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EN
A study has been conducted on the use of alternative energy sources for propulsion of a vessel in inland waterway transport. It is clear that at this stage it is most appropriate to use a vessel designed for short-haul trips between two banks of a ferryboat for passengers and luggage or for recreation and entertainment. On this basis, research has been conducted on a newly designed and built vessel to carry up to 12 people. The drive is fully powered by 180-Ah batteries at 48 V. The batteries are charged by the sun through 5-kW solar panels. The results show that the vessel powered by two 5-kW electric motors can sail autonomously for about 1.5 hours, to travel about 13 km, at an average speed of 7.9 km/h with an average energy consumption of 71.3 kWh/100km when sailing on a linearly reversible route including sailing downstream and upstream on the Danube River.
EN
Brushless DC motors are often used as the power sources for modern ship electric propulsion systems. Due to the electromagnetic torque ripple of the motor, the traditional control method reduces the drive performance of the motor under load changes. Aiming at the problem of the torque ripple of the DC brushless motor during a noncommutation period, this paper analysis the reasons for the torque ripple caused by pulsewidth modulation (PWM), and proposes a PWM_ON_PWM method to suppress the torque ripple of the DC brushless motor. Based on the mathematical model of a DC brushless motor, this method adopts a double closed-loop control method based on fuzzy control to suppress the torque ripple of the DC brushless motor. The fuzzy control technology is integrated into the parameter tuning process of the proportional–integral–derivative (PID) controller to effectively improve the stability of the motor control system. Under the Matlab/Simulink platform, the response performance of different PID control methods and the torque characteristics of different PWM modulation methods are simulated and compared. The results show that the fuzzy adaptive PID control method has good dynamic response performance. It is verified that the PWM_ON_PWM modulation method can effectively suppress the torque ripple of the motor during non-commutation period, improve the stability of the double closed-loop control system and meet the driving performance of the motor under different load conditions.
EN
Technology of photovoltaic cells and lithium batteries is being developed rapidly. As a result, attempts to build solar High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) airplanes are more and more frequent. In the future, such airplanes may appear very useful for the economy because they may replace geostationary satellites in several applications. Unfortunately, data on altitude effect on photovoltaic cells and batteries performance are not easily available. Moreover, acquisition cost of cells is very high. Therefore, a tool for inexpensive testing of cells is needed. This article shows a study of very light unmanned airplane that could be used as a testbed for this purpose. Weight assumptions are presented together with concept of geometry and aerodynamic characteristics. Propulsion system is proposed, so also airplane performance is estimated. Finally, results are discussed leading to the conclusion. It appears that unmanned airplane with maximum take-off weight of 1.3 kg can climb to the altitude of 10 km within 4 hours during sunny summer day about the noon. However, only 30% of such days can be used because of strong winds blowing at high altitudes, quite small optimal airspeed of the airplane and constraints due to Air Traffic Management. Moreover, application of variable pitch propeller is recommended as well as some kind of take-off assist. For example, towing or take-off from the hill is desirable to avoid threats resulting from small climb rate.
4
Content available remote Analiza projektu E-Bus Berlin
PL
W sierpniu 2015 r. w stolicy Niemiec uruchomiono projekt E-Bus, który przyczynić się powinien do redukcji szkodliwych gazów, ograniczenia hałasu oraz rozwoju rynku autobusów elektrycznych w rejonie Berlina i Brandenburgii. W artykule omówiona została pierwsza elektryczna linia autobusowa stolicy Niemiec, która powstała w oparciu o wykorzystanie różnorodnych rozwiązań technicznych. Uwzględniono 2 zasadnicze grupy tego typu rozwiązań – zastosowanie autobusu elektrycznego Solaris Urbino 12 electric oraz systemu szybkiego ładowania indukcyjnego Primove firmy Bombardier. Podkreślono również zalety wynikające z eksploatacji pojazdów elektrycznych w transporcie publicznym Berlina. Przedstawione zagadnienia zostały oparte o bilans środowiskowy projektu E-Bus Berlin.
EN
The E-Bus project was launched in August 2015 in Berlin should contribute to reduction of harmful emissions, noise reduction and development of the electric bus market in the area of Berlin and Brandenburg. This article discusses the first electric bus line in the capital of Germany, which was based on the use of various technical solutions. Two basic groups of such solutions were taken into account – the use of the Solaris Urbino 12 electric bus and the Bombardier Primove inductive charging system. The advantages of using electric vehicles in public transport in Berlin were also discussed. The presented issues were based on the environmental balance of the E-Bus Berlin project.
5
EN
The Krypton Large IMpulse Thruster (KLIMT) ESA/PECS project, which has been implemented in the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM) and now is approaching its final phase, was aimed at incremental development of a ~500 W class Hall effect thruster (HET). Xenon, predominantly used as a propellant in the state-of-the-art HETs, is extremely expensive. Krypton has been considered as a cheaper alternative since more than fifteen years; however, to the best knowledge of the authors, there has not been a HET model especially designed for this noble gas. To address this issue, KLIMT has been geared towards operation primarily with krypton. During the project, three subsequent prototype versions of the thruster were designed, manufactured and tested, aimed at gradual improvement of each next exemplar. In the current paper, the heat loads in new engine have been discussed. It has been shown that thermal equilibrium of the thruster is gained within the safety limits of the materials used. Extensive testing with both gases was performed to compare KLIMT’s thermal behaviour when supplied with krypton and xenon propellants.
6
Content available remote Zawieszenie elastyczne średniej platformy bezzałogowej
PL
Celem projektu opisanego w artykule jest opracowanie modułowego węzła zawieszenia zawierającego koło jezdne, wahacz wraz z zawieszeniem oraz silnik napędowy. W założeniu pojazd ma być wyposażony w modułowy, konfigurowalny układ napędowy z elektrycznymi silnikami trakcyjnymi. Źródłem energii elektrycznej jest generator oraz akumulatory w wersji hybrydowej lub bateria akumulatorów w wersji elektrycznej. W pracy przedstawiono analizę koncepcji zawieszenia, dobór elementów składowych oraz propozycję rozwiązania konstrukcyjnego.
EN
The aim of the project described in this paper is modular suspension node development, containing wheel, traction motor and a rocker arm. The basic assumption is that vehicle should be equipped in modular, configurable propulsion system with electric traction motors. Power plant is an internal combustion engine driving generator as a series hybrid propulsion an battery for pure electric vehicle. The paper presents comparative analysis of different suspension concepts, component selection and design proposal.
EN
In this paper, a custom measuring system for propulsion units of multi-rotor UAV is presented. Designed solution provides measurements of thrust, rotational speed and power consumption of popular electric propulsion systems consisting of BLDC motor, electronic speed controller (ESC) and various propellers. The method is applicable to both single and twin (coaxial) configurations of rotors. Thanks to the use of a precision 6-axis force/torque sensor and sensorless method of speed measurement it is possible to record performance of propulsion with convenient PC software. The system is equipped with complete galvanic isolation between power and sensory circuits. A unique feature of presented solution is the possibility of remote reconfiguration of various controllers, governing speed or thrust of the propeller. Possible applications of the presented test rig are: estimating the performance of UAV design (flight time, power consumption, payload capabilities), mathematical modelling of electric propulsion and analysis of faulty states of rotor operation.
8
Content available remote Experimental studies of wheelchair energy consumption
EN
Modern cars have engines eąuipped with multi point fuel injection system electronically controlled. These system co-operate with a series of sensors and actors. The purpose of this study was to show the most common electric defects and to evaluate the reliability of selected elements of petrol fuel electric injections system Motronic and Simos during driving. The benches make it possible to realize the control of injection and ignition systems thanks to the connection of all elements sensors and actuators with ECU (Electronic Control Unit). The simulation of work was carried out thanks to the power transmission systems, in which the rotational speed of the ignition system was controlled, sensors of rotational speed and crankshaft position and also the sensor of timing phases. Te bench was connected to the computer through the diagnostic connector OBD (On Board Diagnostics). The simulations of other sensors work, e.g. the flowmeter, were realized by changing air flow and temperaturę by changing the resistance of the sensor for different temperatures. The cooperation of particular sensors and execution elements with the driver was monitored by the diagnostic błock of Audi-VW interface software. The designed and made-up bench made it possible to control engine work and carry out tests and the analysis of particular parameters of engine work in order to identify error codes.
EN
Plasma engines are used for space propulsion as an alternative to chemical thrusters. Due to the high exhaust velocity of the propellant, they are more effi cient for long-distance interplanetary space missions than their conventional counterparts. An advanced laboratory of plasma space propulsion (PlaNS) at the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM) specializes in designing and testing various electric propulsion devices. Inside of a special vacuum chamber with three performance pumps, an environment similar to the one that prevails in space is created. An innovative Micro Pulsed Plasma Thruster (LPPT) with liquid propellant was built at the laboratory. Now it is used to test the second prototype of Hall effect thruster (HET) operating on krypton propellant. Meantime, an improved prototype of krypton Hall thruster is constructed.
PL
W obliczu zaostrzających się wymagań dotyczących ochrony środowiska władze miast poszukują rozwiązań mających na celu ograniczenie emisji zanieczyszczeń. W sektorze transportu innowacyjnym rozwiązaniem, umożliwiającym zmniejszenie emisji spalin, jest zastosowanie „czystszych” środków transportu miejskiego - elektrobusów. Pojazdy o napędzie elektrycznym stanowią jeden z filarów realizacji polityki zrównoważonej mobilności w miastach i aglomeracjach. Aspekty ekologiczne, ekonomiczne (niskie koszty eksploatacji) i większa elastyczność obsługi - w porównaniu z tramwajami i trolejbusami - są najczęściej wymienianymi determinantami wprowadzenia tego nowego rodzaju pojazdów elektrycznych do eksploatacji. Sopot jako miasto uzdrowiskowe jest w szczególnym stopniu predestynowany do obsługi pojazdami elektrycznymi. Jednocześnie funkcjonująca na obszarze tego miasta komunikacja trolejbusowa stwarza określone warunki dla funkcjonowania i rozwoju elektrobusów. Celem niniejszego referatu jest analiza możliwości oraz uwarunkowań wprowadzenia elektrobusów do obsługi miast oraz analiza wariantów obsługi elektrobusami wybranego miasta – Sopotu. Do oceny wariantów wykorzystano analizę DGC, która przedstawia techniczny koszt uzyskania jednostki efektu ekologicznego (zł/km) oraz umożliwia uszeregowanie wariantów obsługi od najtańszego do najdroższego.
EN
Due to the increasing awareness of environmental protection, municipalities seek solutions aimed at reducing emissions. In the transport sector, an innovative solution for reducing emissions is the use of „cleaner" means of transport - electric buses. Electric vehicles are one of the pillars of the policy of sustainable mobility in cities and agglomerations. Ecological aspects, economic (lower operating costs) and a greater flexibility of use in comparison with trams and trolleybuses are the most frequently cited determinants of the introduction of this new type of electric vehicles into operation. Sopot as a spa town in a special degree predestined to support electric vehicles. At the same time functioning in the area of the city trolleybus communication creates certain conditions for the functioning and development of electric buses. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the possibilities and conditions of entry electric buses to support cities and the analysis of variants of service electric buses in the chosen city - Sopot. To evaluate the alternatives analysis was used DGC, which shows the technical cost of obtaining a unit environmental effect (zl/km) and allows alignment variants operating from the cheapest to the most expensive.
11
Content available Liquid micro pulsed plasma thruster
EN
A new type of pulsed plasma thruster (PPT) for small satellite propulsion is investigated, of which the most innovative aspect is the use of a non-volatile liquid propellant. The thruster is based on an open capillary design. The thruster achieved a thrust-to-power ratio above 45 μN/W, which constitutes a 5-fold improvement over the water-propelled pulsed plasma thruster, and which is also slightly above the performance of a similarly sized PPT with a solid propellant.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono analizę rozwiązań konstrukcyjnych okrętów patrolowych o wyporności około 2000 ton w zakresie konstrukcji kadłuba, siłowni oraz elektrowni. Analizę tę przeprowadzono w oparciu o literaturę oraz materiały dostępne w Internecie dotyczące rozwiązań konstrukcyjnych stosowanych w okrętach patrolowych projektowanych przez europejskie firmy konstrukcyjne oraz stocznie. W oparciu o dostępną literaturę, opisano zadania realizowane przez okręty patrolowe, przeprowadzono analizę przykładowych konstrukcji występujących na rynku europejskim. Przeprowadzono analizę charakterystyk kadłubów okrętowych, dokonano przeglądu różnych typów układów napędowych porównując napęd mechaniczny i elektryczny oraz dokonano przeglądu elektrowni okrętowych stosowanych na okrętach. Na koniec przedstawiono wstępne wymagania taktyczno-techniczne dla potencjalnie budowanego w przyszłości okrętu zwracając uwagę na jego funkcje, kadłub, układ napędowy i wyposażenie elektrowni okrętowej.
EN
The paper presents an analysis of the structure solutions of patrol ships with a displacement of 2,000 tons in the construction of the hull and power plant. Analysis was carried out on the basis of literature and materials available on the internet for the design solutions used in the patrol ships designed by the European construction companies and shipyards. Based on the available literature the tasks performed by patrol ships and the analysis of the hull structure present on the European market had been described. An analysis of the characteristics of ship hulls, an overview of the different types of propulsion systems by comparing the mechanical propulsion and electric propulsion of the ship had been given. Finally, a pre-tactical and technical requirements for the ship potentially built in the future paying attention to its functions, the hull, propulsion system and electric equipment had been presented.
PL
W związku z wyczerpującymi się zasobami naturalnymi oraz zwiększającymi się restrykcjami w zakresie ochrony środowiska pojawiła się potrzeba opracowania technologii stanowiących alternatywę dla silnika Diesla. Utworzenie konkurencyjnego i zasobooszczędnego systemu transportu jest jednym z celów Unii Europejskiej, zapisanym m. in. w Białej Księdze Transportu 2011. W artykule przedstawiono charakterystyki autobusów z napędem hybrydowym, elektrycznym i wodorowym oraz możliwości ich zastosowania w publicznym transporcie miejskim, jak również przykłady implementacji autobusów korzystających z alternatywnych źródeł napędu.
EN
As a result of an exhaustible natural resources and the increasing restrictions for environmental protection there is a need to develop the technology as an alternative to the diesel engine. The creation of a competitive and resource efficient transport system is one of the objectives of the European Union, recorded among others in the 2011 European Transport White Paper. The article presents the characteristics of hybrid, electric and hydrogen buses and the possibility of their use in public urban transport, as well as implementation examples of buses using alternative power sources.
PL
W artykule wskazano, że napędy hybrydowe i elektryczne, oprócz znanych walorów ekologicznych, są szczególnie korzystne do budowania zaawansowanych systemów sterowania napędem kół, które wpływają na kierunek ruchu pojazdu (Torque Vectoring). Wychodząc od opisu złożonej budowy takich systemów w pojazdach napędzanych silnikiem spalinowym stwierdzono, że w przypadku napędzania kół silnikami elektrycznymi, realizacja funkcji takiego systemu jest prostsza. Omówiono zasadnicze rodzaje i przykłady takich konstrukcji, uwypuklając różnice w ich strukturze oraz występujące problemy i ograniczenia. W podsumowaniu podkreślono ważność tego aspektu napędzania kół silnikami elektrycznymi, co przekłada się poprawę bezpieczeństwo czynnego pojazdów.
EN
The paper indicated that hybrid and electric drivetrains, besides its well known ecological values, are particularly advantageous for designing advanced systems of wheel control, which influence the direction of vehicle’s motion (Torque Vectoring). Starting from the description of complex systems meant for combustion engine powered vehicles, it was stated that when wheels are propelled by electric motors, realization of such system is simpler. The basic types and examples of such designs were reviewed; and their structure, associated issues and limitations were emphasized. The summary underlined the importance of this aspect of electric motor propulsion, which translates into improved active safety of vehicles.
EN
The ship propulsion solution based on unconventional thrusters driven by electric motors is most often applied for the multi-mode ships. These ships ought to have dynamic positioning system. It forces an application of a few thrusters (most often four, seldom more up to eight). Records from a number of multi-mode ships show amean load of less than 40% of maximum load on the propulsion system. In other side the demand for electric energy of ship industrial part is large, more often than for the propulsion part. In that case the diesel-electric propulsion system application may be economical, because the electric energy generation for all ship's purposes makes possible the main engines work on the optimum loads on lowest specific fuel consumption and allows them a long-term work on heavy fuels. For multi-mode ships like cable ships, suppliers, drilling vessels are convenient an application of unconventional thrusters with direct electric propulsion as well, especially for dynamic positioning systems. The efficiency of the thrusters is a predominant factor for the successful and economical operation. Forecasted development and rise of quantity of diesel-electric propulsion (it means with electrical transmission) would cause increased interest of unconventional thrusters. Ultimately they may revolutionize ship propulsion systems.
EN
The ship propulsion solution based on unconventional thrusters driven by electric motor s is most often applied for the multi-mode ships. These ships ought to have dynamic positioning system. It forces an application of a few thrusters (most often four, seldom more up to eight). Records from a number of multi-mode ships show a mean load of less than 40% of maximum load on the propulsion system. In other side the demand for electric energy of ship industrial part is large, more often than for the propulsion part. In that case the diesel-electric propulsion system application may be economical, because the electric energy generation for all ship 's purposes makes possible the main engines work on the optimum loads on lowest specific fuel consumption and allows them a long-term work on heavy fuels. For multi-mode ships like cable ships, suppliers, drilling vessels are convenient an application of unconventional thrusters with direct electric propulsion as well, especially for dynamic positioning systems. The efficiency of the thrusters is a predominant factor for the successful and economical operation. Forecasted development and rise of quantity of diesel-electric propulsion (it means with electrical transmission) would cause increased interest of unconventional thrusters. Ultimately they may revolutionize ship propulsion systems.
EN
This paper presents an overview of the spacecraft electric propulsion activities at the French space agency (CNES). The main existing and future projects corresponding to low earth orbits and geostationary platforms are described. The field of application of electric propulsion is the station keeping of geostationary telecommunication satellites (@BUS), main propulsion for specific probes (SMART 1, new platform for scientific mission) and fine attitude control for dedicated micro-satellites (MICROSCOPE). The Research and Technology (R&T) program is also described in the paper. It covers various activities like research on plasma physics, equipment development and qualification and research on propulsion system. The R&T activities are dedicated to performance improvements of Hall effect thrusters, cathodes, the evaluation of the different low thrust technologies for formation flying applications. A constant effort is also put on plume effect.
EN
Sizing methods can be used to get a first estimate of the required Hall thruster dimensions and operating conditions for a given input power and a corresponding thrust level. After a review of the existing methods, a new approach, which considers the three characteristic thruster dimensions, i.e. the channel length, the channel width and the channel mean diameter as well as the magnetic field, is introduced. This approach is based on analytical laws deduced from the physical principles that govern the properties of a Hall effect thruster, relying on a list of simplifying assumptions. In addition, constraints on the channel wall temperature as well as on the propellant atom density inside the channel are taken into account. The validity of the scaling laws is discussed in light of a vast database that comprises 23 single-stage Hall effect thrusters covering a power range from 10 W to 50 kW. Finally, the sizing method is employed to obtain a preliminary geometry and the magnetic field strength for a 20 kW and a 25 kW Hall effect thruster, able to deliver a thrust of 1 N, respectively 1.5 N.
EN
The Monte Carlo simulation code for ion sputtering CSiPI was developed for electric propulsion-induced erosion applications. In this paper we present how ceramics erosion can be treated. Indeed, these materials strongly differ from metals for which MC simulations are validated. We show that the target has to be resolved in time and space in order to deal with the target stoechiometry evolutions under ion bombardment. This is treated by the CSiPI2007 version of CSiPI. Then we propose a description for the characteristic binding energies that are opposed to some classical description. Indeed, we consider for ceramics a negligible surface binding energy compared to the bulk binding energy. This description is argued and a methodology is proposed for energies determination from the material atomization energy. This allows to perform the predictive sputtering yield Calculations. The code CSiPI and the proposed protocol for input data determination is validated by comparing simulations with experiments for BN, SiO2 and MgO. A good correlation is observed for normal ion bombardment by Xe+ ions in the 350-1000 eV range. For grazing incidence, experimental measurements depend strongly on the target roughness, then results are not directly comparable. At last, we present an estimation of erosion yields of the composite ceramics BN-SiO2 used in HETs.
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