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EN
In this paper, a semi-analytical approach is proposed for free vibration analysis of a multi-span, orthotropic bridge deck with rubber bearings. This allows more realistic modeling of vibration transmission from a bridge’s deck to its supports. The approach is based on modal superposition incorporating intermodal coupling. The bridge deck was modeled as a continuous, multi-span, orthotropic rectangular plate with equivalent rigidities. The rubber bearings were inserted between the girders and rigid supports to absorb traffic induced vibrations. The rubber bearing was modeled by linear elastic, vertical supports as very flexible in rotation and highly rigid in the vertical direction. The method’s efficacy was validated against two numerical examples. The absolute error was less than 10%.
EN
The paper is devoted to issues of estimating free surface elevations in rigid cylindrical fluid-filled tanks dunder external loadings. The possibility of baffles installation is provided. The liquid vibrations caused by lateral and longitudinal harmonic loadings are under consideration. Free, forced and parametrical vibrations are examined. Modes of the free liquid vibrations are considered as basic functions for the analysis of forced and parametric vibrations. The modes of the free liquid vibrations in baffled and un-baffled cylindrical tanks are received by using single-domain and multi-domain boundary element methods. Effects of baffle installation are studied. The problems of forced vibrations are reduced to solving the systems of second order ordinary differential equations. For parametric vibrations the system of Mathieu equations is obtained. The numerical simulation of free surface elevations at different loadings and baffle configurations is accomplished. Beat phenomena effects are considered under lateral harmonic excitations. The phenomenon of parametric resonance is examined under longitudinal harmonic excitations.
EN
The paper presents the results of investigations concerning the influence of gray cast iron modification on free vibration frequency of the disc casting. Three different chemical composition melts of gray cast iron were prepared in induction furnace. During gravity casting 0.05% and 0.3% mass of the Inolate modifier was added on stream of metal for changing graphite flakes in castings. Sound signal vibration of cast iron sample was registered by means on microphone for free vibration frequency measurements. Decreasing of free vibration frequency of modified cast iron in comparison with non modified castings was observed. Higher contents of modifier causes more decreasing of free vibration frequency. Cast iron with smaller contents of carbon and silicon have higher free vibration frequency in comparison with eutectic composition cast iron. Hardness of examined cast iron is lower when the more modifier is added during modification process. Free frequency is smaller with smaller Brinell hardness of disc casting. It was concluded that control of free vibration frequency of disc castings by means of chemical composition and modification process can improved comfort and safety of working parts.
EN
The nonlinear vibrations of the partially tensioned slender column are presented in this paper. The considered system is subjected to Euler’s load, which direction of action is consistent with the non-deformed axis of the column. The magnitude of the external load is variable and its application point is located at different heights between the upper and lower supports. In addition, the longitudinal displacement and rotation of both of the system ends are limited by the discrete elements in the form of translational and rotational springs. This nonlinear system is based on the screw drive used in the vertical lift platform for disabled people or cargo lift equipped with an engine room located in the lower part of the frame. The boundary problem of free vibrations of the mentioned system has been formulated on the basis of Bernoulli - Euler theory and due to nonlinear expressions the solution of the problem was conducted with small parameter method. The results of numerical simulations are concern on linear and nonlinear component of vibrations in relation to the location of external load application and influence of asymmetric value of supports stiffness on the free vibration frequency.
EN
Free vibrations of slender systems are the subject of many scientific and research works. In this work, the boundary problem of free vibrations of a compressed column, which is additionally heat loaded, is considered. The issue of heat flow in the column is solved using the Finite Element Method. Averaged distribution of material properties is obtained in individual segments of the column in subsequent heating times. The mathematical model of free vibrations takes into account the thermal expansion of the material and the effect of changing the Young's modulus resulting from the effect of heat load. The boundary problem of the free vibrations of the considered system is limited to the linear range (the linear component of natural frequency is considered). The influence of the heat source exposure time on the course of characteristic curves (on the plane: load – natural frequency) is determined. The results are presented for various column diameters.
EN
In this paper, thermally-excited, lateral free vibration analysis of a small-sized Euler-Bernoulli beam is studied based on the nonlocal theory. Nonlocal effect is exerted into analysis utilizing differential constitutive model of Eringen. This model is suitable for design of sensors and actuators in dimensions of micron and submicron. Sudden temperature rise conducted through the thickness direction of the beam causes thermal stresses and makes thermo-mechanical properties to vary. This temperature field is supposed to be constant in the lateral direction. Temperatures of the top and bottom surfaces of the system are considered to be equal to each other. Governing equation of motion is derived using Hamilton’s principle. Numerical analysis of the system is performed by Galerkin’s approach. For verification of the present results, comparison between the obtained results and those of benchmark is reported. Numerical results demonstrate that dynamic behavior of small-sized system is been effected by temperature shift, nonlocal parameter, and slenderness ratio. As a result, taking the mentioned parameters into account leads to better and more reliable design in miniaturized-based industries.
EN
In this paper a dynamic analysis of sandwich plate with a certain periodic microstructure is considered. The initial system of governing equations is derived basing on the classic broken line hypothesis. As a result of transformations one can obtain a system of three differential equations of motion with periodic, highly oscillating and non-continuous coefficients. In order to derive a system of equations with constant coefficients tolerance averaging technique is applied. Eventually, in the calculation example a free vibration analysis of certain periodic plate strip is performed with the use of both the derived model and a FEM model. It can be observed that the consistency of obtained results is highly dependent on the calculation assumptions.
EN
This paper presents the harmonic and vibration analysis of functionally graded plates using the finite element method. Initially, the plates are assumed isotropic and the material properties of it are assumed to vary continuously through their thickness direction according to a power-law distribution of the volume fractions of the plate constituents. The four noded shell element is used to analyse the functionally graded plates. Four functionally graded plates-Al/Al2O3, Al/ZrO2, Ti–6Al–4V/Aluminium oxide, and SUS304/Si3N4 are considered in the study, and their results are obtained so that the right choice can be made in applications in high temperature environment and in reducing the vibration amplitudes in applications such as aircrafts, rockets, missiles, etc. Numerical results for the natural frequency and harmonic response amplitude are presented. Results are compared and validated with available results in the literature. Effects of boundary conditions, material and damping on natural frequency and harmonic response of the functionally graded plates are also investigated.
EN
Continuum models generalized by fractional calculus are used in different mechanical problems. In this paper, by using the conformable fractional derivative (CFD) definition, a general form of Eringen non-local theory as a fractional non-local model (FNM) is formulated. It is then used to study the non-linear free vibration of a functional graded material (FGM) nano-beam in the presence of von-Kármán non-linearity. A numerical solution is obtained via Galerkin and multiple scale methods and effects of the integer and non-integer (fractional) order of stress gradient (in the non-local stress-strain relation) on the ratio of the non-local non-linear natural frequency to classical non-linear natural frequency of simply-supported (S-S) and clamped-free (C-F) FGM nano-beams are presented.
EN
Two fundamental challenges in investigation of nonlinear behavior of cantilever beam are the reliability of developed theory in facing with the reality and selecting the proper assumptions for solving the theory-provided equation. In this study, one of the most applicable theory and assumption for analyzing the nonlinear behavior of the cantilever beam is examined analytically and experimentally. The theory is concerned with the slender inextensible cantilever beam with large deformation nonlinearity, and the assumption is using the first-mode discretization in dealing with the partial differential equation provided by the theory. In the analytical study, firstly the equation of motion is derived based on the theory of large deformable inextensible beam. Then, the partial differential equation of motion is discretized using the Galerkin method via the assumption of the first mode. An exact solution to the obtained nonlinear ordinary differential equation is developed, because the available semi analytical and approximated methods, due to their limitations, are not always sufficiently reliable. Finally, an experiment set-up is developed to measure the nonlinear frequency of oscillations of an aluminum beam within a domain of initial displacement. The results show that the proposed analytical method has excellent convergence with experimental data.
EN
In this paper we present the application of the homotopy analysis method for determining the free vibrations of the simply supported beam. The linear and nonlinear cases are considered. The homotopy analysis gives the possibility to search for the solution of a wide range of problems described by means of the operator equations. The numerical examples are presented to confirm the exactness and fast convergence of the introduced method. The presented computational examples confirm the precision and the fast convergence of investigated method. In the linear case we knew the exact solutions, so we could compare with them the solutions obtained with the aid of homotopy analysis method. Differences between the obtained solutions were slight. However, the advantage of the examined method is that we receive here the approximate solution in the form of continuous function which can be used then in a further analysis or to perform various simulations.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono homotopijną metodę analizy równań opisujących drgania swobodne układu o jednym stopniu swobody opisane równaniami liniowymi oraz nieliniowymi. Homotopijna metoda analizy daje możliwość poszukiwania rozwiązania szerokiego zakresu problemów opisanych za pomocą równań operatorowych. W artykule przedstawiono przykłady liczbowe w celu potwierdzenia dokładności i szybkiej zbieżności metody. W przypadku liniowym znane było dokładne rozwiązanie, dzięki czemu można było porównać je z rozwiązaniami uzyskanymi za pomocą analizy homotopijnej. Różnice między otrzymanymi roztworami były niewielkie. Zaletą badanej metody jest jednak to, że otrzymano przybliżone rozwiązania w postaci ciągłych funkcji, które można wykorzystać w dalszych analizach, w tym do interpretacji wyników badań doświadczalnych.
EN
Tapered beams are more efficient compared to uniform beams as they provide a better distribution of mass and strength and also meet special functional requirements in many engineering applications like architecture, aeronautical, civil, mechanical, automobile, nuclear and robotics. The authors proposed a new method called Coupled Displacement Field (CDF) method in which the displacement field such as total rotation is assumed such that the assumed displacement must satisfy the kinematic and force boundary condition of the beam. The lateral transverse displacement is derived from the coupling equation which is derived from the static equilibrium conditions of the beam. By the application of principle of minimum total potential energy for different beam boundary conditions, the fundamental frequency parameter value is calculated in terms of taper ratio and slenderness ratio for various maximum amplitude ratios of the tapered Timoshenko shear flexible hinged-hinged beam boundary condition.
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Content available remote Ruchomy oscylator na moście składanym o pośrednich podporach pływających
PL
W artykule omówiono drgania trzyprzęsłowego mostu pontonowego wymuszone przejazdem ze stałą prędkością oscylatora jednomasowego. Przeanalizowano zarówno drgania wymuszone jak i swobodne, kiedy oscylator jest już poza mostem. Rozważano przypadek drgań tłumionych oraz drgania bez uwzględnienia tłumienia. Układ trzech równań opisujących ruch układu most pontonowy-oscylator jednomasowy rozwiązano numerycznie. Wybrane wyniki rozwiązania przedstawiono graficznie na rysunkach.
EN
The paper deals with vibration analysis of three span floating bridge under moving oscillator. Velocity of the oscillator is constant. Forced and free vibrations of pontoon bridge are discussed. Three equations of motion of the system for each span are solved numerically. Solution of damped vibrations and solution for undamped vibrations are presented. Some results are shown in the Figures.
EN
This paper presents the free vibration problem of beam with additionally attached mass element. The considered system can be treated as simplified to twodimensional model of the bridge crane. In this model the displacement of the hoist along the girder is analyzed and the longitudinal motion of the bridge crane does not occur. Based on the Hamilton’s principle, the boundary problem for this system has been formulated. On the basis of numerical simulations the influence of the position of the mass element (representing the hoist and mass of the load) on the free vibration frequencies of the system has been presented. The accepted mathematical model has been verified by the experimental studies.
PL
W niniejszej pracy rozważano problem drgań swobodnych belki z dodatkowo zamocowanym elementem masowym. Układ ten może modelować konstrukcję suwnicy pomostowej, przy założeniu pewnych uproszczeń. Sprowadzono model obiektu rzeczywistego do zagadnienia dwuwymiarowego, w którym rozważa się możliwość przemieszczania wciągnika wzdłuż dźwigara, a ruch wzdłużny suwnicy nie występuje. Sformułowano zagadnienie brzegowe odnośnie do drgań układu na podstawie zasady Hamiltona. Przedstawiono symulacje numeryczne określające wpływ położenia elementu masowego (który reprezentuje układ wciągnika wraz z ładunkiem) na częstości drgań własnych układu. Przeprowadzono badania eksperymentalne odnośnie do drgań rozważanego układu, pozwalające na weryfikację przyjętego modelu matematycznego.
EN
The boundary problem of free vibrations of a hydraulic telescopic cylinder, subjected to Euler’s load was presented in this work. The task was formulated on the basis of the Hamilton’s principle. The computational model, formulated by Tomski, was taken into account during analysis. Numerical calculations concern free vibrations of multi-stage hydraulic telescopic cylinder. Results were presented in the form of characteristic curves on the plane: external load-natural vibration frequency. Non-dimensional parameters of the structure were defined in reference to the characteristic parameters of the piston rod. During numerical simulations, an influence of a non-dimensional stiffness parameter between following elements on free vibrations of a hydraulic telescopic cylinder was determined for a different number of cylinder stages.
EN
This paper presents an analysis of low-frequency liquid vibrations in rigid partially filled containers with baffles. The liquid is supposed to be an ideal and incompressible one and its flow is irrotational. A compound shell of revolution is considered as the container model. For evaluating the velocity potential the system of singular boundary integral equations has been obtained. The single-domain and multi-domain reduced boundary element methods have been used for its numerical solution. The numerical simulation is performed to validate the proposed method and to estimate the sloshing frequencies and modes of fluid-filled cylindrical shells with baffles in the forms of circular plates and truncated cones. Both axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric modes of liquid vibrations in baffled and un-baffled tanks have been considered. The proposed method makes it possible to determine a suitable place with a proper height for installing baffles in tanks by using the numerical experiment.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono metodę diagnostycznego szacowania rzeczywistej sztywności obrotowej węzłów podatnych w portalowych ramach stalowych na podstawie analizy pierwszej częstości drgań swobodnych. Analizę przeprowadzono dla ram z ryglem podatnie zamocowanym w słupach oraz ram ze słupami podatnie zamocowanymi słupami w fundamentach. Sporządzono wykresy zależności współczynnika λ2(k) częstości drgań własnych ram w funkcji unormowanego parametru k sztywności obrotowej węzłów przy stałym stosunku sztywności słupa do rygla EJs/EJr. Wyznaczono pasmo częstości drgań ram portalowych z ryglem podatnie zamocowanym w słupach przy zmiennym stosunku sztywności słupa do rygla EJs/EJr. Wzięto pod uwagę ciągłą zmianę sztywności obrotowej węzłów podatnych począwszy od węzła przegubowego aż do sztywnego zamocowania. Zamieszczono tablicę parametrów dynamicznych λ2(k) w funkcji unormowanych parametrów sztywności węzłów k1/k2.
EN
The study shows the diagnostic method of estimation of the real rotational stiffness of semirigid joints in the portal steel frames on the basis of the measurement of the frequency of first-order free vibrations to estimate the real distribution of bending moments. The analysis was carried out for frames with a semirigid mounted beam in the columns and frames with a semirigid mounted columns in the foundation. Graphs of the coefficient λ2(k) frequency vibrations of the frame as a function of the normalized parameter k rotational stiffness joints was done at a constant ratio of the stiffness of the column to beam EJs/EJr. Zone of frequencies of vibration-story frame with a variable ratio of the stiffness of the column to beam EJs/EJr was determined. Taken for continuously changing the rotational stiffness semirigid joints from the pinned joints to a rigid mounting. Contains an array of dynamic parameters λ2(k) as a function of normalized parameters stiffness connections k1/k2.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono sposób określenia i wyniki analizy charakterystyk dynamicznych podwieszonej kładki dla pieszych, znajdującej się w miejscowości Kolding w Danii, wykonanej w całości z kompozytu polimerowego na bazie włókien szklanych GFRP. Na podstawie pomiarów przyspieszeń drgań swobodnych pomostu kładki, wymuszonych podskokami jednej osoby, dokonano identyfikacji pięciu pierwszych częstości drgań własnych, odpowiadających postaci drgań własnych i wartości liczby tłumienia konstrukcyjnego. Częstości i postacie drgań własnych wyznaczono metodą dekompozycji w dziedzinie częstotliwości. Wartości liczby tłumienia konstrukcyjnego wyznaczono na podstawie aproksymacji metodą najmniejszych kwadratów odfiltrowanych drgań swobodnych pomostu kładki. Otrzymane wartości liczby tłumienia porównano z wartościami podanymi w literaturze dla wybranych kładek o konstrukcjach wykonanych z innych, alternatywnych materiałów. Stwierdzono stosunkowo dużą wartość tłumienia konstrukcyjnego analizowanej kładki. Otrzymane wyniki badań mogą być pomocne do obliczenia dynamicznej odpowiedzi nowoprojektowanych konstrukcji mostowych, a także do oceny i monitorowania stanu technicznego istniejących obiektów mostowych o konstrukcji wykonanej z kompozytów na bazie włókien szklanych GFRP.
EN
The aim of this paper is to investigate of dynamic characteristics of cable-stayed footbridge in Kolding, Denmark, made entirely of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) composite. During examination based on in situ free-decay measurements and using accelerometers under human jumping the primary five natural frequencies, corresponding mode shapes and damping ratios of the footbridge were identified. The Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD) approach was applied to identify the natural frequencies and mode shapes. The corresponding damping ratios were extracted by using a least square curve fitting approximation of the filtered free-decay vibration of the footbridge deck. The estimated damping ratios were compared with data published in the literature for selected footbridges made of various conventional materials. The obtained experimental results provide a relevant data regarding the dynamic response prediction or structural health monitoring of all-GFRP composite footbridges.
PL
W pracy zawarto wyniki rozważań teoretycznych oraz analizę numeryczną zagadnienia drgań swobodnych smukłego układu o zmiennym przekroju poprzecznym poddanego działaniu wybranego przypadku obciążenia swoistego. Analizowane obciążenie uogólnione z siłą skierowaną do bieguna dodatniego realizowane jest poprzez strukturę zbudowaną z głowic z zarysie kołowym: wywołującą i przejmującą obciążenie. W celu zamodelowania niepryzmatyczności kolumny, układ podzielono na n pryzmatycznych segmentów o równej długości i grubości oraz zmiennej szerokości opisanej za pomocą funkcji liniowej oraz wielomianu drugiego stopnia, przy zachowaniu warunku stałej objętości sumarycznej. W oparciu o model fizyczny układu zdefiniowano zależności określające energię mechaniczną struktury. Problem sformułowano na podstawie zasady Hamiltona (metoda drgań, kinetyczne kryterium utraty stateczności). Biorąc pod uwagę geometryczne warunki brzegowe oraz geometryczne warunki ciągłości wyznaczono różniczkowe równania ruchu poszczególnych segmentów kolumny oraz brakujące do opisu układu naturalne warunki brzegowe i naturalne warunki ciągłości. W oparciu o tak zdefiniowany model matematyczny opracowano autorskie algorytmy obliczeniowe umożliwiające badania numeryczne drgań poprzecznych układu. W ramach przeprowadzonych obliczeń określono zakres zmian częstości drgań własnych w funkcji obciążenia zewnętrznego. Dyskusji poddano wpływ zmiennych parametrów geometrycznych kolumny na wartość częstości drgań oraz typ układu, uwzględniając parametry określające kształt kolumny oraz geometrię struktury realizującej obciążenie.
EN
The results of the theoretical considerations and numerical analysis of the issue of the free vibration of the slender system of the variable cross-section under selected case of the specific load were included in this work. Analyzed generalized load with a force directed towards the positive pole is realized by the structure built of heads of the circular outlines: loading and receiving heads. In order to model the variable cross-section of the column, the system was divided into n prismatic segments of the equal length and thickness and the variable width described by the linear function and the polynomial of degree 2, fulfilling the condition of the constant total volume. On the basis of the physical model of the system, the mechanical energy of the structure was defined. The issue of the free vibration was formulated taking into account the Hamilton’s principle (energetic method, kinetic criterion of the stability loss). Taking into consideration the geometric boundary conditions and the geometric continuity conditions, the differential equations of motion of particular segments of the column as well as the natural boundary condition and the natural continuity conditions were determined. On the basis of so-defined mathematical model, the computation algorithms enabling numerical examination of the transverse vibration of the column were developed. Within the scope of the carried-out calculations, the range of the changes in the frequency of the free vibration as a function of the external load was determined. An influence of the variable geometric parameters of the column on the value of the natural frequency and the type of the system was discussed, including the parameters describing the shape of the column as well as the geometry of the loading structure.
EN
In this paper, a semi-analytical solution for free vibration differential equations of curved girders is proposed based on their mathematical properties and vibration characteristics. The solutions of in-plane vibration differential equations are classified into two cases: one only considers variable separation of non-longitudinal vibration, while the other is a synthesis method addressing both longitudinal and non-longitudinal vibrationusing Rayleigh’s modal assumption and variable separation method. A similar approach is employed for the out-of-plane vibration, but further mathematical operations are conducted to incorporate the coupling effect of bending and twisting. In this case study, the natural frequencies of a curved girder under different boundary conditions are obtained using the two proposed methods, respectively. The results are compared with those from the finite element analysis (FEA) and results show good convergence.
PL
Jako wspólna płaszczyzna wcześniejszych badań, wynikowe równania różniczkowe drgań opracowane na podstawie statycznych równań różniczkowych Vlasowa dotyczących zakrzywionych dźwigarów nie posiadają ścisłego wyprowadzenia [1-7]. Ostatnimi czasy zastosowano metody fizyki matematycznej w celu wyprowadzenia równań różniczkowych drgań zakrzywionych dźwigarów oraz w celu udowodnienia równań, lecz rozwiązanie nadal nie zostało opracowane [8-16]. Równania różniczkowe drgań zakrzywionych dźwigarów zostały wyprowadzone zgodnie z zasadą Hamiltona oraz równaniem Lagrange’a i mają zastosowanie jedynie do zakrzywionych belek Timoshenko w osiowym układzie współrzędnych. W niniejszej pracy zaproponowano pół-analityczne rozwiązanie dla równań różniczkowych swobodnych drgań zakrzywionych dźwigarów, w oparciu o ich właściwości matematyczne i charakterystyki drgań. Przede wszystkim przyjęto podstawowe założenia dla zakrzywionego dźwigara, w tym 1) zakrzywiony dźwigar ma stały przekrój i promień krzywizny, jak również jednorodny materiał; 2) przekrój poprzeczny zakrzywionego dźwigara ma pionową oś symetrii, a centroid zbiega się z środkiem ścinania; 3) promień krzywizny zakrzywionego dźwigara jest znacznie większy niż rozmiar, długość i wysokość przekroju poprzecznego.
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