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EN
The following paper presents an original, universal method of formal safety assessment of ship manoeuvring in sea waterways. The method allows evaluation of a ship’s formal safety assessment on various types of waterways. It may be a basis for standardizing the methods of performing the ‘navigational analyses’ which are required in Poland.
2
Content available remote Advances in e-Navigation concept - risk control options
EN
In the paper the author presents advances in e-Navigation concept. The paper deals with the problem of the formal safety assessment on e-Navigation, especially risk control options. The IMO Correspondence Group on e-Navigation (the Author is a member of this group since 2006) has reviewed the preliminary list of potential e-Navigation solutions and prioritized five potential main solutions, presented the finalized Cost Benefit and Risk Analysis, considered the further development of the detailed ship and shore architecture, further developed the concept of Maritime Service Portfolios and considered the issue of Software Quality Assurance. The solutions have served as the basis for the creation of Risk Control Options (RCOs) that were believed to be tangible and manageable in terms of quantifying the risk reducing effect and the related costs.
PL
W artykule autor przedstawia dalsze kierunki rozwoju koncepcji e-Navigation. Artykuł dotyczy problematyki formalnej oceny bezpieczeństwa koncepcji e-Navigation, a w szczególności opcji kontroli ryzyka. Grupa Korespondencja IMO ds. e-Navigation (autor jest członkiem tej grupy od 2006 r.) dokonała wstępnej oceny listy potencjalnych rozwiązań koncepcji e-Navigation i wytypowała priorytetowych pięć potencjalnych rozwiązań głównych, i przedstawiła analizę ryzyka. Rozwiązania te posłużyły jako podstawa do stworzenia opcji kontroli ryzyka (RCOs), które uważa się za namacalne i konkretne w zakresie ilościowego ograniczenia ryzyka i związanych z tym kosztów.
EN
The main area which Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) methodology was created for is maritime safety. Its model presents quantitative risk estimation and takes detailed information about accident characteristics into account. Nowadays, it is broadly used in shipping navigation around the world. It has already been shown that FSA can be widely used for the assessment of pilotage safety. On the basis of analysis and conclusion on the FSA approach, this paper attempts to show that the adaptation of this method to another area-risk evaluating in operating conditions of buildings-is possible and effective. It aims at building a mathematical model based on fuzzy logic risk assessment with different habitat factors included. The adopted approach lets us describe various situations and conditions that occur in creating and exploiting of buildings, allowing for automatic control of the risk connected to them.
EN
Formal safety assessment of ships has attracted great attention over the last few years. This paper, following a brief review of the current status of marine safety assessment is focused on the hazards identification (HAZID) and prioritisation process. A multicriteria decision making framework, which is based on experts‟ estimation, is then proposed for hazards evaluation. Additionally in this paper many aspects of the evaluation framework are presented including the synthesis of evaluation teams, the assessment of the importance of criteria, the evaluation of the consequences of the alternative hazards and the final ranking of the hazards. The proposed methodology has the innovative feature of embodying techniques of fuzzy logic theory into the classical multicriteria decision analysis. The paper concludes by exploring the potentiality of the above methodology in providing a robust and flexible evaluation framework suitable to the characteristics of a hazard evaluation problem.
5
Content available remote System and risk approach to ship safety, with special emphasis of stability
EN
Present stability regulations developed over the years by IMO reached definite conclusion with the adoption of the Revised draft of the Intact Stability Code. The criteria included there are working comparatively well with regard to the majority of conventional ships. Advent of very large and sophisticated ships of non-conventional features caused that those criteria may be inadequate, and because of that currently IMO is considering development of criteria based on ship performance. However, with the application of the existing criteria risk level is not known, and there was still a number of ships satisfying criteria that did capsize due to different causes. The present criteria are design criteria of the prescriptive nature. As opposed to prescriptive criteria requirements based on risk analysis offer many advantages. The author proposes that as alternative to existing criteria safety assessment based on risk analysis should be used. This would require holistic and system approach to stability. Safety against capsizing (or LOSA accident) is a complex system where design, operational, environmental and human factors have to be taken into account. The crucial point in safety assessment would be identification of all hazards the ship may be subjected. Although performing risk analysis to stability problems seems to be a very compl ex task, in the opinion of the author it may be manageable and could be applied for safety assessment of highly sophisticated and costly ships.
PL
Przyjęcie przez IMO znowelizowanego Kodeksu stateczności zakończyło określony etap prac nad rozwojem przepisów statecznościowych. Przepisy te spełniają dość dobrze zadanie zapewnienia bezpieczeństwa w stosunku do statków konwencjonalnych. Mogą one być jednakże niewystarczające dla statków dużych, nowoczesnych i niekonwencjonalnych. Jednakże poziom ryzyka przy zastosowaniu obecnych kryteriów nie jest znany. ponadto od czasu do czasu zdarzają się wypadki przewrócenia się statku. Z tego powodu do programu prac IMO wprowadzono zadanie opracowania kryteriów opartych o osiągi statku. Alternatywą dla wymagań preskrypcyjnych są wymagania oparte na analizie ryzyka. Autor proponuje stosowanie alternatywnych wymagań opartych na analizie ryzyka. Wymaga to stosowania podejścia systemowego i holistycznego. Bezpieczeństwo przed przewróceniem się stanowi złożony system, w którym należy uwzględnić aspekty projektowe. operacyjne. otoczenie i ładunek. Istotnym elementem oceny bezpieczeństwa jest identyfikacja wszystkich zagrożeń, jakim podlega statek. Analiza ryzyka jest procedura złożoną, jednakże zdaniem autora w stosunku do stateczności jest możliwa do wykonania.
EN
The paper presents some current results of the research on development of a method for safety assessment of ships in critical conditions at the preliminary design stage. The meŹthod is expected to make it possible to perform the multi-objective and multi-parametric investigations to achieve the required and optimum levels of safety by using the risk-based and formal approaches to ship safety. During the design analysis influence of parameters associated with the hull form, arrangement of internal spaces, loading conditions, position and extent of damage, cargo shift and weather impacts on safety of ships in critical condiŹtions will be taken into account. Current capabilities of the method are illustrated by several calculation examples of influence of different arrangements of internal spaces of a cargo ship on values of the IMO formal subdivision indices such as the "Attained Subdivision Index A" and "Local Subdivision Indices ?Aj". The method is still under development and its final structure will be presented in the near future.
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