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1
EN
Herein, we are reporting, for the first time, a microwave-assisted synthesis of lead iodide (PbI2) nanosheets (NSs) with codoping of Zn and Mn, confirmed by SEM/EDX. In the co-doping Mn concentration was kept at a constant level (i.e. 15 %) while Zn concentration was varied from 1 wt.% to 10 wt.%. The morphological analysis confirming presence of the dopant was done through SEM/EDX. The single phase and polytypic nature of NSs were established by XRD and FT-Raman examinations. Homogeneous doping of Mn and Zn in prepared PbI2 NSs was confirmed by SEM mapping analysis. The dielectric and electrical properties were measured by preparing a compact pellet of NSs at 49820 Pa pressure. The dielectric constant and electrical conductivity were enhanced by Zn:Mn co-doping in PbI2. The radiation activity was tested by cesium-137 (137Cs) radioactive source and its increase resulting from the doping was observed. The enhanced properties suggest that the prepared NSs may be useful in electro-optic and radiation detection device applications.
EN
Single crystals of L-asparagine doped ammonium tetroxalate dihydrate were grown using slow evaporation solution growth technique with deionized water as a solvent. The shift and intensity of the peaks in the single crystal X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared analyses confirmed the inclusion of L-asparagine in the ammonium tetroxalate dihydrate crystal structure. The optical transmission characteristics viz. optical band gap, optical conductivity, etc., were determined. Thermal studies revealed the occurrence of anomalies at 135.3 °C and 221.7 °C leading to the possibility of phase transitions and thereby, ferroelectric behavior. Vickers microhardness studies enabled determination of various microhardness parameters. Dielectric behavior was analyzed by varying the temperature and frequency. Anomalies were observed at 135 °C and 221 °C suggesting the existence of ferroelectric nature of the compound. Self-defocusing effect was observed. The polarization-electric field hysteresis loops showed a pinched effect due to defects induced by inclusion of dopant. The crystals were characterized by single crystal XRD, FT-IR, DRS, UV-Vis-NIR, Vickers microhardness test as well as thermal and dielectric techniques. In brief, L-asparagine as a dopant in ammonium tetroxalate dihydrate altered various physical properties of the crystals. They were highly transparent in the visible region with a wider optical band gap, softer material than the parent, higher phase transition temperature of 135 °C, negative nonlinearity and self-defocusing ability.
EN
In this paper, a single-layer coated composite was prepared using PU2540 polyurethane as the matrix, nickel powder as the wave-absorbing functional particle, and coating technology on plain cotton fabric. The influence of the content of nickel powder on the dielectric properties (the real and imaginary parts and the loss tangent value), the shielding effectiveness and the mechanical properties was studied adopting the method of controlling variables. The result showed that when the content of nickel powder was 0~20% and that of nickel powder relative to that of polyurethane was 20%, the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant of the coating were the largest, and its polarising and loss ability with respect to electromagnetic waves were the strongest; when the content of nickel powder relative to that of polyurethane was 15%, the loss tangent value of the coating was the largest, and its absorption and attenuation ability with respect to electromagnetic waves was the strongest. When the values of the coating thickness were at 0.5~2 mm, the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant of the coating with a thickness of 1 mm were the largest, and the polarising and loss ability with respect to electromagnetic waves were the strongest. When the loss tangent value and the shielding-attenuation value of the coating with a thickness of 2 mm were the largest, the absorbing-attenuation and shielding-attenuation ability with respect to electromagnetic waves were the strongest.
PL
W pracy wykonano jednowarstwowy kompozyt powlekany z poliuretanu PU2540 jako matrycy i proszku niklowego jako cząstki funkcjonalnej pochłaniającej fale. Przyjmując metodę regulacji zmiennych zbadano wpływ zawartości proszku niklowego na właściwości dielektryczne (części rzeczywiste i urojone oraz wartość stycznej strat) i skuteczność ekranowania oraz właściwości mechaniczne. Wyniki pokazały, że w przypadku zawartości proszku niklu w stosunku do zawartości poliuretanu wynoszącej 20%, rzeczywiste i urojone części stałej dielektrycznej powłoki były największe, a jej polaryzacja w odniesieniu do fal elektromagnetycznych była najsilniejsza. Gdy zawartość proszku niklu w stosunku do poliuretanu wynosiła 15%, wartość stycznej straty powłoki była największa, a jej zdolność pochłaniania i tłumienia fal elektromagnetycznych była największa. Gdy wartości grubości powłoki wynosiły 0,5~2 mm, rzeczywiste i urojone części stałej dielektrycznej powłoki o grubości 1 mm były największe, a polaryzacja w odniesieniu do fal elektromagnetycznych była najsilniejsza. Gdy wartość styczna strat i wartość tłumienia ekranowania powłoki o grubości 2 mm były największe, to zdolność tłumienia absorpcji i tłumienia ekranowania fal elektromagnetycznych była najsilniejsza.
EN
In this subject, a single-layer coated composite for nickel powders was prepared using PU2540 polyurethane as the matrix, nickel powder as the wave-absorbing functional particle, and coating technology on plain cotton fabric. The influence of wave-absorbing functional particles on the dielectric, shielding effectiveness and mechanical properties of the single-layer coated composite for nickel powders was mainly analysed and compared. Results showed that the real and imaginary parts and loss tangent of the dielectric constant were all the largest when the iron powder was mixed with the nickel powder, and its polarizing ability, loss ability and attenuation ability with respect to electromagnetic waves were all the maximum. When the graphene was mixed with the nickel powder, the shielding attenuation ability with respect to electromagnetic waves was the best.
PL
W ramach pracy przygotowano jednowarstwowy kompozyt powlekany żywicą poliuretanową zawierającą proszek niklu. Do przygotowania kompozytów użyto poliuretanu PU2540 jako matrycy i proszku niklu jako absorbującej fale cząstki funkcjonalnej oraz zastosowano technologię powlekania na gładkiej tkaninie bawełnianej. Przeanalizowano i porównano głównie wpływ absorbujących fale funkcjonalnych cząstek na dielektryk, skuteczność ekranowania i właściwości mechaniczne jednowarstwowego powlekanego kompozytu. Wyniki pokazały, że rzeczywiste i urojone części oraz styczna strat stałej dielektrycznej były największe, gdy proszek żelaza został zmieszany z proszkiem niklu, a jego zdolność polaryzacyjna, zdolność do strat i zdolność tłumienia fal elektromagnetycznych były maksymalne. Gdy grafen został zmieszany z proszkiem niklu, zdolność tłumienia ekranowania fal elektromagnetycznych była najlepsza.
EN
In the present study, the lead-free BaTi1-x Zrx O3 (for x = 0, 0.05 and 0.15) ceramics were prepared by High-Energy Ball Milling and heat treatments. The performed X-ray, SEM and EDS measurements confirmed high purity, good quality and the expected quantitative composition of the obtained samples. The study of dielectric properties was performed by means of broadband dielectric spectroscopy at the frequency ranging from 0.1 Hz to 10 MHz. The obtained measurement data, analyzed in accordance with the Arrhenius formalism demonstrated the presence of relaxation type dielectric mechanisms. The impedance answer of studied ceramic materials indicated the presence of two relaxation processes: one with a dominant resistive component and the other with a small capacitive component. The observed dielectric relaxation process is temperature dependent and has a “non-Debye” character.
EN
This paper presents the results of obtaining and investigations of Pb1-xBax(Zr1-yTiy)1-zSnzO33(PBZTS) ceramics with constant x = 0.03 and y = 0.02, and variable z = 0, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 (abbreviations of the samples were following PBZTS0, PBZTS4, PBZTS6, PBZTS8, respectively). The investigated compositions are close to rhombohedral-orthorhombic morphotropic phase boundary. The ceramic samples have been obtained by conventional ceramic technology from simple oxides PbO, ZrO2, TiO2, SnO2 and barium carbonate BaCO3. The ceramic powders, after calcination, have been pressed into discs and sintered using free sintering (FS) method. For samples obtained in such a way, the dielectric properties at various frequencies and electrical conductivity have been investigated. The increase of Sn content orders the microstructure of ceramics, and as a result the improvement of the dielectric properties of ceramic samples can be obtained.
EN
Multiferroic six-layer Aurivillius type Bi7Fe3Ti3O21 ceramics was obtained by conventional mixed oxides method. The final sintering process was taken in several different sintering times, which determined changes in properties of discussed ceramic material. The structure and dielectric properties of the material are reported. In order to examine the technological conditions on the crystal structure, XRD analysis was carried out. The microstructure, as well as the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the chemical composition were investigated by scanning electron microscope with an energy dispersion spectrometer. The main purpose of the paper is to present the effect of sintering time on the microstructure, crystallographic structure and dielectric properties of Bi7Fe3Ti3O21 ceramics.
EN
Polycrystalline samples BaTiO3 and the solid solutions Ba0.9 Sr0.1 TiO3, 0.9 Sr0.1 Ti0.9 Sn0.1 O3, Ba0.9 Sr0.1 Ti0.8 Sn0.2 O3 were obtained by means of a mechanochemical treatment based on the high-energy ball milling technique and next a high temperature solid state reaction method. The influence of synthesis condition on microstructural, dielectric and ferroelectric properties of obtained solid solutions were investigated. The structure and morphology of the investigated samples were characterized by an X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The characterization of electrical properties of the ceramics within the temperature range from –130°C to 250°C were performed by means of a dielectric spectroscopy method at the frequency ranging from 0.1 Hz to10 MHz. The diffusion of the paraelectric – ferroelectric phase transition and dielectric relaxation for ceramic samples are described.
EN
New layer-structured lead-free piezoelectric ceramics Bi7Ti4.5-xW0.5NbxO21 (BTW-BIT-xNb) (0.00 ≤ x ≤ 0.50) with high Curie temperature TC (up to 690 ℃) have great potential for high temperature applications. However, this material system receives far less attention by researchers due to its poor piezoelectric performance. In the present study, the crystal structure, microstructure and electrical properties of samples with different content of Nb were studied detailedly. The structural characterization by XRD patterns Rietveld refinements and Raman scattering analysis shows that Nb5+ substituted for B-site Ti4+ ion located in the pseudo perovskite blocks and enhanced the orthorhombic distortion, leading to the increasing Curie temperature in the range of 692-762 ℃. The substitution of Nb5+ for Ti4+ acts as donor doping, which effectually reduces the amount of oxygen vacancies, and consequently lowers dielectric loss tgδ. The piezoelectric properties of Nb-doped samples were improved with a maximum piezoelectric constant d33 of 14.3 pC/N obtained in BTW-BIT-0.05Nb sample, which is approximately double that of pure BTW-BIT (~7.3 pC/N). Above results reveal that Nb doped BTW-BIT ceramic system overcomes the difficult coordination between piezoelectric performances and Curie temperature, and realizes the common enhancement of piezoelectric performances and Curie temperature, which is of great value for promoting the practical application of high-temperature piezoelectric ceramics
PL
Nowa bezołowiowa ceramika piezoelektryczna o strukturze warstwowej Bi7Ti4,5-xW0,5NbxO21 (BTW-BIT-xNb) (0,00 ≤ x ≤ 0,50) z wysoką temperaturą Curie TC (do 690 ℃) ma ogromny potencjał do zastosowań w wysokich temperaturach. Jednak ten system materiałowy cieszy się znacznie mniejszym zainteresowaniem ze względu na słabą wydajność piezoelektryczną. W niniejszym badaniu szczegółowo zbadano strukturę krystaliczną, mikrostrukturę i właściwości elektryczne próbek o różnej zawartości Nb. Charakterystyka strukturalna za pomocą analizy Rietvelda dyfraktogramów rentgenowskich i analiza rozpraszania Ramana pokazują, że Nb5+ zastąpił jon Ti4+ w miejscu B znajdujący się w blokach pseudoperowskitu i zwiększył zniekształcenie rombowe, prowadząc do wzrostu temperatury Curie w zakresie 692-762 ℃. Zastąpienie Ti4+ przez Nb5+ działa jak domieszkowanie donorowe, co skutecznie zmniejsza ilość wakancji tlenowych, a tym samym obniża straty dielektryczne tanδ. Właściwości piezoelektryczne próbek domieszkowanych Nb zostały poprawione dzięki maksymalnej stałej piezoelektrycznej d33 wynoszącej 14,3 pC/N, uzyskanej w próbce BTW-BIT-0,05Nb, która jest w przybliżeniu dwukrotnie większa niż czystej BTW-BIT (~7,3 pC/N). Powyższe wyniki pokazują, że system ceramiczny BTW-BIT z domieszką Nb przezwycięża trudne koordynowanie wydajności piezoelektrycznej z temperaturą Curie i realizuje równoczesne polepszenie właściwości piezoelektrycznych i temperatury Curie, co ma wielkie znaczenie dla promowania praktycznego zastosowania wysokotemperaturowej ceramiki piezoelektrycznej
EN
An inorganic coordination complex of single crystal containing sodium and aluminum (SA) was grown at room temperature by slow evaporation technique. The crystal was characterized using single crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR, UV-Vis, SHG, SEM, EDX and TG/DTA analyses. The size of the grown crystal was around 17 mm × 15 mm × 5 mm. Both optical and SEM photographs confirmed that the crystal is transparent with smooth surface. The XRD data showed that the crystal belongs to the BCC crystal structure. The crystal shows excellent transparency in the entire region of visible light (cut-off value is 339 cm−1 ). The dielectric constant as well as dielectric loss of the sample was calculated by varying frequencies at different temperatures and the presence of low dielectric loss proved that this crystal can be used for the NLO application.
11
Content available remote Influence of Bi on dielectric properties of GaAs1−xBix alloys
EN
Pure GaAs and GaAs1−xBix alloys with different Bi ratios (1 %, 2.5 %, 3.5 %) fitted with silver contacts were measured with a dielectric spectroscopy device. Dielectric characterization was performed at room temperature in the frequency range of 0.1 Hz to 1 MHz. GaAs exhibits three relaxation regions corresponding to space-charge, dipolar and ionic polarizations in sequence with increasing frequency while GaAs1−xBix samples show only a broad dipolar polarization in the same frequency range. This result proves the filling of the lattice with Bi through making a new bonding reducing the influence of ionic polarization. This finding supports the previous results concerning optical properties of GaAs1−xBix, presented in the literature.
EN
Magnesium-aluminum-bismuth layered double hydroxides (Mg3Al1-xBix; LDHs) were prepared using both coprecipitation and sol-gel methods. For the preparation of Mg/Al/Bi LDH by the co-precipitation method, the appropriate amounts of dissolved starting materials (Al(NO3)3·9H2O, Mg(NO3)2·6H2O and Bi(NO3)3·5H2O) were mixed with a solution of NaHCO3:NaOH. In the sol-gel processing, the precursor Mg–Al–Bi–O gels were synthesized using the same starting materials and ethylene glycol as complexing agent. The mixed-metal oxides obtained by subsequent heating of Mg–Al–Bi–O gels at 650 °C were reconstructed to Mg3Al1-xBix LDHs in water at 80 °C. All the synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dielectric measurements.
EN
Flexible polypyrrole coated fabric composites with good dielectric properties were produced using pyrrole as a monomer by in-situ polymerisation on polyester fabric. Initially, the influence of the pyrrole concentration, temperature and time on the dielectric constant of the real and imaginary parts, the loss tangent, and the surface resistance of the composites were investigated. Subsequently, exterior morphologies was analysed. The results show that the pyrrole concentration, the reaction temperature and time had a significant influence on the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant, the loss tangent, and the surface resistance of the composites. The polypyrrole composites produced show good performance in terms of dielectric properties and electrical conductivity.In the 0-106 Hz frequency range, the values of the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant of the 0.8mol/L group are both at their largest. Moreover, the value of the surface resistance of the 0.8 mol/L group is at its smallest, and the value of the surface resistance of the 0.2 mol/L group is at its largest, which is 12 times the value given by the 0.8mol/L group.Values of the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant, and the loss tangent for the experimental group produced by polymerisation at ambient temperature are at their largest, which is superior to the other groups. The value of the surface resistance for the experimental group produced at ambient temperature is at its smallest and the electrical conductivity is at its strongest; the higher the reaction temperature, the larger the value of the resistance. The various dielectric properties of the 150 min group are better than for the other groups.
PL
W pracy wytworzono kompozyty z elastycznych tkanin powlekanych polipirolem. Oceniono właściwości dielektryczne wytworzonych tkanin. Badano wpływ stężenia pirolu, temperatury i czasu na stałą dielektryczną i odporność powierzchni kompozytów. Następnie przeanalizowano morfologię zewnętrzną. Wyniki pokazały, że stężenie pirolu, temperatura i czas reakcji miały znaczący wpływ na stałą dielektryczną i odporność powierzchni kompozytów. Wytworzone kompozyty wykazywały dobrą wydajność pod względem właściwości dielektrycznych i przewodności elektrycznej. W zakresie częstotliwości 0-106 Hz wartości stałej dielektrycznej dla stężenia polipirolu 0,8 mola/l były największe. Wartość rezystancji powierzchniowej dla stężenia polipirolu 0,8 mol/l była najmniejsza, a wartości rezystancji powierzchniowej dla stężenia polipirolu 0,2 mol/l były największe, co stanowiło 12-krotność wartości podanej dla stężenia polipirolu 0,8 mola/l. Dla próbki wytworzonej przez polimeryzację w temperaturze otoczenia wartości stałej dielektrycznej były największe, natomiast wartość rezystancji powierzchniowej była najmniejsza, a przewodność elektryczna najsilniejsza. Stwierdzono, że im wyższa temperatura reakcji, tym większa wartość oporu. Różne właściwości dielektryczne próbki uzyskanej z czasem reakcji 150 min były lepsze od innych grup.
EN
Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have been synthesized using co-precipitation method. Their microstructure and dielectric properties were studied. The sugar solutions like glucose, fructose and sucrose were used as stabilizers to control the size of the SPIONs. The crystal structure and grain size of the particles were determined by X-ray diffraction. The magnetic studies of the samples were carried out using the vibrating sample magnetometer and their surface morphology was studied by HRTEM, FE-SEM and zeta potential. The dielectric properties of glucose-SPIONs (GF), fructose-SPIONs (FF) and sucrose-SPIONs (SF) were investigated in the frequency range of 10 Hz to 5 MHz at selected temperatures. The FF showed a high dielectric constant of 62 at 1 MHz and the dielectric properties of SPIONs were found to have been significantly improved, especially in the low frequency regime according to the Maxwell-Wagner interfacial polarization. The AC conductivity measurements revealed that the electrical conduction depends on both frequency and temperature. Impedance analysis was carried out using Cole-Cole plot and the conduction mechanism of the studied compounds was explained. R and C values were further calculated using RC-circuit.
EN
PbO-ZnF2-P2O5 glasses doped with different mol% (0.1 to 1.0) of MoO3 have been prepared. Dielectric properties ∊′(ω), tanδ, σAC, of the synthesized samples were calculated from frequency measurements versus temperature. Space charge polarization was used to analyze the temperature and frequency dispersions of dielectric constant ∊′(ω) and dielectric loss tanδ. Quantum mechanical tunneling model was employed to explain the origin of AC conductivity. The AC conductivity exhibited an increasing trend with increasing concentration of MoO3 (up to 0.2 mol%) but the activation energy for conduction decreased. The plots of AC conductivity revealed that the relaxation dynamics depends on MoO3 dopant concentration.
EN
A conducting nanocomposite film of 60 nm nano-SnO2-polyaniline (PANI) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) has been synthesized and analyzed in terms of AC conductivity and dielectric behavior. The conducting polymer nanocomposite of PANI/60 nm (SnO2) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) has been prepared via in situ polymerization technique. The morphology of the nanocomposite film has been studied by SEM. The film has been characterized in terms of DC conductivity. The dielectric behavior and AC conductivity of the nanocomposite film have been investigated in the frequency range of 2 Hz to 90 KHz. The film has high dielectric constant which may be correlated with polarization. It has been observed that both dielectric loss and dielectric constant decrease with an increase in frequency.
EN
Herein, we report a successful development of nano-scale pure and Al and Mn co-doped PbI2 using facile microwave-assisted route. Structural study was done through X-ray diffraction analysis of grain size, dislocation density and lattice strain. The crystallite size was found to vary from 28 nm to 40 nm due to Al:Mn co-doping in PbI2. The presence of various vibrational modes was confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy and red shifting was observed in peak positions compared to the bulk. Surface morphology, examined using a scanning electron microscope, confirmed the formation of single crystal nanosheets of a thickness in the range of 10 nm to 30 nm. The single crystal nanosheets were found to be transformed to large area nanosheets due to the doping. Enhancement in dielectric constant from ~7.5 to 11 was observed with increasing Al doping concentration. Linear attenuation coefficient was calculated and showed the enhancement of blocking gamma rays with increasing doping concentration. Its value was found to increase from 7.5 to 12.8 with the doping. The results suggest that the synthesized nanostructures can be used for detection and absorption of gamma rays emitted by 137Cs and 241Am sources.
18
Content available remote Prediction of Electric Permittivity of Threads in Woven Fabric
EN
In the article, a new method for the estimation of electric permittivity of threads (filaments) was presented. The proposed recursive method is based on the results of computer simulation of 3D model of transmission stripline. This model contains a model of flat fabric having threads, with which electric permittivity should be determined. The described procedure uses the method proposed by Barry to obtain permittivity of flat fabric from the so-called s parameters of the simulated stripline. In the proposed method, the permittivity of the flat fabric obtained from simulation is compared with the measured value of permittivity of real flat fabric in order to estimate the threads’ permittivity. This comparison is needed to obtain the electric permittivity of threads forming this fabric. The article also presents examples of the obtained values of threads’ permittivity and discussion about the accuracy of the method. The presented method will be useful in situations where the knowledge of permittivity of threads is necessary in the conducted research.
EN
This article describes the influence of thermal and dielectric properties of materials to properties of electrical insulating systems in high voltage electrical equipment. The aim of this experiment is to improve the thermal and dielectric properties of electrical insulating (composite) materials using micro fillers of aluminium oxide Al2O3 . Supplement of fillers of aluminium oxide with better thermal conductivity to the electrical insulating systems can be modified to increase their thermal conductivity. Improving the thermal conductivity of electric insulation by addition of micro- or nanofillers and in the same time not adversely affecting the dielectric properties is the objective of the study. Paper is presenting the results measured on prepared samples. Improved thermal conductivity is compared with other dielectric properties as: dissipation factor temperature dependences, resistivity and dielectric spectroscopy. To determine the dielectric insulating properties the following characteristics were measured: tanδ versus temperature from 110°C to 150°C, absorption and resorption currents, volume resistivity. Furthermore, this article describes analysis of moisture and conductivity the material by dielectric spectroscopy.
EN
Lead-free ceramics of Na0.5 K0.5 Nb1-x Sbx O3 (NKNS) and Na0.5 K0.5 Nb1-x Sbx O3 + 0.5 mol%MnO2 (NKNS + 0.5 mol%MnO2) (0 < x < 0.06) ceramics were prepared by a conventional solid-state hot pressing method. The ceramics possess a single-phase perovskite structure with orthorhombic symmetry. Microstructural examination revealed that Mn doping of NKNS leads to improvement of densification. The cubic-tetragonal and tetragonal-orthorhombic phase transitions of NKNS shifted to higher and lower temperature, respectively after introduction of Mn ion. Besides, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties were improved. The results were discussed in term of difference in both ionic size and electronegativity of Nb5+ and Sb5+ and improvement of densification after Mn ion doping.
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