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EN
The communities of benthic macroinvertebrates, living in the estuary of Oued Souss (Agadir Bay, Morocco), were studied in parallel with the changes that this ecosystem had underwent after the stopping of pollution, caused by untreated wastewater discharge which occurred in November 2002. Three campaigns were undertaken during the summer season. Two of them were carried out while the estuary was receiving wastewater discharge in 2001 and 2002. The 2003 campaign was carried out after the cessation of the pollution. The intertidal macrobenthic fauna shows a similar faunal composition for both seasons during the period when the ecosystem was receiving wastewater discharge. During this period, Hydrobia ulvae was the dominant species, followed by Hediste diversicolor and Scrobicularia plana in decreasing order. In 2003, the number of individuals harvested was significantly larger compared to the period when the ecosystem received wastewater. For the dominance of species, H. diversicolor was dominanted, followed by H. ulvae, Cerastoderma edule, and S. plana in decreasing order. However, in both periods: before and after the end of wastewater discharge, the phylum of mollusks is dominant, followed by that of Annelids and Crustaceans. The study of the coenotic affinity between settlements of different radials allowed us to separate 2–3 groups of radials in 2001 and 2002, respectively, and 3 groups after stopping discharges in the estuary. The specific richness was greater in the year following the end of discharges (22 species in 2003 instead of 14 found during the pollution period: 2001–2002). The longitudinal distribution of the species living in this site in 2001 and 2002 became wider in 2003 and average biomass, determined by the study of the ash-free dry weight, became clearly greater (20.46 g/m2 in 2003; and 15.54 g/ m2 or 15.84 g/ m2 in 2001 or 2002 respectively). This investigation allowed us to acquire a qualitative (species list, species richness) and quantitative (abundance, biomass, species density) database of intertidal benthic macrofauna of the Oued Souss estuary. It represents a reference state. It responds to the requests for information about the quality of the environment immediately after the cessation of wastewater discharge and could serve as a basis for conducting impact studies later.
2
Content available remote Air-Water Interface in an Estuarine Lake : Chlorophyll and Nutrient Enrichment
EN
The surface water microlayer (SML) is a thin layer found at the interface of the hydrosphere and the atmosphere. It is capable of accumulating chemical substances and microorganisms at a rate as high as 100-fold greater than that observed in the subsurface water. The rate of accumulation of biogens and chlorophyll a in SML of an estuary, where marine and fresh waters mix, varies considerably and it depends on the degree mixing of these waters, which is manifested in the varying values of the enrichment factor (EF, calculated as the ratio of nutrients concentration in SML versus subsurface water). The influence of the Baltic Sea marine water and the freshwater Łeba River inflows on the estuarine Lake Łebsko (Poland) was examined. Nine sampling sites were located in the estuary. Water samples were collected from two layers: the surface microlayer (thickness 242 µm ± 40) and the subsurface water (15 cm depth). The capacity of the SML to enrich the water in nutrients and chlorophyll differed among various parts of the estuary, as well as between seawater and river waters. Statistically significant higher EF were found in the marine waters than in river waters for the nitrogen and phosphorus compounds as well as chlorophyll. There were also differences in EF between marine and lake waters. The highest EF were also recorded for organic forms of nitrogen and phosphorus in marine water. Most probably, marine flux into the estuarine Lake Łebsko, resulted in the increased EF for these investigated components.
EN
The distribution of bacterial and ciliate abundance, ciliate community composition and other parameters were studied during summer along a transect from the mouth of the Słupia River to offshore waters (southern Baltic Sea). Bacteria were examined under an epifluorescence microscope and ciliates were observed under an inverted microscope. Two water masses were identified along the transect. Less saline waters in the river mouth and in the surface layer in the port of Ustka were characterized by high bacterial abundance (5.51–6.16 × 106 ml-1) and low ciliate abundance (0.34–0.90 cells ml-1). More saline waters in the near-bottom zone in the port of Ustka and in the surface layer outside the port contained smaller numbers of bacteria (0.99–2.14 × 106 ml-1) and larger numbers of ciliates (2.65–5.40 cells ml-1). The differences were statistically significant. The separation of the two water masses indicated that the Słupia River exerted a minor impact on the marine waters. The ciliate community composition changed along the transect studied. The main statistically significant difference observed was the low contribution of oligotrichs and choreotrichs to ciliate biomass (3–4%) in less saline waters and their dominance (45–80% of ciliate biomass) in more saline waters.
EN
The purpose of the following studies was to get knowledge about the composition of the ichthyofauna of two estuarine lakes: Mikoszewskie and Ptasi Raj in the Natura 2000 area “Ostoja w Ujściu Wisły” (PLH220044), located within the delta estuary created by two channels of the Vistula river: Wisła Śmiała and Przekop Wisły, reaching the Gulf of Gdańsk. Despite the research conducted on the existing flora and fauna in both nature reserves, the ichthyofauna of the lakes has not been studied so far. In order to determine as completely as possible the taxonomic composition and the quantitative structure of ichthyofauna, the different fishing gear was used: fyke nets, NORDIC multimash survey gillnets, minnow traps. In Mikoszewskie lake, there were caught a total of 774 fish representing 17 species. Higher fish number in catches, with a comparable effort applied, were recorded on the Ptasi Raj lake, where a total of 2032 fish representing 16 species were captured. Out of all 26 species found, only 9 of them were found in both water reservoirs. As it transpires from the above data, both lakes, despite seemingly similar location, due to different hydrological conditions, clearly differ in terms of the structure of inhabiting ichthyofauna. Based on the analysis of the results of conducted fish catches, it can be concluded that the ichthyofauna of the Mikoszewskie Lake is characteristic for freshwater habitats, whereas in the waters of the Ptasi Raj lake, fish populations depend on a permanent connection with the estuary waters of the Wisła Śmiała channel.
PL
Celem poniższej pracy było poznanie składu ichtiofauny dwóch jezior Mikoszewskiego i Ptasi Raj znajdujących si w obszarze Natura 2000 „Ostoja w Ujściu Wisły” (PLH220044), położonego w obrębie estuarium utworzonego przez ramiona Wisły, Śmiałej i Przekopu Wisły uchodzące do Zatoki Gdańskiej. Pomimo prowadzonych w tym obszarze badań flory i fauny, ichtiofauna znajdujących się w nich jezior nie była do tej pory poznana. W celu jak najbardziej pełnego określenia składu taksonomicznego oraz struktury ilościowej ichtiofauny zastosowano różne narzędzia połowowe: żaki, wielopanelowe sieci typu NORDIC oraz pułapki narybkowe. W jeziorze Mikoszewskim, odłowiono łącznie 774 ryb reprezentujących 17 gatunków. Wyższe liczebności ryb w połowach, przy porównywalnym nakładzie odnotowano na jeziorze Ptasi Raj, gdzie odłowiono łącznie 2032 ryb reprezentujących 16 gatunków. Ze wszystkich 26 stwierdzonych gatunków tylko 9 z nich występowało w obu zbiornikach. Oba jeziora, pomimo wydawałoby się podobnego położenia, na skutek odmiennych uwarunkowań hydrologicznych, wyraźnie się różnią pod względem struktury zamieszkującej je ichtiofauny. Na podstawie analizy wyników przeprowadzonych połowów można stwierdzić, że ichtiofauna jeziora Mikoszewskie jest charakterystyczna dla siedlisk słodkowodnych, natomiast w poddanym wpływowi wód słonawych jeziorze Ptasi Raj, populacje ryb są zależne od stałego połączenia z wodami estuarium Wisły Śmiałej.
EN
This is the first comprehensive study covering the parasite fauna of smelt, Osmerus eperlanus, from five estuary sites of the southern Baltic Sea in a stretch of almost 500 km. We examined 432 smelt from: the Neman River mouth, the Vistula River mouth, Pomeranian Bay, the Oder River, and Lake Dąbie and recovered 13 species/higher-rank taxa of parasites: Diplostomum spp., Posthodiplostomum cuticola, Eubothrium crassum, Proteocephalus longicolis, Cystidicola farionis, Hysterothylacium aduncum, Corynosoma semerme, Pomphorhynchus laevis, Unionidae gen sp., Ergasilus sieboldi, Argulus foliaceus, Piscicola geometra, and Saprolegniaceae gen sp. Basic infection parameters such as prevalence, intensity of infection, mean intensity of infection, and the dominance index were determined. The findings of the presently reported study constitute a number of new faunistic records. There were two new host records (Posthodiplostomum cuticola and Saprolegniaceae gen sp.), five new host records for Poland (Diplostomum spp., Pomphorhynchus laevis, Piscicola geometra, Argulus foliaceus, and Unionidae gen sp.), and two new host records for Lithuania (Argulus foliaceus and Unionidae gen sp.). We carefully analyzed the relevant information from more than 100 publications on smelt parasites to compare the data with our own findings.
EN
The mouth of the Vistula River, which is a river outlet located in tideless area, is analyzed. The Vistula River mouth is a man-made, artificial channel which was built in the 19th century in order to prevent the formation of ice jams in the natural river delta. Since the artificial river outlet was constructed, no severe ice-related flood risk situations have ever occurred. However, periodic ice-related phenomena still have an impact on the river operation. In the paper, ice processes in the natural river delta are presented first to refer to the historical jams observed in the Vistula delta. Next, the calibrated mathematical model was applied to perform a series of simulations in the Vistula River mouth for winter storm condition to determine the effects of ice on the water level in the Vistula River and ice jam potential of the river outlet.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań nad strukturą ilościowo-jakościową makrozoobentosu w warunkach ujściowych odcinków rzek na przykładzie estuarium rzeki Wieprzy. Badania obejmowały obszar portu w Darłowie oraz strefę przybrzeżną Bałtyku w rejonie ujścia rzeki. W trakcie prowadzonych prac zidentyfikowano 18 taksonów należących głównie do Mollusca (6 taksonów), Crustacea (4 taksony), Polychaeta (3 gatunki), Insecta (3 taksony). Zagęszczenie makrozoobentosu osiągnęło najwyższe wartości w strefie kontaktu wód rzecznych z morzem, podczas gdy największą biomasę tych organizmów stwierdzono w strefie przybrzeżnej. Wskaźniki bioróżnorodności malały wraz ze wzrostem udziału słonych wód morskich w estuarium. Pomimo negatywnego oddziaływania funkcjonowania portów morskich na faunę denną wewnątrz estuariów rzecznych, możliwe jest podjęcie działań zwiększających bioróżnorodność tych siedlisk poprzez planowe wdrażanie systemu zarządzania środowiskowego w portach.
EN
In the paper are presented results of the studies on the qualitative and quantitative structure of benthic fauna in the estuary of Wieprza River. The study was carried out in the area of the harbor of Darłowo and the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea. During the study we identified 18 taxa of macronvertebrates belonging mainly to the Mollusca (6 taxa), Crustacea (4 taxa), Polychaeta (3 species) and Insecta (3 taxa). Macrozoobenthos density reached the highest values in the contact zone of the river and the sea, while the highest biomass was stated in the coastal zone. Biodiversity indices decreased due to the increasing share of saline water in the estuary. In spite of negative influence of marine harbors onto the bottom fauna within the river estuaries, there is a possibility to undertake activities aiming at the increase in biodiversity throughout implementation of environmental management system in the harbors.
EN
A model of evolution and destruction of the late Ediacaran riverine-estuarine system that developed in the Podlasie Depression and Lublin-Podlasie slope of the East European Craton is presented based on the identification and definition of facies associations, depositional systems and the framework of high-resolution sequence stratigraphy. Two groups of depositional systems have been identified - alluvial, estuarine, and one open coast system. The alluvial system was initially represented in the northeastern and western synrift depocentres by alluvial fans. Distal parts of the fans were areas of fluvial deposition. Large, sand-bed braided rivers flowed transverse to the sedimentary basin axis. During final stages of the alluvial basin evolution, the levelling of the rift topography and the increase in subsidence rate in the south-east of the basin resulted in the development of anastomosed system rivers. The rivers flowed along the basin axis from north to south. A change in the braided-river flow type from ephemeral during the early stage of the alluvial basin evolution to perennial in the later stages, development of anastomosed system river floodplains and the change in the colour of accumulated fluvial deposits indicate a climate change from arid and desert to more humid and moderate conditions. The late Ediacaran siliciclastic succession of the Lublin basin is a record of the transgressive stage of estuary development. It is manifested by five successive parasequences composing the transgressive systems tract. During the earliest evolutionary stages, the Lublin estuary was a mixed wave-and tide-dominated. In its peak development, as the influence of tides significantly increased, it turned into a macrotidal, hypersynchronous estuary of funnel-shaped geometry. Regression of the Lublin estuary, resulting in its ultimate decline, started along with the highstand development at the Ediacaran/Cambrian transition. The estuary became transformed into a mixed-energy wave-and tide-dominated estuarine system and subsequently into a wave-dominated open coast.
PL
Na podstawie zdefiniowania asocjacji facjalnych i systemów depozycyjnych oraz przedstawienia ram wydzieleń wysokorozdzielczej stratygrafii sekwencji sformułowano model rozwoju i destrukcji późnoediakarskiego systemu fluwialno-estuariowego, rozprzestrzenionego w obniżeniu podlaskim i lubelskim skłonie kratonu wschodnioeuropejskiego. Wyróżniono dwie grupy systemów depozycyjnych - aluwialne i estuariowe oraz system otwartego wybrzeża. System aluwialny był początkowo reprezentowany w północno-wschodnich i zachodnich depocentrach synryftowych przez stożki aluwialne. Dystalne części stożków były obszarami depozycji fluwialnej. Duże, piaskodenne rzeki roztokowe spływały poprzecznie do osi basenu sedymentacyjnego. W końcowych stadiach ewolucji basenu aluwialnego wyrównanie topografii ryftowej i wzrost tempa subsydencji w jego południowo-wschodniej części spowodowały rozwój rzek systemu anastomozującego. Spływały one wzdłuż osi basenu z północy na południe. Zmiana rodzaju przepływu rzek roztokowych z okresowego we wczesnych etapach rozwoju basenu aluwialnego na ciągły w późniejszych stadiach, rozwój równi zalewowych rzek systemu anastomozującego i zmiana koloru osadów akumulowanych przez rzeki świadczą o zmianie klimatu suchego, pustynnego na bardziej wilgotny, umiarkowany. Późnoediakarska sukcesja silikoklastyczna basenu lubelskiego jest zapisem transgresywnego etapu ewolucji estuarium. Jej przebieg odzwierciedla pięć kolejnych parasekwencji budujących transgresywny ciąg systemowy. W najwcześniejszych etapach rozwoju estuarium lubelskie miało charakter mieszany, falowo-pływowy. W fazie maksymalnego rozwoju, w miarę znaczącego wzrostu oddziaływania pływów, było to makropływowe, hypersynchroniczne estuarium o kominowej geometrii. Na przełomie ediakaru i kambru wraz z rozwojem ciągu systemowego wysokiego stanu względnego poziomu morza rozpoczął się regres i stopniowa likwidacja estuarium lubelskiego, które przekształciło się w estuarium o mieszanej energii falowo-pływowej i następnie w otwarte wybrzeże z udziałem falowania.
EN
The authors find no arguments that would justify application of the term “estuary” to the area of the Odra River discharge into the Baltic Sea. The physiography, geology, and hydrology of the Odra river mouth show that the area possesses many more characteristics typical of flow-through coastal lagoons than those of estuaries. Of key importance in this respect is the Szczecin Lagoon, an extensive, shallow water body separated from the open sea by a barrier intersected by three narrow and long straits. The lagoonal nature of the area is demonstrated also by its geological history.
EN
In particular branches of the Earth sciences the term estuary is used with various meanings. The term estuary is applied to objects that often differ from the original geographic meaning of the word. The phenomena that accompany them and processes that cause them are called also estuary phenomena and processes. The aim of the study is to describe, in a geographic context, the range in meaning of both the term and names of phenomena and processes derived from it. In the years 2002 – 2005, a survey of the distribution of chloride concentrations was conducted on five lakes characteristic of the southern Baltic coast: Jamno, Bukowo, Wicko, Kopań and Łebsko. It was observed that seawater intrusions into the coastal lakes only resembles those that occur in classic estuaries, though the results are similar to seawater intrusion processes. In the Polish section of the southern Baltic coast, coastal lakes are not the only places where these phenomena are observed. We suggest that all inland water bodies that are under the influence of marine intrusions should be called coastal waters, instead of the misleading term estuary.
11
Content available remote Hydrografia rzeki Lubszy
PL
W artykule przedstawiono hydrografię rzeki Lubszy. Opisano bieg rzeki oraz wszystkich jej dopływów. Przedstawiono miejsca źródeł i ujść, długości poszczególnych cieków, przepływy oraz tereny zlewni. Wyjaśniono kwestie nazwy niektórych cieków.
EN
In article was presented the hydrography of river Lubsza. Rriver Lubsza route and all her tributaries were described. The places of sources and estuaries, length the rivers, flows and grounds drainage basins were presented. Problems of some river names it were explained.
EN
Long-term hydrobiological research has shown that the functioning of the ecosystem of the Neva Estuary, one of the largest Baltic estuaries, has changed greatly since the beginning of the 20th century. Ineffective local water management in St. Petersburg during the last twenty years has stimulated the development of a natural "biological plug" in the salt barrier zone in the inner part of the estuary and has altered the ecosystem's functioning. These changes include an increase in primary production, in the primary production:organic matter decomposition ratio, and in pelagic-benthic coupling. It has also given rise to filamentous algae blooms and intensive secondary pollution in the coastal zone of the Neva Estuary. The primary production of phytoplankton in the inner part of the estuary has reached 2.3 gC m-2, that of the filamentous algae Cladophora glomerata 5.5 gC m-2 these figures are much higher than in other regions of the Gulf of Finland.
EN
The water regime, location and origin are the features which make Lake Druzno an example of a unique water reservoir in every aspect. From the hydrographic point of view, it undergoes both natural (gravitational) and forced (polder) drainage. The authors believe that Lake Druzno did not use to be initially part of the Vistula Lagoon, and its origin is related to the formation of an end depression of a glacier lobe. Due to its situation, morphometric features and character of the bed, Lake Druzno is an environment of rich resources of organic life, which emphasises its unique character still more. The history of the development and present hydrological structure of Lake Druzno are crucial for an evaluation of the abiotic conditions influencing the state of the ecosystem.
PL
Jezioro Druzno ze względu na reżim wodny, położenie i genezę stanowi przykład zbiornika wodnego o wielu cechach znamionujących jego unikatowy charakter. Pod względem hydrograficznym jest ono włączone zarówno w naturalny (grawitacyjny) sposób odwadniania, jak i wymuszony - polderowy. Wielu autorów uważa, że jezioro Druzno nie stanowiło początkowo części Zalewu Wiślanego a jego powstanie wiążą z wytworzeniem się depresji końcowej lobu lodowcowego. Z uwagi na położenie, cechy morfometryczne, charakter podłoża - jezioro Druzno stanowi środowisko o bogatych zasobach życia organicznego, co dodatkowo podkreśla jego unikatowy charakter. Historia rozwoju i współczesna struktura hydrologiczna jeziora Druzno mają istotne znaczenie dla oceny abiotycznych uwarunkowań, wpływających na stan ekosystemu. Niniejsza praca ma zatem na celu określenie abiotycznych uwarunkowań ekosystemu, wpływających na reżim hydrologiczny zlewni jeziora Druzno przy uwzględnieniu specyficznych cech tego zbiornika. Pod pojęciem uwarunkowań abiotycznych należy rozumieć uwarunkowania pozabiologiczne, tj. naturalne czynniki środowiska nieorganicznego, które oddziałują na układy biologiczne o różnym poziomie organizacji. Natomiast ekosystem należy traktować jako podstawową jednostkę funkcjonowania w przyrodzie, w której zachodzi obieg materii i energii tzn. przyrodę nieożywioną i żywą wraz z florą i fauną, które są współzależne. Obiekt badań jakim jest jezioro Druzno stanowi szczególny przypadek śródlądowego zbiornika wodnego, którego funkcjonowanie jest konsekwencją istniejących powiązań czynników naturalnych i antropogenicznych. Unikatowy charakter jeziora, poza wskazaną wyżej współzależnością, przejawia się w wielu innych aspektach funkcjonowania, szeroko rozumianego środowiska geograficznego, włączając weń także aspekt kulturowy. Z uwagi na dodatni bilans materii i energii misy jeziornej, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem materii organicznej, jezioro Druzno i jego najbliższe otoczenie charakteryzuje się wyjątkowym bogactwem fauny i flory zarówno pod względem gatunkowym jak i populacyjnym. Jezioro Druzno stanowi także ważne ogniwo w układzie transportowym, jakim jest Kanał Elbląski. Kanał ten poza funkcją transportową stanowi przykład osiągnięć technicznych podporządkowanych wykorzystaniu systemu wodnego do celów użytkowych. Przedstawione wyżej uwarunkowania podkreślające funkcje jeziora Druzno wskazują, że należy dołożyć wszelkich starań w celu utrzymania istniejącego stanu i zabezpieczenia dalszego funkcjonowania tego unikalnego ze wszech miar systemu hydrograficznego, który dodatkowo przekłada się na inne elementy środowiska.
EN
Nutrient concentrations and their annual/interannual variability in the Szczecin Lagoon are shaped by variable riverine water/nutrient discharges and bio-geochemical processes in the Lagoon which modify the dissolved/suspended matter introduced. On an interannual scale, nitrate and phosphate concentrations in the Lagoon in 1969-97 displayed quite considerable variability, with maxima of NO3 coinciding with minima of PO4 concentrations. Both NO3 concentrations in the Lagoon and total nitrogen loads showed a strong positive correlation with the water volumes discharged (r = 0.73 and 0.82, respectively). This dependence was much weaker and negative for PO4 (r = - 0.51), and weak and positive for total phosphorus loads (r = 0.35). It would appear, therefore, that in the catchment area of the Oder River, nitrogen sources are mainly diffuse, while phosphorus is derived from point sources. There was a considerable predominance of nitrates in the inorganic nitrogen pool, but the presence of ammonium in large concentrations in winter and summer was also evident. Among the inorganic nutrient species, nitrates exhibited the highest transformation rate into organically bound forms (over 60%) while passing through the Lagoon. The mechanisms responsible for the nutrient transformation patterns in the Lagoon - temperature, in particular - are discussed in the paper. Phytoplankton production in the Lagoon appeared to be phosphorus-limited in spring and nitrogen-limited in summer.
EN
Estuaries and lagoons are specific geological environments existing on contact of the land and the sea. There are many definitions and classifications of these environments, which depend on point of view of different research disciplines. Such situation causes a lot of disagreements between specialists such domains as hydrology, geology, geomorphology, etc. Author's intention was to compile and compare of various data about these transitional geological environments. Some information were compiled regarding definitions, classifications and such geological features as hydrodynamics, lithodynamics, sedimentary processes and geochemistry of sediments of estuaries and lagoons.
EN
The article is based on the analysis of phytoplankton samples collected in the Pomeranian Bay during five cruises in the years 1993, 1996 and 1997. In each season a number of phytoplankton assemblages were formed under the impact of the hydrological and hydrochemical conditions gradually changing along an axis from the outlets of the Szczecin Lagoon towards the open sea. The most distinct assemblages could be described as "river-mouth", "open-Bay"and "open-sea" assemblages. The highest phytoplankton biomass was noted near the mouth of the Swina Strait in the "river-mouth" assemblages, where the concentration of chlorophyll a was 4 to 5 five times higher in comparison with the "open-sea" values. The phytoplankton biomass in the "open-Bay" assemblages was roughly twice as high as that in the 'open-sea' assemblages. Because of the high N:P ratio in the Odra waters, phosphorus was very probably the factor limiting phytoplankton primary production in the Pomeranian Bay during periods of intensified inflow of riverine waters. The species dominating the phytoplankton of the Pomeranian Bay during the present study were found to be the same as those recorded in this region 40 years earlier.
EN
Estuaries and lagoons are specific geological environments existing on contact of the land and the sea. There are many definitions and classifications of these environments, which depend on point of view of different research disciplines. Such situation causes a lot of disagreements between specialists such domains as hydrology, geology, geomorphology, etc. Author's intention was to compile and compare of various data about these transitional geological environments. Some information were compiled regarding definitions, classifications and such geological features as hydrodynamics, lithodynamics, sedimentary, processes and geochemistry of sediments of estuaries and lagoons.
EN
The Pomeranian Bay (southern Baltic Sea) is a component of the river Oder (Odra) estuarine system. It receives the Oder's discharge once it has passed through the Szczecin Lagoon, a eutrophic and polluted water body. The discharge has been documented as affecting the hydrography of the pelagic domain as well as the sedimentary environments and the macrozoobenthos of the Bay. This study focused on the distribution of meiobenthic communities in the Bay as investigated with the use of a suite of uni- and multivariate analyses applied to data collected at 14 stations in September 1993. Meiobenthic community characteristics (composition and abundance) are presented in relation to sediment properties (grain size, silt/clay and organic matter content), changing with distance from the major riverine discharge site. The communities studied showed a clear distinction between those associated with organic matter-enriched sediments close to the discharge site and the assemblages living in clean sands, away from the discharge. We conclude that the meiobenthos can be regarded as another compartment of the Pomeranian Bay system responding to the River Oder discharge.
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