effect is noticed in the transient response of both simply supported and cantilever beams at the smaller values of the power index and the modulus elasticity ratio.
EN
In this paper, a comprehensive study is carried out on the dynamic behaviour of Euler–Bernoulli and Timoshenko beams resting on Winkler type variable elastic foundation. The material properties of the beam and the stiffness of the foundation are considered to be varying along the length direction. The free vibration problem is formulated using Rayleigh-Ritz method and Hamilton’s principle is applied to generate the governing equations. The results are presented as non-dimensional natural frequencies for different material gradation models and different foundation stiffness variation models. Two distinct boundary conditions viz., clamped-clamped and simply supported-simply supported are considered in the analysis. The results are validated with existing literature and excellent agreement is observed between the results.
EN
In this study, the dynamic characteristic problem of riser structure with complex pre-stress distribution is investigated. At first, the differential equation of the riser structure with complex pre-stress distribution is derived. The analytical expression of the free vibration of a riser structure with complex pre-stress distribution is discussed by using the orthogonal property of the trigonometric series. A top-tensioned riser (TTR) for example, the influences of the amplitude and direction of complex pre-stress on natural frequency and mode shape characteristics are compared. This study provides a new method for addressing the riser structure response problem with complex loading.
EN
The purpose of this paper is to study the free vibration and buckling of a Timoshenko nano-beam using the general form of the Eringen theory generalized based on the fractional derivatives. In this paper, using the conformable fractional derivative (CFD) definition the generalized form of the Eringen nonlocal theory (ENT) is used to consider the effects of integer and noninteger stress gradients in the constitutive relation and also to consider small-scale effect in the vibration of a Timoshenko nano-beam. The governing equation is solved by the Galerkin method. Free vibration and buckling of a Timoshenko simply supported (S) nano-beam is investigated, and the influence of the fractional and nonlocal parameters is shown on the frequency ratio and buckling ratio. In this sense, the obtained formulation allows for an easier mapping of experimental results on nano-beams. The new theory (fractional parameter) makes the modeling more flexible. The model can conclude all of the integer and non-integer operators and is not limited to the special operators such as ENT. In other words, it allows to use more sophisticated/flexible mathematics to model physical phenomena.
EN
Vibration characteristics of laminated composite stiffened hypar (hyperbolic paraboloid shell bounded by straight edges) with cut-out are analysed in terms of natural frequency and mode shapes. A finite element code is developed for the purpose by combining an eight noded curved shell element with a three noded curved beam element for stiffener. Finite element formulation is based on first order shear deformation theory and includes the effect of cross curvature. The isoparametric shell element used in the present model consists of eight nodes with five degrees of freedom per node while beam element has four degrees of freedom per node. The code is validated by solving benchmark problems available in the literature and comparing the results. The generalised Eigen value solution is chosen for the un-damped free vibration analysis. New results are presented for first five modes of natural frequency by varying boundary conditions, ply orientation and curvature of the shell. The results furnished here may be readily used by practicing engineers dealing with stiffened composite hypars with cut-outs.
EN
The subject of the paper is an unsymmetrical sandwich beam. The thicknesses and mechanical properties of the beam faces are different. Mathematical model of the beam is formulated based on the classical broken-line hypothesis. The equations of motions of the beam is derived on the ground of the Hamilton’s principle. Bending, buckling and free-vibration are studied in detail for exemplary unsymmetrical structure of the beam. The values of deflection, critical force and natural frequency are determined for the selected beam cases. Moreover, the same examples are computed with the use of two FEM systems, i.e. SolidWorks and ABAQUS, in order to compare the analytical and numerical calculation. The results are presented in tables and figures.
EN
In this paper, thermally-excited, lateral free vibration analysis of a small-sized Euler-Bernoulli beam is studied based on the nonlocal theory. Nonlocal effect is exerted into analysis utilizing differential constitutive model of Eringen. This model is suitable for design of sensors and actuators in dimensions of micron and submicron. Sudden temperature rise conducted through the thickness direction of the beam causes thermal stresses and makes thermo-mechanical properties to vary. This temperature field is supposed to be constant in the lateral direction. Temperatures of the top and bottom surfaces of the system are considered to be equal to each other. Governing equation of motion is derived using Hamilton’s principle. Numerical analysis of the system is performed by Galerkin’s approach. For verification of the present results, comparison between the obtained results and those of benchmark is reported. Numerical results demonstrate that dynamic behavior of small-sized system is been effected by temperature shift, nonlocal parameter, and slenderness ratio. As a result, taking the mentioned parameters into account leads to better and more reliable design in miniaturized-based industries.
EN
Numerical analysis of the static bending and free vibration mechanical behavior of FGM are performed using the UMAT-USDFLD subroutines in ABAQUS software. Different combinations of geometries, mechanical loading and boundary conditions are adopted. The material properties according to the coordinates of the integration points are defined in the developed numerical model. The First Order Deformation Theory is used for thin and moderately thick FG shells analysis. The accuracy and the robustness of the numerical model are illustrated through the solution of several non trivial structure problems. The proposed numerical procedure is significantly efficient from the computational point of view.
EN
This paper presents the harmonic and vibration analysis of functionally graded plates using the finite element method. Initially, the plates are assumed isotropic and the material properties of it are assumed to vary continuously through their thickness direction according to a power-law distribution of the volume fractions of the plate constituents. The four noded shell element is used to analyse the functionally graded plates. Four functionally graded plates-Al/Al2O3, Al/ZrO2, Ti–6Al–4V/Aluminium oxide, and SUS304/Si3N4 are considered in the study, and their results are obtained so that the right choice can be made in applications in high temperature environment and in reducing the vibration amplitudes in applications such as aircrafts, rockets, missiles, etc. Numerical results for the natural frequency and harmonic response amplitude are presented. Results are compared and validated with available results in the literature. Effects of boundary conditions, material and damping on natural frequency and harmonic response of the functionally graded plates are also investigated.
EN
This article aims to study the natural frequency of defective graphene sheets since the existence of cut-outs in plates may be essential on the basis of their desired functionality. A combination of the Aifantis theory and Kirchhoff thin plate hypothesis is used to derive governing equations of motion. The Ritz method is employed to derive discrete equations of motion. The molecular structural mechanics method is also employed to specify the effective length scale parameter. In the ‘numerical results’ Section, the effects of different parameters such as boundary conditions and diameter of the hole-to-side length ratio on the fundamental frequency of graphene sheets are studied.
EN
In this study, the hybrid approach of the Quadrature Element Method (QEM) has been employed to generate solutions for point supported isotropic plates. The Hybrid QEM technique consists of a collocation method with the Galerkin finite element technique to combine the high accurate and rapid converging of Differential Quadrature Method (DQM) for effi- cient solution of differential equations. To present the validity of the solutions, the results have been compared with other known solutions for point supported rectangular plates. In addition, different solutions are carried out for different type boundary conditions, different locations and number of point supports. Results for the first vibration modes of plates are also tested using a commercial finite element code, and it is shown that they are in good agreement with literature.
EN
In this paper, a semi-analytical solution for free vibration differential equations of curved girders is proposed based on their mathematical properties and vibration characteristics. The solutions of in-plane vibration differential equations are classified into two cases: one only considers variable separation of non-longitudinal vibration, while the other is a synthesis method addressing both longitudinal and non-longitudinal vibrationusing Rayleigh’s modal assumption and variable separation method. A similar approach is employed for the out-of-plane vibration, but further mathematical operations are conducted to incorporate the coupling effect of bending and twisting. In this case study, the natural frequencies of a curved girder under different boundary conditions are obtained using the two proposed methods, respectively. The results are compared with those from the finite element analysis (FEA) and results show good convergence.
PL
Jako wspólna płaszczyzna wcześniejszych badań, wynikowe równania różniczkowe drgań opracowane na podstawie statycznych równań różniczkowych Vlasowa dotyczących zakrzywionych dźwigarów nie posiadają ścisłego wyprowadzenia [1-7]. Ostatnimi czasy zastosowano metody fizyki matematycznej w celu wyprowadzenia równań różniczkowych drgań zakrzywionych dźwigarów oraz w celu udowodnienia równań, lecz rozwiązanie nadal nie zostało opracowane [8-16]. Równania różniczkowe drgań zakrzywionych dźwigarów zostały wyprowadzone zgodnie z zasadą Hamiltona oraz równaniem Lagrange’a i mają zastosowanie jedynie do zakrzywionych belek Timoshenko w osiowym układzie współrzędnych. W niniejszej pracy zaproponowano pół-analityczne rozwiązanie dla równań różniczkowych swobodnych drgań zakrzywionych dźwigarów, w oparciu o ich właściwości matematyczne i charakterystyki drgań. Przede wszystkim przyjęto podstawowe założenia dla zakrzywionego dźwigara, w tym 1) zakrzywiony dźwigar ma stały przekrój i promień krzywizny, jak również jednorodny materiał; 2) przekrój poprzeczny zakrzywionego dźwigara ma pionową oś symetrii, a centroid zbiega się z środkiem ścinania; 3) promień krzywizny zakrzywionego dźwigara jest znacznie większy niż rozmiar, długość i wysokość przekroju poprzecznego.
EN
Laplace Transform is often used in solving the free vibration problems of structural beams. In existing research, there are two types of simplified models of continuous beam placement. The first is to regard the continuous beam as a single-span beam, the middle bearing of which is replaced by the bearing reaction force; the second is to divide the continuous beam into several simply supported beams, with the bending moment of the continuous beam at the middle bearing considered as the external force. Research shows that the second simplified model is incorrect, and the frequency equation derived from the first simplified model contains multiple expressions which might not be equivalent to each other. This paper specifies the application method of Laplace Transform in solving the free vibration problems of continuous beams, having great significance in the proper use of the transform method.
PL
Struktury ciągłej wiązki są bardzo często spotykane w projektach budowlanych. Przykłady obejmują: mostki ciągłej wiązki, stopy budynków, rury do wymiany ciepła w wymiennikach ciepła oraz wrzeciona obrabiarki. Nieodłączną częścią projektowania struktur ciągłych wiązek jest dynamiczna charakterystyczna analiza konstrukcji jako podstawy projektu antywibracyjnego. W celu uzyskania dynamicznych charakterystycznych parametrów struktur ciągłych wiązek, uczeni z kraju i z zagranicy przyjęli w celu poszukiwania rozwiązań liczne metody, w tym metodę elementów skończonych, metodę sztywności dynamicznej oraz metodę transferu matrycy. Metoda analityczna, w której wykorzystywane jest przekształcenie Laplace’a, mająca na celu rozwiązanie problemu wolnych drgań ciągłych wiązek, jest preferowana przez wielu badaczy i szeroko stosowana do rozwiązywania takich problemów w wielu dziedzinach. Niemniej jednak, istnieją pewne błędy w stosowaniu przekształcenia Laplace’a. W związku z tym, w niniejszej pracy przeprowadzono badania i analizę dotyczące różnych metod stosowania przekształcenia Laplace’a. Ponadto, w niniejszym dokumencie wyjaśniono metodę prawidłowego zastosowania przekształcenia Laplace’a podczas rozwiązywania problemu wolnego drgania ciągłej wiązki.
EN
In this study, the solution to the free vibration problem of axially graded beams with a non-uniform cross-section has been presented. The proposed approach relies on replacing functions characterizing functionally graded beams by piecewise exponential functions. The frequency equation has been derived for axially graded beams divided into an arbitrary number of subintervals. Numerical examples show the influence of the parameters of the functionally graded beams on the free vibration frequencies for different boundary conditions.
EN
In this paper a solution to the free vibration problem of composite circular and annular membranes is presented. The vibrations of membranes whose material densities and/or thicknesses varied step-wise with the radial co-ordinate are considered. This approach is applied to approximate the solution to the vibration problem of a membrane with continuously varying density and/or thickness with the radial co-ordinate. The obtained analytical solutions are used in numerical investigations into the effect of parameters characterizing the composite membranes on their eigenfrequencies.
EN
In the paper, the process of identification of crack parameters occurring in the cantilever beam with the variable cross-sectional area has been presented. For identification, the non-destructive vibration method has been applied. The analytical solution of the free vibration problem of the beam described according to the Bernoulli-Euler theory has been obtained with the help of Green’s functions.
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