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EN
Purpose: The aim of the proposed research is to investigate the hydrogen effect on the high-nickel steel surface properties changing during machining and wear with participation of lubricant-cooling environments. Design/methodology/approach: The approach of the fracture mechanics and physicalchemical methods surface properties investigation was used to formulate the conclusions. Applying of lubricant-cooling (liquid, solid, gaseous) technological environments (LCTE) has change the morphology of chips and roughness of contact 23Ni1Mo3Ti steel surfaces depending on the experimentally fixed hydrogen concentrations (4.62…12.0 ppm). It correlates with both the roughness of the treated surface and the nature of the cutting products fragmentation: the maximum concentration of hydrogen - in the chips coincides with the minimum size of its defragmentation and reduction of the surface roughness. For nitrogen and oxygen, a similar relationship is traced poorly. Findings: On the basis of the fracture mechanics approaches it is confirmed, that in the conditions of the application of hydrogen containing (as chemical composition) (up to 12 ppm) and hydrogen accumulated (in nano container) (up to 600 ppm) LCTE, hydrogen enters the near crack initiation contact zone before fracture and taking part in changing structural material fracture mechanisms, improves its mashinning processes. Research limitations/implications: The results obtained on laboratory specimens should be tested during machining of real details made from high-nickel steel. Practical implications: The created technological approaches can be used in practice evaluation of mechanical properties and residual of modern gas turbine parts. Originality/value: It was shown, that hydrogen containing (in chemical composition) and hydrogen accumulated (in nano container) LCTE permits the hydrogen to enter in the near crack initiation contact zone before fracture and taking part in changing structural material fracture mechanisms.
EN
The fracture and fragmentation of concrete under static and dynamic loads are studied. The uniaxial compressive strength test is employed to study the concrete behavior under static loads while the split Hopkinson pressure bar is used to study the dynamic behavior of the concrete under static loads. The theories for acquiring the stress, strain and strain rate of the concrete in the dynamic test by Hopkinson pressure bar has been introduced. The fracture patterns of the concrete in the uniaxial compressive test have been obtained and the static concrete compressive strengths have been calculated. The fracture patterns of the concrete in the uniaxial compressive test have been obtained and the static concrete compressive strengths have been calculated. The fracture and fragmentation of the specimen under dynamic loads have been acquired and the stress-strain curves of concrete under various impact loads are obtained. The stress-strain curve indicates a typical brittle material failure process which includes existing micro-fracture closure stage, linear-elastic stage, nonlinear-elastic stage, and post-failure stages. The influence of the loading rate for the compressive strength of the concrete has compared. Compared with the concrete under static loads, the dynamic loads can produce more fractures and fragments. The concrete strength is influenced by the strain rate and the strength increases almost linearly with the increase of the strain rate.
3
Content available 3D ABAQUS simulation of bent softwood elements
PL
Artykuł przedstawia sposób modelowania elementów zginanych wykonanych z miękkiego drewna. Taki rodzaj drewna jest najczęściej wykorzystywany w konstrukcjach budowlanych. Autorzy wykonali zwięzły przegląd sposobów modelowania drewna na podstawie literatury. Znalazły się w nim trzy podstawowe podejścia: liniowo-sprężysta mechanika pękania (LEFM), mechanika zniszczenia ośrodków ciągłych (CDM) i funkcja Hilla (HF). W pracy zaproponowano rozwiązanie oparte na funkcji Hilla, która dostępna jest w programie ABAQUS. Zróżnicowane zachowanie materiału przy ściskaniu i rozciąganiu osiągnięto poprzez teoretyczny podział modelu na strefę ściskaną i rozciąganą. W obu strefach przyjęto różną wytrzymałość wzdłuż włókien w zależności od panującego stanu naprężenia. Na podstawie badań laboratoryjnych wprowadzono ogólne zależności pomiędzy parametrami sprężystymi i wytrzymałościowymi. Dzięki temu do zastosowania modelu wystarczające jest obliczenie modułu sprężystości wzdłuż włókien (EL) i wytrzymałości na rozciąganie przy zginaniu (MOR). Oba parametry można wyznaczyć bezpośrednio w badaniu trójpunktowego zginania. Prawidłowość modelu MES została potwierdzona badaniami laboratoryjnymi oraz metodą cyfrowej korelacji obrazu (DIC). Model umożliwia przewidywanie zachowania elementów z drewna przy zginaniu w stanie 3D. Uwzględnia zarówno plastyczne płynięcie w środkowej fazie obciążenia, spowodowane przekroczeniem wytrzymałości na ściskanie, jak i przewidywanie siły maksymalnej w wyniku rozciągania. Rozwiązanie jest bardzo praktyczne ze względu na brak problemów ze zbieżnością obliczeń. Dodatkowo liczba wymaganych parametrów jest znacznie mniejsza niż w przypadku innych metod odnalezionych w literaturze.
EN
The article presents research on modelling fracture in softwood bent elements. This kind of timber is the one most exploited for construction. Authors present a brief review on the subject with emphasis on three basic attempts: Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM), Continuum Damage Mechanics (CDM) and Hill’s Function (HF). Proposed 3D solution bases on Hill’s Function applied in the ABAQUS FEM code. The new idea includes isolating theoretical compression and tension zones in a model. Then, it is possible to distinguish between compressive and tensile strength and predict a real behaviour of bent elements. Introducing general dependencies between material properties leads to the need of determining only longitudinal elastic modulus (EL) and modulus of rupture (MOR). It is practical because these parameters are the main reported in a scientific and technical literature. Authors describe all of the assumptions in details. The experimental tests and Digital Image Correlation method (DIC) validate the FEM model.
EN
Understanding thorax kinematics and rib breaking mechanisms in conditions of oblique and lateral impact is crucial in safety systems development. To increase knowledge level on this subject, simulation and experimental tests are necessary. The purpose of this study was to obtain single rib kinematics in the case of oblique and lateral impact conditions using numerical simulation approach. Methods: Two impact tests using human body model of a 50th percentile man (THUMS v4.0.1 AM50) were performed in LS-Dyna R7.1.1. Impactor was a rigid cylinder with a diameter of 152 mm, and velocity equal to 6.7 m/s. Impact angle measured to sagittal plane was 30 and 90°, respectively in oblique and lateral impact case. Results: Kinematics of ribs from 3rd to 6th were analyzed. Results shown significant similarities between oblique impact and kinematics of ribs tested in frontal impact conditions in the literature, with maximal costochondral joint displacement relatively to costovertebral joint varying from 65.4 mm (3rd rib) to 82.0 mm (5th rib). Deformation of rib in lateral impact conditions was different than during oblique impact test, with distinctive “flattening” approximately in the middle of the rib. Maximal relative displacement varies from 16.4 mm (6th rib) to 26.6 mm (5th rib) and its location depends on the analyzed rib. Conclusions: Oblique impact scenario may be simulated for the single rib on an experimental way using set-up of the frontal impact. Experimental simulation of the lateral impact for the single rib should not use the same set-up, as the kinematics analysis showed significant differences between simulated cases.
EN
The treatment of comminuted fractures of distal humerus poses a challenge for orthopaedics. Previous studies assessing the global stiffness of the bone – stabilizer system – made it impossible to explicitly indicate an optimal configuration of the locking plates in the treatment of this kind of fractures. The aim of the present research was to comparatively analyze the stabilization conditions of intraarticular fractures of distal humerus with the use of various configurations of the stabilizer. Methods: The research was based on the analysis of mutual displacements of bone fragments. Such evaluation was performed with the use of numerical simulation conducted with the use of the finite element method. A realistic model of humerus was based on the CT data. Three spatial configurations of the stabilizer (parallel, posteromedial and posterolateral) were considered. The mutual displacements of bone fragments as well as the deformity of the stabilizer under various loading conditions were analyzed. Results: In most cases, the parallel setting of the plates ensures a better stabilization of the bone fragments than the perpendicular configuration. The most difficult conditions of stabilization were obtained for the lateral bone fragment. The value of the fragments’ displacements significantly increases for loading directions occurring with ascending flexion angle of the joint. Conclusions: In most cases, the parallel setting of the plates ensures a better stabilization of the bone fragments than the perpendicular configuration.
PL
Złamanie kości ramiennej stanowi blisko 1,5% wszystkich złamań, ale ze względu na wiek zróżnicowana jest przyczyna powstawania urazu. Leczenie operacyjne, stosowane w bardziej rozległych i skomplikowanych urazach, polega na stabilizacji za pomocą implantów płytkowych bądź gwoździ śródszpikowych. W ramach przeprowadzonej analizy numerycznej stabilizacji złamania trzonu kości ramiennej porównano 4 metody zespolenia tytanowego gwoździa śródszpikowego z odłamami kostnymi. Wyniki przeprowadzonych symulacji wykazały, że w zakresie analizowanych danych, każdy z testowanych wariantów umożliwia uzyskanie zrostu kostnego. Maksymalne przemieszczenia międzyodłamowe mieściły się w zakresie 325-540 μm, co stanowi wartość korzystną dla procesów zrostu. Także wartości naprężeń odnotowanych dla poszczególnych modeli nie wskazały na przekroczenie doraźnych wartości na wytrzymałość. Uzyskane wyniki sugerują, że dla danego przypadku każdy z wariantów stabilizacji pozwoli na uzyskanie pozytywnych efektów leczenia.
EN
Fractures of the humerus constitute nearly 1.5% of all fractures, but due to age, the cause of the injury varies. The surgical treatment, used in more extensive and complicated injuries, consists in stabilization with the help of plate implants or intramedullary nails. As part of the numerical analysis of the stabilization of the humerus fracture, 4 methods of the intramedullary nail fixation were compared. The results of the conducted simulations showed that in the range of the analyzed data, each of the tested variants allows for bone union. Maximal interfragmentary movement was in the range of 325-540 μm, which is a favorable value for bone union processes. Also the stresses recorded for individual models did not exceeded the strength of used materials. The obtained results suggest that each of the stabilization variants will allow to obtain positive treatment effects.
EN
Sound joint of hollow-extruded 6005A-T6 aluminum alloy was achieved by friction stir welding and its high cycle fatigue performance was mainly investigated. As a result, the joint fatigue limit reaches 128.1 MPa which is 55% of the joint tensile strength. The fatigue fracture mainly occurs at the boundary between the stir zone and thermo-mechanically affected zone due to the large difference in the grain size. This difference is caused by the layered microstructure of the base material. The shell pattern with parallel arcs is the typical morphology in the fracture surface and the distance between arcs is increased with the increase of stress level. The specimen with the fracture located in the stir zone possesses a relatively low fatigue life.
EN
7N01-T4 aluminum alloy was welded by metal inert gas welding and the influence of V-groove angle on joint fatigue properties was investigated. The results indicate that the volume of fusion zone (FZ) and the grains in FZ become small when the groove angle decreases to 50° from 70°. Most pores distribute at the FZ edge and fewer pores are formed in the small angle joint. The fatigue crack mainly initiates at the transition region between the weld passes due to the pore concentration. The small angle contributes to increasing joint fatigue properties, especially at the low stress level. The fatigue strength of 50° joint is 103.06 MPa which is 15.3% higher than that of 70° joint.
EN
As the dynamic behavior of the concrete is different from that under static load, this research focuses on the study of dynamic responses of concrete by simulating the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) test. Finite element code LS-DYNA is used for modeling the dynamic behaviors of concrete. Three continuous models are reviewed and the Holmquist-Johnson-Cook model (HJC) is introduced in detail. The HJC model which has been implemented in LS-DYNA is used to represent the concrete properties. The SHPB test model is established and a few stress waves are applied to the incident bar to simulate the dynamic concrete behaviors. The stress-strain curves are obtained. The stress distributions are analyzed. The crack initiation and propagation process are described. It is concluded that: the HJC model can modeling the entire process of the fracture initiation and fragmentation; the compressive of the concrete is significantly influenced by the strain rates.
EN
Finite element analysis and scanning electron microscope were conducted to investigate the bulging deformation and fracture of tubes in double-sided hydroforming. The effect of the external pressure imposed on the tube, which determines the magnitude of superimposed hydrostatic pressure, on the stress state, yield locus, fracture surface formation, and fracture strain was evaluated. The simulation results revealed that sufficiently high external pressure can change the stress state of the tube in double-sided hydroforming from an in-plane biaxial tensile stress state to a three-dimensional stress state, and it can increase its hydrostatic pressure in a superimposed manner. Moreover, double-sided free bulging and corner filling experiments were conducted on 5A02 aluminum alloy and 2A12 aluminum alloy tubes. It was found that the external pressure has a significant impact on the fracture behavior of these tubes. The increasing external pressure could change the type, number, size, and proportion of the dimples on the fractured surface, and transform the fracture mode from a void accumulation fracture to a pure shear fracture, which significantly improves the fracture limit of the tubes. These results are significant for the consolidation of the theoretical and numerical simulation prediction of the superimposed hydrostatic pressure effect in the hydroforming process.
EN
In this paper, the finite difference method is used to model the Stoneley wave refection by a horizontal fracture in a borehole. The fracture shape is described by some finite difference grids. Therefore, the fracture aperture can be varied in the radial direction, thus extending previous researches on the assumption that the fracture aperture is constant throughout the fracture. Finite difference grids can also be used to describe a fracture which extends a finite distance in the radial direction. In addition, the finite difference algorithm can deal with the problem of inhomogeneous formation. Therefore, it allows the variation of formation elasticity in the model. Fine grids are needed to describe the small fracture aperture, and variable grid spacing is employed by finite difference method to improve computational efficiency. The Stoneley wave propagation is simulated by the variable grid spacing finite difference method in several models with variable fracture aperture, finite extension fracture and models with heterogeneous formation. The variable grid spacing finite difference method is validated through a comparison with real axis integration method and the analytical method. We get some conclusions by simulating and investigating effects of the variation of fracture aperture, the fracture of finite extension and inhomogeneity of formation on the Stoneley wave refection. Although the fracture aperture changes along the fracture extension direction, the refection coefficient of Stoneley wave is mainly controlled by the fracture aperture near the borehole. The Stoneley wave in the fracture is reflected back into the borehole, by the tip of finite extension fracture, which results in some notches in the refection coefficient curve. If the Stoneley wave propagates from the formation with small elastic modulus to the formation with large elastic modulus, the refection coefficient of Stoneley wave will be larger than that of homogeneous model with small elastic modulus. And if Stoneley wave propagates from the formation with large elastic modulus to the formation with small elastic modulus, the refection coefficient of Stoneley wave will be smaller that of homogeneous model with large elastic modulus. These results provide some basis for the use of Stoneley wave to detect the fracture properties in formation.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań makro- i mikroskopowych oraz pomiary twardości doczołowych złączy spawanych ze staliwa G17CrM05-5. Ponadto została przeprowadzona analiza morfologii przełomów udarnościowych złączy spawanych. Złącza spawane wykonano metodą TIG.
EN
The article presents the results of tests of butt welded joints, ie. hardness distribution, macro and microstructure. Analysis of surface morphology of impact fractures of G17CrM05-5 welded joints was carried out. The welding process was carried out on two types of melts, ie. without modification and with addition of rare earth metals (REM) to liquid metal. Welded joints were made using the TIG method.
EN
The paper presents dynamic simulation and experimental identification of a human forward fall model describing the process of “falling like a broomstick” on the outstretched arms. The model implemented in Mathematica allows one to estimate time histories of the ground reaction force in different scenarios of the fall process. These time series are applied as time-varying load conditions to the numerical analysis of the human radial bone model created from the computed tomography data. Finally, the obtained numerical results indicate that the strain criterion seems to be more useful for estimating the radius fracture site in comparison to the stress criterion.
EN
This dissertation is focused on modelling of the effective elastic and thermal properties, deformation and fracture of metal-ceramic interpenetrating phase composites (IPCs). Compared to typical metal matrix composites (MMC) reinforced with particles or ceramic fibres, the main advantages of IPCs are: improved homogeneity, microstructure stability at elevated temperatures, increased thermal conductivity and, thankful to the interpenetrating microstructure, moderation of cracking with metallic networks. These superior characteristics make the IPCs attractive structural and functional materials for e.g. transport, power and electronic industry sectors. The industry push for new materials and technologies provides a strong motivation for research in the fields of processing, characterisation and modelling of IPCs. Analytical and numerical models are proposed to predict the effective elastic properties of the IPCs. The problems of deformation and fracture of IPCs under quasi-static loading are addressed numerically in a set of models aiming at the determination of the fracture parameters taking into account the crack bridging mechanism. A particular attention is given to creation of numerical models for effective elastic constants and fracture parameters of IPCs based on their real microstructure obtained from computed microtomography (micro-CT) images. Additional information from own experimental research on manufacturing and characterization of IPCs is reported in Appendix as a supporting material used in the modelling. One of the main contributions of this research to the field of IPCs modelling is the proposed methodology of using micro-CT images of real interpenetrating microstructure in the Finite Element Method approach when calculating the effective elastic constants and the J-integral for the interpenetrating phase composites.
PL
Tematem rozprawy doktorskiej jest modelowanie makroskopowych (efektywnych) właściwości sprężystych i termicznych oraz procesów deformacji i pękania kompozytów typu wzajemnie przenikających się faz (Interpenetrating Phase Composites, IPC). W porównaniu z typowymi kompozytami na osnowie metalowej (metal matrix composites, MMC), kompozyty IPC wyróżniają się większą jednorodnością mikrostruktury, stabilnością mikrostruktury w podwyższonych temperaturach, podwyższoną przewodnością cieplną, ponadto dzięki sieciowej mikrostrukturze pękanie w IPC nie zachodzi w sposób gwałtowny. Właściwości te powodują, że kompozyty IPC są atrakcyjnymi materiałami konstrukcyjnymi i funkcjonalnymi dla przemysłu transportowego, energetycznego czy elektronicznego, co stanowi silną motywację dla rozwoju technologii wytwarzania, badania mikrostruktury i właściwości oraz modelowania. W pracy zaproponowano modele analityczne i numeryczne do szacowania efektywnych stałych sprężystości kompozytów IPC. Mechanizmy deformacji i pękania badanych kompozytów pod działaniem obciążeń quasi-statycznych zostały przedstawione w serii modeli numerycznych, z uwzględnieniem rzeczywistej mikrostruktury materiału otrzymanej za pomocą mikrotomografii komputerowej (computed microtomography, micro-CT). W dodatku do rozprawy zamieszczono wyniki własnych badań doświadczalnych związanych z wytwarzaniem i charakteryzacją materiałów IPC, jako informacji pomocniczych przy konstruowaniu modeli IPC. Jednym z głównych osiągnięć pracy jest zaproponowanie metodologii wykorzystania danych mikrostrukturalnych z mikrotomografii komputerowej w problemach wyznaczania stałych efektywnych i parametrów pękania materiałów IPC i jej praktyczna numeryczna implementacja w ramach MES.
EN
This papers deals with the character on low (−180 °C) temperature fracture of iron. Microcrystalline and ultrafine-grained (UFG) iron rods were investigated. To obtain UFG material 20 mm in diameter iron rod was hydrostatically extruded (HE) in two steps: from 20 to 12 mm and from 12 to 8 mm. Because of microstructure anisotropy caused by HE mini-disc and mini-beam samples were cut off from perpendicular and longitudinal cross-section of the rods. Microcrystalline rod fractured in brittle manner at low temperature for both cross-sections, but in UFG iron fracture character depended on grain's shape. For samples were crack propagates parallel to the grain's elongation axis intercrystalline fracture occurred. For mini-beams were crack propagates crosswise to the grain elongation axis transcrystalline fracture occurred and force deflection curve was similar to those obtained for room temperature.
EN
Incremental sheet forming (ISF) has received tremendous attraction in industrial, academia and research segments due to its inherent advantages. To deploy ISF technology in the manufacturing sector, various aspects have to be addressed such as geometrical accuracy, non-homogenous thickness distribution, and process slowness. In this study, extensive experimental work was performed to satisfy the industrial requirements. The influence of forming parameters (step depth, forming wall angle and feed rate) was investigated to access the ISF feasibility at higher speeds when forming the AA5754-H22 aluminum alloy and DC04 steel. The surface roughness, thickness distribution, and microhardness tests were carried out for the samples, which were successfully formed at the higher levels of process parameters. These experimental results were obtained at different locations on the sheet after forming. The analysis has revealed that the possible reduction in the execution time is up to 84% faster for AA5754 H22 aluminum alloy and 74% in case of DC04 steel. In this way, the current study not only provides the necessary framework for the future development of ISF but also commercialization of this technology.
EN
Although the shear-wave birefringence phenomenon affects the imaging of converted shear waves, it also provides a considerable amount of information on subsurface fracture development. Therefore, it is significant to separate split shear waves before seismic interpretation and reservoir prediction. In this paper, we propose a new method of split shear waves separation based on the polarization directions derived from hodogram analysis. Through the hodogram analysis, we find that the split shear-wave particle motions are within the range of a specific and fixed rectangle, which have relations with the fracture azimuth in strata. In addition, we found that a couple of split shear waves can only be fitted to the unique trajectory rectangle through the theoretical derivation. Based on this, we establish the trajectory rectangle through the wave vector calculation and calculate the fracture azimuth according to the fact that the one edge of the trajectory rectangle is along or perpendicular to the fracture azimuth. Synthetic data analysis shows that the calculation accuracy of fracture azimuth under the constraint of trajectory rectangle is less affected by the time delay between split shear waves than using the method of eigenvector–eigenvalue decomposition (EED). Therefore, we can obtain better results for separation of split shear waves using our method than using EED. Eventually, we propose an approach of layer stripping to deal with the problem that shear wave split several times due to the situation that different strata have different fracture azimuths. Synthetic data test indicates that our method can achieve higher calculation efficiency and faster convergence speed than the conventional eigenvector–eigenvalue decomposition method, even though the data are of a low signal-to-noise ratio. Moreover, field data applications show the effectiveness and potential of our method.
18
Content available Leczenie złamań szyjki kości udowej
PL
Wstęp i cele: Starość jest naturalnym procesem fizjologicznym. W wieku geriatrycznym stwierdza się (między innymi): zmniejszoną wydolność fizyczną, osteoporozę, spowolnienie psychoruchowe, występowanie upadków z „własnej wysokości”. Konsekwencją upadków może być przerwanie ciągłości kości. Do najtrudniejszych w leczeniu należą złamania szyjki kości udowej, występujące najczęściej między 7-9 dekadą życia. Celem pracy jest podanie metod leczenia złamań szyjki kości udowej w grupie pacjentów pomiędzy 51-100 rokiem życia. Materiał i metody: Materiał badań stanowiło 345 pacjentów leczonych z powodu złamań szyjki kości udowej w latach 2013-2015 (252 kobiet i 93 mężczyzn). Analizowano średni wiek mężczyzn i kobiet, ilość złamań występujących w poszczególnych miesiącach, stronę złamania, okres hospitalizacji w zależności od stosowanego leczenia. Wyniki: Średni wiek kobiet wynosił 80,3 (s=10,8), mężczyzn 75,5 lat życia (s=8,6). Złamania częściej rozpoznano po stronie lewej (u 208 leczonych) i w miesiącach: styczniu oraz lutym (w sumie u 96 poszkodowanych), następnie w listopadzie i w grudniu (u 80 pacjentów), znacznie rzadziej od maja do października (po kilkanaście złamań w każdym miesiącu). Leczeniu operacyjnemu poddano 332 pacjentów (96,2% ogółu chorych). Metodami nieoperacyjnymi leczono 13 chorych. Sztuczne stawy biodrowe wszczepiono 319 pacjentom (połowicze 191, całkowite 128 chorym). U pozostałych 13 pacjentom złamane zespolono metalem (6 chorym płytą DHS, 4 śrubami gąbczastymi, 3 prętami Endera). Najstarszą grupę pacjentów stanowili chorzy leczeni metodami nieoperacyjnymi (x=87,5 lat życia; s=7,1), następnie pacjenci którym implantowano połowicze sztuczne stawy biodrowe (x=80,7 lat; s=5,1). Średni wiek chorych, którym wszczepiono całkowite endoprotezy biodra wynosił 77,0 lat życia (s=6,3). Najmłodszą grupę stanowili pacjenci, którym złamaną szyjkę kości udowej zespolono metalem (x=60,0 lat; s=5,2). Prawie 13 dni hospitalizowani byli w szpitalu chorzy którym wszczepiono całkowite sztuczne stawy biodrowe (x=12,9 dni; s=5,1). O półtora dnia krócej przebywali w szpitalu pacjenci którym implantowano połowicze sztuczne stawy biodrowe (x=11,3 dni; s=5,2). Wszyscy chorzy, którym wszczepiono całkowite i połowicze sztuczne stawy biodrowe, w dniu wypisu ze szpitala, poruszali się samodzielnie z pomocą dwóch lasek łokciowych lub balkonika. Najkrócej hospitalizowani byli pacjenci którym złamanie zespolono metalem (x=8,7 dni; s=4,8), o jeden dzień dłużej chorzy leczeni metodami nieoperacyjnymi (x=9,5 dni; s=5,1). Wnioski: Złamania szyjki kości udowej znacznie częściej występowały w grupie kobiet oraz w miesiącach „zimowych”. Najczęściej stosowaną metodą leczenia było wszczepienie endoprotezy biodra, w miejsce złamanej szyjki i usuniętej głowy kości udowej. Po implantacji sztucznego stawu można rozpocząć wczesną rehabilitację, która przywraca możliwość poruszania się w ciągu kilku dni po przebytym zabiegu. Leczenie metodami nieoperacyjnymi powinno być stosowane jedynie u pacjentów, którzy z powodu złego stanu zdrowia nie mogą być poddani zabiegowi operacyjnemu.
EN
Introduction and aims: Old age is a natural physiological process. Older people very often experience the following: psychomotor retardation, difficulties in walking, falling for no obvious reason, decreased physical fitness and osteoporosis. Frequent falling may cause breaking of the continuity of the bone. Proximal femur fractures occurring between the ages of 70-90 are the most difficult to treat. The objective of this paper is specifying treatment methods for femoral neck fractures in a group of patients between the ages of 51-100 (x=79,0; s=10,1). Material and methods: Research was performed on 345 patients treated in the years 2013-2015 due to femoral neck fractures (252 women and 93 men). Patients’ age, place of residence (city, countryside), number of fractures in particular months of the year, side of fracture and period of hospitalization depending on the applied treatment methods were all analysed. Results: The average age for women was 80,3 years (s=10,8), while the average age for men was 75,5 years (s=8,6). Fractures were more frequent on the left side (in 208 of patients). Fractures were more frequent in the following months: January and February (96 fractures in total), then in November and December (80 patients), and rarely in the period from May to October (several femoral neck fractures in each month). 332 patients underwent surgical treatment (96,2% of patients in total). Only 13 patients were treated using nonsurgical methods. Artificial hip joints were implanted to 319 patients (partial in 191 patients, complete in 128 patients). In the remaining 13 patients femoral neck fractures were fixed with metal (4 patients with spongy screws, 6 with DHS system and 3 with Ender nails). The oldest group of patients included patients treated using nonsurgical methods (x=87,5 years; s=7,1), then there were patients with partial artificial hip joints (x=80,7 years; s=5,1). The average age of patients, who had complete hip endoprosthesis implanted was 77,0 years (s=6,3). The youngest group were patients, who had their fractured femoral neck fixed with metal (x=60,0 years; s=5,2). Patients with complete hip endoprosthesis were hospitalized almost 13 days (x=12,9 days; s=5,1). Patients with partial artificial hip joints implanted stayed at the Orthopaedics Department over a day shorter (x=11,3 days; s=5,2). On the day of discharge all patients with artificial hip joints were moving on their own with the help of two crutches of a walker. Patients, who had their fractured femoral neck fixed with metal stayed at the hospital for the shortest period (x=8,7 days; s=4,8), i.e. a day longer than patients treated with nonsurgical methods (x=9,5 days; s=5,1). Conclusions: Femoral neck fractures are significantly more frequent in a group of women, patients living in the countryside and during winter months. The most commonly used method was implanting hip endoprosthesis in the place of a fractured neck and removal of the head. After implanting the artificial joint patients may start rehabilitation, which allows them to move on their own in just a few days after the surgery. Treatment with nonsurgical methods should be used in patients, who cannot undergo surgery due to bad condition of health.
EN
The dynamic calculation of the loads arising during the recycling of polymeric material in a roller device, carried out in the work, allowed to determine the main technological and structural parameters that affect the power consumed by this device. The analytical expressions, which connected the basic parameters of the roller device with the stress-strain state created in the polymeric material, were obtained. For the first time, for such devices, the physical and mechanical characteristics of the polymer were taken into account. The mathematical model of the process of polymer material recycling in a roller device, which takes into account the dynamics of the interaction of toothed rollers and the physical and mechanical properties of the polymeric material that was developed, allowed us to determine the optimal technological and structural parameters of the roller device, in which the electrical energy consumption would be minimal. The method of optimization of technological and structural parameters of a roller device, which provided the minimum power consumption, was proposed. Using the obtained laws, it was possible to determine the basic technological and structural parameters of rollers, which with minimal electric energy consumption create a deformation in which the spheruline structure of the polymeric material is oriented and the connections between the conglomerate oriented spherulites are destroyed.
PL
Dynamiczne obliczenia obciążeń powstających podczas recyklingu materiału polimerowego w urządzeniu rolkowym, przeprowadzone w pracy, pozwoliły określić główne parametry technologiczne i konstrukcyjne, które wpływają na moc zużywaną przez to urządzenie. Przeprowadzone zagadnienie analityczne pozwoliło na połączenie podstawowych parametrów urządzenia rolkowego ze stanem naprężenie-odkształcenie wytworzonym w materiale polimerowym. Po raz pierwszy w przypadku takich urządzeń wzięto pod uwagę właściwości fizyczne i mechaniczne polimeru. W pracy przedstawiono model matematyczny procesu recyklingu materiału polimerowego w urządzeniu rolkowym, który uwzględnia dynamikę oddziaływania uzębionych wałków oraz właściwości fizyczne i mechaniczne materiału polimerowego. Zaproponowano metodę optymalizacji parametrów technologicznych i strukturalnych urządzenia rolkowego zapewniającego minimalne zużycie energii. Pozwoliło to na określenie podstawowych parametry technologicznych i strukturalnych walców, które przy minimalnym zużyciu energii elektrycznej powodują odkształcenie, w którym struktura sferoidalna materiału polimerowego jest zorientowana, a połączenia między sferolitami zorientowanymi na konglomerat są niszczone.
EN
An express method of fracturing fluid influence estimation on the permeability of production reservoirs is offered, by using a sandpack model heated up to reservoir temperature. A part of the model is filled with quartz sand fraction of a given permeability. The rest of the model is filled with proppant. The model is saturated with saline water and heated up to reservoir temperature. Initially, water permeability for the sand-pack model part is determined. Then, hydraulic fracturing fluid is injected in the model proppant part. During injection, recording of the filtrate volume and differential pressure changing, allows us to estimate the filterability of the fracturing fluid. After exposure time for fluid breaking, during the filtration process of saline water in the opposite direction, we can estimate destruction rate according to the obtained permeability recovery coefficient of the model part filled with sand. In this article the results of the plugging properties investigation and the impact on permeability of the porous medium before and after the gel destruction of the two fracturing fluids (cross-linked polysaccharide gel and the experimental non-guar of fracturing fluid) are shown. There are significant differences in fluid behavior during filtration through a porous medium, which depends on the mechanisms of gel systems formation. It is shown, that the recovery factor of permeability, depends on the depth of fracturing fluid penetration in a porous medium.
PL
Szybka metoda oszacowania wpływu płynu szczelinującego na przepuszczalność zbiornika produkcyjnego jest oferowana poprzez zastosowanie modelu sand-pack podgrzanego do temperatury zbiornika. Część tego modelu jest wypełniona frakcją piasku kwarcowego o określonej przepuszczalności. Reszta modelu jest wypełniona podsadzką. Model ten jest nasycony solanką i ogrzany do temperatury zbiornika. Początkowo, przepuszczalność wody części modelu sand-pack jest ustalona. Następnie, płyn do szczelinowania hydraulicznego jest wtryskiwany do części modelu podsadzki. Podczas wtrysku, zapis zmiany objętości filtratu i ciśnienia różnicowego pozwala na oszacowanie filtrowalności płynu szczelinującego. Po czasie ekspozycji na zerwania płynu w trakcie procesu filtracji słonej wody w przeciwnym kierunku, można oszacować wskaźnik zniszczenia, w zależności otrzymanego współczynnika odzysku przepuszczalności tej części modelu wypełnionej piaskiem. W artykule są pokazane wyniki badania właściwości zatykania oraz wpływu na przepuszczalność porowatego nośnika przed i po zniszczeniu żelu dwóch płynów szczelinujących (usieciowanego żelu polisacharydu i eksperymentalnego non-guar płynu szczelinującego). Istnieją znaczące różnice w zachowaniu płynu podczas filtracji przez porowaty nośnik, które zależą od mechanizmów powstawania systemów żelowych. Jak widać, współczynnik odzyskiwania przepuszczalności zależy od głębokości penetracji płynu szczelinującego w porowatym nośniku.
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