This study focuses on discussing the relationship between the accumulation of peat and its compaction in the overbank zone of the Miocene river system. The examined 2nd Lusatian lignite seam is characteristically interbedded with sandy deposits and these are less compressible than peat. Therefore, in favourable conditions such as those found at Chłapowo Cliff (on the Baltic Sea coast in northern Poland), it is possible to identify the effects of an even or uneven lowering of the mire surface, resulting from diversified compaction of the underlying phytogenic beds. The research problem was applied to two examples located close to each other within the lignite seam. The first case shows the accumulation of fresh peat layers of almost equal thickness, while the second one presents a reduction in the thickness of fresh peat beds over the fossilised channel-fill sandy body. Only the latter example allows us to calculate the peat-to-lignite compaction ratio. The results of the compaction ratio obtained, Cr ≈ 7.37, mean that the youngest, fresh peat layers were compacted at least 7 times, transforming them into lignite beds. However, such a high compaction value, estimated for the top layers of the Miocene mire, cannot be directly taken into account when reconstructing the total thickness of the peat seam prior to covering it with mineral overburden. The published peat-to-lignite compaction ratios, determined using other research methods, for the 2nd Lusatian lignite seam or its stratigraphic equivalents range from 1.7 to 6.0 in most cases, with averages of 2.2 to 4.0. The differences between the data in the literature and the results given in this paper are due to the fact that the process of peat/lignite compaction is ongoing and cumulative.