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1
Content available remote Pelet z torfu jako alternatywne paliwo dla stałych nośników energii
PL
Dokonano analizy techniczno-ekonomicznej nowego rodzaju paliwa, jakim jest pelet torfowy. Uzyskane wyniki porównano z wynikami dla dwóch innych popularnych nośników energii: peletu drzewnego oraz ekogroszku. Zbadano również emisję tlenków azotu oraz tlenków węgla powstających podczas spalania tych paliw. Udowodniono, że pod względem jakościowym i ekonomicznym pelet torfowy jest obiecującą alternatywą dla innych popularnych paliw stałych.
EN
Moisture, ash, and volatile matter contents, combustion heat and mech. strength of a peat were examd. and compared with the results obtained for eco-pea coal and wood pellets. Burning of peat in heating boilers resulted in emissions of CO, NOx and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) in amts. close to the emission accompanying the combustion of wood pellet but much lower than for eco-pea coal. The use of peat was economically viable.
EN
To reduce exhaust NOx and smoke, it is important to measure flame temperature and soot amount in combustion chamber. In diesel combustion it is effective to use the two-color method for the measurement of the flame temperature and KL factor, which is related with soot concentration. The diesel flame was directly and continuously observed from the combustion chamber at running engine condition by using a bore scope and a high-speed video camera. The experimental single cylinder engine has 2.0-liter displacement and has the ability with up to five times of the boost pressure than the naturally aspirated engine by external super-charger. The devices of High Boost, Wide Range and High EGR rate at keeping a relatively high excess air ratio were installed in this research engine in order to reduce exhaust NOx emission without smoke deterioration from diesel engines. The video camera nac GX-1 was used in this study. From observed data under the changing EGR rates, the flame temperature and KL factor were obtained by the software of two-color method analysis. The diesel combustion processes are understood well by analyzing high-speed movies of the diesel flame motion and its temperature. The NOx and smoke are mutually related to maximum flame temperature and also it is possible to reduce simultaneously both NOx and soot emissions by high EGR rate in a single cylinder diesel engine.
EN
The article presents the exhaust emission results from a diesel engine in dynamic states of engine operation in the driving tests: NEDC (New European Driving Cycle) and Malta test, developed at the Poznan University of Technology. The NEDC and Malta tests were carried out as simulations on the engine test bench mimicking the driving tests conditions. The test results of the emission of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides obtained in each of the tests were presented. The dynamic states have been classified depending on the time derivative value of the torque and engine rotational speed. Both the positive and negative as well as zero time derivative values of torque and rotational speed were considered. Therefore, overall six types of dynamic states were analyzed. A high sensitivity of exhaust emission to various types of dynamic states was found. The exhaust emission sensitivity to dynamic states in the Malta test was found to be higher than for the NEDC test, although these tests have similar properties (average rotational speed and average torque). This is due to the fact that the NEDC test is created on the basis of the similarity of zero-dimensional characteristics of the car's speed characteristic, whereas the Malta test was designed in accordance with the principle of faithful representation in the time domain of the NEDC speed curve.
EN
Fuel consumption achieved in the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) could be 50% lower than the fuel consumption in real driving conditions and in the case of emissions of regulated toxic compounds the differences could even be much greater. In order to bring the results achieved in official tests closer to real life figures, the European Commission introduced in 2017 the Worldwide Harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure (WLTP), which replaced the NEDC. In this article the results of fuel consumption and exhaust emissions for 3 cars fitted with engines of the same displacement but with direct and indirect gasoline injection, determined according to the NEDC and WLTC were presented. The results show that the effect of driving cycle on the fuel consumption is equivocal - for one car, fuel consumption was higher in the WLTC; for the other one in the NEDC; and for the third one, fuel consumption achieved in both driving cycles was practically the same. Emissions of regulated exhaust compounds, except for THC, obtained in the WLTC were higher than in the NEDC driving cycle.
EN
The manuscript presents a comparative analysis of the performance and emission characteristics of a compression ignition engine equipped with a Common Rail injection system. The engine is fueled with diesel-biodiesel mixtures containing 25% and 50% share (by volume) of renewable components. Conventional diesel is used as a reference. Turkey lard and rapeseed oil are used as raw materials and subjected to the single-stage transesterification process to obtain methyl esters. The experiments are performed on a medium-duty, turbocharged, inter-cooled, Common Rail Direct Injection (CRDI) diesel engine. This study concentrates on one engine speed of 1500 rpm, typical for gen-set applications, and mid-load range from 100 Nm to 200 Nm. The scope of measurements covers the analysis of exhaust gasses concentration and engine efficiency parameters. In addition, the in-cylinder pressure measurements are performed in order to provide insight into the differences in combustion characteristics between examined fuel mixtures. The study reveals that the addition of the renewable component to fuel mixture positively affects a number of examined performance parameters as well as de-creases the concentration of the examined toxic exhaust components, in the majority of cases.
PL
W artykule zaprezentowano wyniki pomiarów toksyczności spalin samochodu dostawczego w rzeczywistych warunkach ruchu. Celem badań było zweryfikowanie wpływu stylu jazdy kierowcy na emisję substancji szkodliwych w spalinach. Do realizacji celu wykonano pomiary emisji drogowej podstawowych gazowych związków toksycznych w spalinach emitowanych do atmosfery przez jednostkę napędową pojazdu. Do pomiarów zawartości poszczególnych zanieczyszczeń gazowych wykorzystano mobilną aparaturę do badań toksyczności spalin typu PEMS.
EN
The article presents the results of measurements of exhaust emissions of commercial vehicle in real traffic conditions. The aim of this study was to determine how the driving style effects on the exhaust emissions from vehicle engine. The determinants were the measurements of the concentration of main toxic substances emitted to the atmosphere from the power unit of the tested vehicle. In the measurements a portable exhaust emission analyzer was used (PEMS type).
PL
Pomiary emisji związków szkodliwych spalin podczas testów na hamowni podwoziowej są jednymi z najistotniejszych i najbardziej skomplikowanych badań, jakim są poddawane pojazdy napędzane silnikami spalinowymi. Podczas pomiarów emisji spalin należy zwracać baczną uwagę na wiele czynników, wpływających na prawidłowość otrzymywanych wyników. W artykule omówiony został wpływ regulacji hamowni podwoziowej wykorzystywanej do wykonywania pomiarów emisji związków szkodliwych spalin oraz zużycia paliwa.
EN
Exhaust emission measurements on the chassis dynamometer are one of the most important and most complex tests which are performed on vehicles powered by combustion engines. Many factors must be under control during exhaust emission measurements, which have an influence on correctness of the obtained results. In this paper, the impact of the chassis dynamometer regulation on the exhaust emission results is analysed.
EN
The article analyzes the environmental costs which consisted of determining the annual cost for gases and particles released into the atmosphere by city buses meeting the Euro VI norm. To this end, exhaust emissions of a city bus equipped with a conventional drive system were performed. The vehicle had a length of 18m and was powered by a CI engine with a swept volume of 10,5 dm3, with a maximum power of 240 kW. In order to measure the ecological indicators, tests were performed in real driving conditions using the PEMS system. The apparatus made it possible to measure the concentration of gaseous compounds and particulate matter in the exhaust, which made it possible to determine the road exhaust emissions of the tested vehicle. The research was carried out on a test route including urban and suburban roads in accordance with legislative guidelines. The measurements showed that the bus met the exhaust emission limits determined on the basis of measuring windows defined in relation to the work generated by the drive system. In addition to information on the emissivity of the vehicle, the annual emissions from city buses meeting the Euro VI standard in Poland were also estimated. The information contained in the central vehicle register for the number of vehicles registered in Poland that meet the latest emission standards has been used for this purpose.
EN
At the beginning of the work on the effects of global warming and climate change in the international area, there are efforts to reduce exhaust emissions. Because fossil fuel is depleting and exhaust emission gases emitted to the atmosphere are rising rapidly, energy efficiency is on the agenda in transportation. Therefore, automotive developers and scientists have undertaken new research in the automotive sector. Hybrid electric vehicle technology is one of the important studies that these researchers continue. In the hybrid electric vehicle technology, the hybrid engine is aimed to give the best results in terms of exhaust emission, fuel consumption and maintenance costs compared to other internal combustion engines, and at the same time the hybrid engine is aimed to perform better than other internal combustion engines. General information about the hybrid electric vehicle technology as one of the new and alternative technologies in these study is provided. In addition, information was given about exhaust emission, emission standards and fuel consumption. Comparisons were made between the hybrid engine and other internal combustion engines.
EN
In 2015, the number of vehicles in the world exceeded 1.1 billion units. In the coming years, it is expected that the largest increase in the number of vehicles will take place in developing countries. This is a problem in particular in terms of emissions of harmful substances from vehicles. Considering that all manufactured vehicle models have to undergo a detailed homologation and meet the exhaust emission requirements before placing on the market, it is necessary to refine test procedures, including test cycles, in which vehicle emissions are determined. At present, the NEDC approval test is valid in Europe. It is a cycle reproduced on a chassis dynamometer in steady conditions. It consists of an urban section repeated four times and an extra urban part. From 2019, a new test procedure will take effect, which uses the WLTC cycle, also reproduced on a chassis dynamometer in fixed conditions. It is much more complex and better reflects the real traffic conditions. For a better illustration of the differences that occur between the current NEDC cycle and the new WLTC, the article presents a comparative analysis of both driving cycles. This is to present the justifiability of using a new driving cycle and to present its complexity. The article presents own research of a vehicle with a spark-ignition engine, which has been tested both in the NEDC and WLTC cycle. On the basis of the obtained data, it was possible to determine the differences in the emission of harmful exhaust gas components and indicate how the new homologation procedure affects the emissions from the vehicle.
EN
Test results of exhaust emission sensitivity to engine operating conditions from a vehicle with a compression ignition engine have been analyzed. These results were determined in driving tests: NEDC (New European Driving Cycle), RDE (Real Driving Emissions) and Malta, an original drive cycle developed at Poznan University of Technology. The tests in the NEDC and Malta cycles were carried out on the engine dynamometer in driving tests simulation conditions, while the RDE test was carried out in the real conditions of passenger car traffic. The mean exhaust emission test results of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide as well as the mean particle number in individual tests have been provided. A high sensitivity of the tested emission values to the changes in engine's operating conditions was found, both for static and dynamic conditions. The strongest impact of engine operating conditions was found for hydrocarbons emissions and the number of particles, followed by carbon monoxide, a smaller impact was found for nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide. The largest differences in the values characterizing exhaust emissions were found for the NEDC test, which differed the most in dynamic engine operating conditions from other tests that closer resemble real driving conditions of vehicles.
PL
Opisano technologię kondycjonowania spalin, służącą do poprawy skuteczności elektrofiltrów zbyt niskiej z powodu wysokorezystywnego pyłu. Przedstawiono zasadę działania i budowę nowoczesnej instalacji oraz możliwości jej stosowania w różnych gałęziach przemysłu. Opisano również wybrane studia przypadku z zastosowania technologii w energetyce.
EN
Technol. for flue gas conditioning used in electrostatic precipitators was described. It consists in decreasing the dust resistivity by covering its particles with a thin layer of H₂SO₄ of a good conductivity, what results in an improvement of precipitators efficiency. Three case studies were presented.
PL
Przedstawiono wyniki badań dotyczących kontroli składu spalin z pojazdów z silnikami o zapłonie iskrowym w ramach okresowych badań technicznych pojazdów. Zweryfikowano uzyskiwane podczas kontroli wyniki zawartości CO i HC z limitami zawartymi w obowiązujących normach Euro dla tej kategorii pojazdów wyposażonych w różne typy układów wydechowych.
EN
The exhaust gas emission control data in a vehicle control station in 2007-2014 in Slovakia was presented. The emission depended of vehicle prodn. year and its equipment.
PL
Na początku XXI wieku jednym z ważniejszych wyzwań ludzkości jest ograniczenie negatywnych skutków rozwoju cywilizacyjnego. Oprócz silników wykorzystywanych w pojazdach drogowych liczną grupę stanowią silniki o zastosowaniach pozadrogowych. Do tej grupy należą silniki napędzające pojazdy samojezdne nieporuszające się po drogach NRMM (Non-Road Mobile Machinery). Silniki tych pojazdów, spośród wszystkich o zastosowaniach pozadrogowych, charakteryzują się specyficznymi warunkami pracy, które nie pozwalają zakwalifikować ich do silników trakcyjnych. Głównym problemem w odniesieniu do tych pojazdów jest emisja cząstek stałych i tlenków azotu. W pracy dokonano analizy parametrów operacyjnych silnika i emisji spalin ciągnika rolniczego podczas pracy na hamowni. Wykonano badania ciągnika rolniczego, polegające na pomiarach parametrów pracy silnika i stężeniu związków szkodliwych w spalinach. Uzyskano informacje o parametrach operacyjnych silnika i natężeniu emisji zanieczyszczeń podczas badań na hamowni. Dokonano analizy porównawczej parametrów operacyjnych silnika uzyskanych z systemu diagnostycznego oraz pomiarów bezpośrednich na hamowni oraz wykonano korekcję momentu obrotowego odczytywanego z systemu informatycznego silnika. W efekcie wyznaczono wartości emisji jednostkowej zanieczyszczeń podczas badań silnika w warunkach zmiennego obciążenia.
EN
At the beginning of the twenty-first century, one of the major challenges of humanity was to reduce the negative effects of civilization development. Besides the engines used in road vehicles there is a large group of engines for non-road applications. This group includes motor propelled vehicles not used on the road NRMM (Non-Road Mobile Machinery). Engines of these vehicles, among all of the non-road applications, are characterized by very specific working conditions that do not allow for them to be qualified for propulsion engines. The main problem with these vehicles is the particulate matter and nitrogen oxides emission. The paper presents an analysis of the operating parameters of an engine and exhaust emissions of a tractor operating on a chassis dynamometer. Studies of the tractor involved measurements of engine operating parameters and the concentration of harmful substances in the exhaust gases. Information about the parameters of the engine and the intensity of emissions were obtained during the dynamometer test. The study included a comparative analysis of the operating parameters of the engine obtained from the diagnostic system and direct measurements on a chassis dynamometer and a correction of the torque obtained from the vehicle computer system was made. As a result, values of specific emission during engine tests under varying values of load were determined.
EN
Due to the legal changes in the exhaust emission limits in the European Union meeting the new norms becomes more challenging for car manufacturers. The recent progress in the exhaust aftertreatment technology and commercially available aftertreatment systems. However, as the exhaust, systems become more and more complex the problem of high emissions in many engine-operating points that are not currently a part of the type approval tests remains. The article aims to address the limitations of the oxidation catalysts in current aftertreatment systems, mainly their light-off temperature, by investigating new options for in-cylinder catalysts. Placing the catalytic layer within the combustion chamber avoids a number of problems associated with these catalysts being a part of the aftertreatment system. Engine emission tests have been performed comparing the effects of using an in-cylinder Pt-Rh catalytic layer in relation to hydrocarbon and nitrogen oxides emissions. The viable methods of producing a catalytic layer on engine components along with the choice of components to use for catalytic surfaces have also been discussed.
16
EN
The article compares driving test data using the latest legislative proposals applicable to passenger cars. Real Driving Emissions procedures have been introduced in the Commission Regulation (EU) 2016/427. Currently, quantitative RDE requirements have been established to limit emissions from exhaust systems in all operating conditions in accordance with the road emission limits set out in Regulation (EC) No. 715/2007. Several measurements were performed on the same test route in accordance with the RDE test guidelines, which requires a number of criteria to be met. These criteria include the length of the measuring segments, their overall test timeshare, and the dynamic characteristics of the drive. A mobile device for reading the EOBD System information was used to record the engine and vehicle operating parameters during tests. This allowed for the monitoring of parameters such as: load value, engine speed and vehicle velocity. The obtained results were then analysed for their compatibility with the RDE procedure requirements. Despite the same research route, the obtained results were not the same. The analysis also uses the two-dimensional operating time-share characteristics expressed in vehicle velocity and acceleration co-ordinates. As a result, it was possible to compare the dynamic properties, share of operating time and, consequently, to check the validity of conducted drive tests in terms of their practicability and emission values.
EN
The paper presents the main reasons for the limitations as to the share of gaseous fuel in dual fueling in commercial engine applications. It also indicates the proposals of solutions aiming at increasing of the share of this fuel. The investigations were conducted in two stages. The first stage of the investigations involved gradual increase in the share of propane at a simultaneous phasing out of the amount of diesel fuel so that the excess air coefficient remained on the same level. The second stage of the investigations involved a maximum possible share of propane with a simultaneous adjustment of the diesel fuel injection parameters. The investigations were performed for three different values of the charging pressure: 200, 400, 600 mbar and for a naturally aspirated variant. The obtained results led to a conclusion that modifying diesel fuel injection parameters and increasing the charging pressure allow a significant increase in the share of gaseous fuel up to 70% of the total energy contained in both fuels.
EN
The test engine was a turbocharged 10.5L engine with an intercooler. A performance target was set at a rated power of 300 kW (BMEP = 1.7 MPa) and peak torque of 1842 Nm (BMEP = 2.2 MPa). Emission targets were set at a level of near future and stringent regulation standards in Japan. The engine was equipped with new technologies such as a high pressure common rail system, FCD piston, a high pressure ratio VGT and an aftertreatment system. The high and low pressure loop EGR system was installed and this system with a VGT had a high performance and could increase an EGR rate in order to reduce BSNOx while maintaining the satisfied BSFC and PM performance simultaneously not only in the steady state condition but also in the transient condition.
EN
Emissions of particulate matter associated with the use of light-duty vehicles are an increasingly important topic, with more and more political attention focused on this issue. Now that direct injection Diesel engines feature DPFs, particle emissions from other engine types operating on other fuels are also of great interest. This paper discusses the phenomenon in general, briefly reviews worldwide legislation and emissions limits and presents the results of a laboratory test programme measuring the particle emissions from a range of vehicles. The experimental programme showed that the engine/fuel type has a greater impact on particle emissions than the test conditions.
EN
This article reports the effects of CuO/water based coolant on specific fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of four stroke single cylinder diesel engine. The CuO nanoparticles of 27 nm were used to prepare the nanofluid-based engine coolant. Three different volume concentrations (i.e 0.05%, 0.1%, and 0.2%) of CuO/water nanofluids were prepared by using two-step method. The purpose of this study is to investigate the exhaust emissions (NOx), exhaust gas temperature and specific fuel consumption under different load conditions with CuO/water nanofluid. After a series of experiments, it was observed that the CuO/water nanofluids, even at low volume concentrations, have a significant influence on exhaust emissions. The experimental results revealed that, at full load condition, the specific fuel consumption was reduced by 8.6%, 15.1% and 21.1% for the addition of 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.2% CuO nanoparticles with water, respectively. Also, the emission tests were concluded that 881 ppm, 853 ppm and 833 ppm of NOx emissions were observed at high load with 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.2% volume concentrations of CuO/water nanofluids, respectively.
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