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EN
In the managed forest of temperate Europe, black cherry (Prunus serotina) is one of the most important invader species. Among the ecological traits enabling its expansion in forest stands, the role of chemical compounds released naturally by this plant into the environment still remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of black cherry leaf litter on the germination and growth of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedlings. Laboratory bioassays with extracts from newly fallen and decomposed leaves showed a phytotoxic effect on root elongation and a slightly weaker negative effect on stem growth of pine shoots. The inhibitory effect increased with the gradient of leaf extract concentration. Furthermore, a significant negative correlation was observed between condensed tannin content in decomposed leaf litter of the black cherry and the pine root growth. The results are discussed in the context of black cherry litter properties which could interfere with natural regeneration of pine forests.
2
EN
This paper presents an innovative method of technology mapping of the circuits in ALM appearing in FPGA devices by Intel. The essence of the idea is based on using triangle tables that are connected with different configurations of blocks. The innovation of the proposed method focuses on the possibility of choosing an appropriate configuration of an ALM block, which is connected with choosing an appropriate decomposition path. The effectiveness of the proposed technique of technology mapping is proved by experiments conducted on combinational and sequential circuits.
EN
The stability of positive linear continuous-time and discrete-time systems is analyzed by the use of the decomposition of the state matrices into symmetrical and antisymmetrical parts. It is shown that: 1) The state Metzler matrix of positive continuous-time linear system is Hurwitz if and only if its symmetrical part is Hurwitz; 2) The state matrix of positive linear discrete-time system is Schur if and only if its symmetrical part is Hurwitz. These results are extended to inverse matrices of the state matrices of the positive linear systems.
EN
The work compares the accuracy of calculations of the reliability parameters of the sewerage network using the Decomposition and Equivalent Replacement (MDE) method, proposed by Yu. A. Yermolin and M.I. Alekseev [3], definitely simpler and less onerous in relation to the graph method. Comparing the results of calculations with both methods, applied to a simple network, one can come to the conclusion that the MDE calculations in simple cases give satisfactory accuracy. However, it would be necessary to check whether, as the complexity increases, this accuracy is still satisfactory.
PL
W pracy porównano dokładność obliczeń parametrów niezawodnościowych sieci kanalizacyjnej metodą dekompozycji i ekwiwalentnej zamiany (MDE), zaproponowaną przez Ju. A. Jermolina i M.I. Alieksjejewa [3], zdecydowanie prostszą i mniej uciążliwą w stosunku do metody grafów. Porównując wyniki obliczeń obiema metodami, zastosowane do prostej sieci, można dojść do wniosku, że obliczenia metodą MDE w prostych przypadkach dają zadowalającą dokładność. Należałoby jednak sprawdzić, czy w miarę wzrostu złożoności, dokładność ta jest nadal zadowalająca.
EN
In this study, the decomposition behavior of Ta and Nb from the mangano-tantalite ore was investigated using HF/H2SO4 mixture and KOH fusion. The effects of reaction time, decomposition temperature, acid and alkaline concentrations, and particle size on the dissolution process were examined. Higher decomposition rates were achieved at 6:2 mol/dm3 ratio of HF and H2SO4, and with the addition of 10 g KOH in the alkali fusion step. In addition, similar trends in decomposition rates between two agents (HF/H2SO4 and KOH) and comparable dissolution performances were observed. The increase in the decomposition temperature initially increased the decomposition rate of mangano-tantalite for the two systems considered in this study. However, no significant change in the leaching rate of Ta and Nb was observed beyond 50 °C for the HF/H2SO4 system and above 400 °C when using the KOH fusion process. The elemental and compositional analyses of the leached residues using XRF, XRD, and FT-IR spectroscopy indicated that the acid (mixture of HF and H2SO4) decomposition resulted in slightly better dissolution performance for Ta compared with the alkaline fusion method. Overall, the results indicated that KOH can be a suitable alternative decomposition agent to the volatile, corrosive and toxic HF in the hydrometallurgical processing of tantalite ores.
EN
The paper presents a concept of reliability estimation of the renewable technical systems consisting of the objects functioning in koon structures. The estimation is performed using computer simulation. Practical dependence between the failure of the entire system and the failures of the objects and elements from which the objects are made are taken into account as the result of the structural decomposition of the system conducted.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono koncepcję szacowania niezawodności odnawialnych układów technicznych składających się z obiektów funkcjonujących w strukturach typu k z n, przy wykorzystaniu symulacji komputerowej. Występujące w praktyce zależności między uszkodzeniem układu a uszkodzeniami obiektów go tworzących i elementów, z których składają się obiekty, uwzględniono poprzez wykonaną dekompozycję strukturalną układu.
EN
The high-density tetranitrate ester 1,4-dinitrato-2,3-dinitro-2,3-bis(nitratomethylene)butane (SMX) was synthesized. The methods of obtaining and isolating the intermediates were optimized. The differences between the syntheses of SMX by a four- and five-step scheme were investigated. Combustion of SMX and its catalysis was studied. The possibility of replacing NG as the main plasticizer in a double-base propellant composition was demonstrated. SMX particles were shown to have pronounced crystal faceting using scanning electron microscopy. The decomposition rate equation was determined. The amount of SMX decomposed under isothermal conditions (90 °C) was 0.8 wt.% after 60 min. Thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that heating SMX results in two different processes – decomposition and evaporation, with SMX evaporating faster than it decomposes.
EN
Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical used in oxidation reactions, treatment of various inorganic and organic pollutants, bleaching processes in pulp, paper and textile industries and for various disinfection applications. It is a monopropellant, which, when purified, is self-decomposing at high temperatures or when a catalyst is present. Decomposing to yield only oxygen and water(disproportionation), hydrogen peroxide is one of the cleanest, most versatile chemicals available. The catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide allows the use of various catalysts that will increase the rate of decomposition. Comparison and description of the most commonly used catalysts were presented in this review.
PL
Bisfenol A to związek chemiczny stosowany do produkcji tworzyw sztucznych. Współcześnie identyfikowany jest on w środowisku wodnym. W pracy podjęto badania dotyczące oceny wpływu warunków środowiska wodnego na rozkład bisfenolu A. Przedmiot badań stanowiły różne roztwory wodne sporządzone na bazie wody zdejonizowanej lub powierzchniowej z dodatkiem wzorca bisfenolu A w stężeniu 1 mg/dm3. Do wybranych roztworów dodawano pożywkę mineralną lub wodę powierzchniową, która to stanowiła źródło zarówno substancji organicznych, jak i nieorganicznych oraz mikroorganizmów. Opcjonalnie wybrane roztwory były przetrzymywane w ciemni lub w świetle słonecznym oraz napowietrzane. Roztwory po biodegradacji poddano również ocenie toksykologicznej z użyciem testu enzymatycznego z bakteriami bioluminescencyjnymi Aliivibrio fischeri, testu przeżywalności ze skorupiakami Daphnia magna oraz testu wzrostowego z rośliną wodną Lemna minor. Określono, że rozkład bisfenolu A w środowisku wodnym jest niewielki i zachodzi głównie pod wpływem światła słonecznego przy udziale mikroorganizmów. Istotna jest również obecność w środowisku wodnym soli mineralnych. Natomiast dokonana ocena toksykologiczna roztworów podczas badań biodegradacyjnych wykazała, że charakteryzują się one różną toksycznością. Klasa toksyczności roztworu zależała także od rodzaju użytego organizmu wskaźnikowego, co świadczy o ich różnej wrażliwości na działanie bisfenolu A. Wysoką toksyczność odnotowano w przypadku bakterii bioluminescencyjnymi Aliivibrio fischeri po 14 dobach trwania badań biodegradacyjnych.
EN
Bisphenol A is a compound used to produce plastics. Today, it is identified in the aquatic environment. As part of the work there are performed studies to determine the effect of the aquatic environment conditions on the decomposition of bisphenol A. As the subject of research there were used different aqueous solutions prepared on the basis of deionized or surface water with addition of a bisphenol A standard at concentration of 1 mg/dm3. To the selected solutions it was added the mineral medium or surface water, which was the source of both organic materials and inorganic compounds and microorganisms. Optionally, the selected solutions had been kept in the dark or in the light of sun, and they had been aerated. Solutions after biodegradation were also subjected of the toxicological evaluation with application of the enzymatic test using bioluminescent bacteria Aliivibrio fischeri, survival test using shellfish Daphnia magna and the growth test of aquatic plant Lemna minor. It was determined that the decomposition of bisphenol A in an aquatic environment is low and it is mainly under the influence of sunlight, with the participation of microorganisms. The presence of mineral salts in aquatic environment is also important. on the other hand, the toxicological assessment of solutions, which was made during testing biodegradation, showed that they have a different toxicity. Toxicity class of the solution also depended on the type of applied indicator, which proves their differences in sensitivity to bisphenol A. High toxicity was noted in the case of bioluminescent bacteria Aliivibrio fischeri after 14 days of the biodegradation study.
EN
Climate change is a significant threat to sustainable development (SD). Using the Log-Mean Divisia Index Method (LMDI) a decomposition of the data on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the European Union (EU) in 2000 -2013 is carried out. To detect if decoupling of the environmental variable represented by the GHG emissions from the economic variable represented by the GDP was taking place in the EU economy, the changes of the GHG emissions were divided into three effects. These factors include the economic activity (scale), the composition or structure of the EU economy with respect to the countries, and GHG intensity of the countries. The aim of the paper is to detect if decoupling of the GHG emissions from the GDP development in the EU took place and to detect the factors of this development. The intensity effect was mainly responsible for the reduction of the GHG emissions in the EU while the scale effect contributed to their increase. The role of the composition effect was only marginal; however, it was positive. As the intensity effect often showed the high negative values, the total effect was often negative as well, which means that decoupling of GHG emissions from GDP took place.
PL
Zmiany klimatyczne stanowią istotne zagrożenie dla zrównoważonego rozwoju (ZR). Przy pomocy metody LMDI przeprowadzono analizę rozkładu emisji gazów cieplarnianych w krajach Unii Europejskiej (UE) w okresie lat 2010-2013. Aby sprawdzić, czy decoupling zmiennej środowiskowej reprezentowanej przez emisję gazów cieplarnianych od zmiennej ekonomicznej reprezentowanej przez PKB w kontekście zmian emisji gazów cieplarnianych zachodzi we Wspólnocie, uwzględniono następujące efekty: aktywność ekonomiczną (skalę), skład i strukturę europejskiej ekonomii z uwzględnieniem różnic charakterystycznych dla poszczególnych krajów i poziomu ich emisji gazów cieplarnianych. Celem artykułu jest potwierdzenie, czy decoupling emisji gazów cieplarnianych od wzrostu PKB faktycznie zachodzi i jakie czynniki na niego wpływają. Efekt intensywności okazał się być odpowiedzialny głównie za zmniejszenie emisji gazów cieplarnianych w Europie, podczas gdy efekt skali przyczyniał się do wzrostu tej emisji. Efekt struktury odgrywał rolę marginalną, choć pozytywną. Efekt intensywności zwykle charakteryzował się wysokimi wartościami ujemnymi, to samo odnosiło się do efektu całkowitego, co oznacza, że decoupling emisji gazów cieplarnianych od PKB faktycznie zachodzi.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono główne cechy systemów kanalizacyjnych, jako obiektów złożonych (o strukturze typu "drzewo") i pracujących w zmiennych, trudnych często do przewidzenia, warunkach. Do oceny wielkości zrzutu nieoczyszczonych ścieków w wyniku uszkodzenia sieci przeanalizowano zastosowanie metody równań stanów oraz metody dekompozycji i ekwiwalentowania.
EN
The article points out main features of the sewage systems, which are complex objects (possessing "tree" structure) working in changing, often hard to predict, environment. In order to estimate the quantity of untreated sewers' drop, which resulted from failures of the sewage system, author has analysed the usage of state-space model as well as decomposition and equivalent model.
EN
Bisphenol A is a compound used to produce plastics. Today, it is identified in the aquatic environment. As part of the work there are performed studies to determine the effect of the aquatic environment conditions on the decomposition of bisphenol A. As the subject of research there were used different aqueous solutions prepared on the basis of deionized or surface water with addition of a bisphenol A standard at concentration of 1 mg/dm3. To the selected solutions it was added the mineral medium or surface water, which was the source of both organic materials and inorganic compounds and microorganisms. Optionally, the selected solutions had been kept in the dark or in the light of sun, and they had been aerated. Solutions after biodegradation were also subjected of the toxicological evaluation with application of the enzymatic test using bioluminescent bacteria Aliivibrio fischeri, survival test using shellfish Daphnia magna and the growth test of aquatic plant Lemna minor. It was determined that the decomposition of bisphenol A in an aquatic environment is low and it is mainly under the influence of sunlight, with the participation of microorganisms. The presence of mineral salts in aquatic environment is also important. on the other hand, the toxicological assessment of solutions, which was made during testing biodegradation, showed that they have a different toxicity. Toxicity class of the solution also depended on the type of applied indicator, which proves their differences in sensitivity to bisphenol A. High toxicity was noted in the case of bioluminescent bacteria Aliivibrio fischeri after 14 days of the biodegradation study.
PL
Bisfenol A to związek chemiczny stosowany do produkcji tworzyw sztucznych. Współcześnie identyfikowany jest on w środowisku wodnym. W ramach pracy podjęto badania dotyczące oceny wpływu warunków środowiska wodnego na rozkład bisfenolu A. Przedmiot badań stanowiły różne roztwory wodne sporządzone na bazie wody zdejonizowanej lub powierzchniowej z dodatkiem wzorca bisfenolu A w stężeniu 1 mg/dm3. Do wybranych roztworów dodawano pożywkę mineralną lub wodę powierzchniową, która to stanowi ła źródło zarówno substancji organicznych, jak i nieorganicznych oraz mikroorganizmów. Opcjonalnie wybrane roztwory były przetrzymywane w ciemni lub w świetle słonecznym oraz napowietrzane. Roztwory po biodegradacji poddano również ocenie toksykologicznej z użyciem testu enzymatycznego z bakteriami bioluminescencyjnymi Aliivibrio fischeri, testu przeżywalności ze skorupiakami Daphnia magna oraz testu wzrostowego z rośliną wodną Lemna minor. Określono, że rozkład bisfenolu A w środowisku wodnym jest niewielki i zachodzi głównie pod wpływem światła słonecznego przy udziale mikroorganizmów. Istotna jest również obecność w środowisku wodnym soli mineralnych. Natomiast dokonana ocena toksykologiczna roztworów podczas badań biodegradacyjnych wykazała, że charakteryzują się one różną toksycznością. Klasa toksyczności roztworu zależała także od rodzaju użytego organizmu wskaźnikowego, co dowodzi o ich różnej wrażliwości na działanie bisfenolu A. Wysoką toksyczność odnotowano w przypadku bakterii bioluminescencyjnymi Aliivibrio fischeri po 14 dobach trwania badań biodegradacyjnych.
EN
The main goal of the paper is to present a logic synthesis strategy dedicated to an LUT-based FPGA. New elements of the proposed synthesis strategy include: an original method of function decomposition, non-disjoint decomposition, and technology mapping dedicated to configurability of logic blocks. The aim of all of the proposed synthesis approaches is the sharing of appropriately configured logic blocks. Innovation of the methods is based on the way of searching decomposition, which relies on multiple cutting of an MTBDD diagram describing a multi-output function. The essence of the proposed algorithms rests on the method of unicoding dedicated to sharing resources, searching non-disjoint decomposition on the basis of the partition of root tables, and choosing the levels of diagram cutting that will guarantee the best mapping to complex logic blocks. The methods mentioned above were implemented in the MultiDec tool. The efficiency of the analyzed methods was experimentally confirmed by comparing the synthesis results with both academic and commercial tools.
EN
Reefs represent a special type of carbonate trap that plays a key role in the migration, accumulation, and formation of a reservoir. They have commonly been the targets of exploration and development. However, reefs have complex interior structures and easily grow as thin, interbedded geological frames with reef microfacies that include the cap, core, and base of the reef. Because of the inherent drawbacks of seismic signals, including their low frequencies and narrow bandwidths, it is difficult to accurately identify reef reservoirs. Fortunately, the seismic frequency, phase, energy, waveform and other dynamic and geometrical properties can be used to compensate for the energy, expand the frequency bandwidth, and decompose and reconstruct the wavelet to obtain high-resolution seismic data. These data can highlight certain seismic responses of reefs, including boundary reflections, dome-shaped reflections from the reef outline, strong reflections from the reef cap, reflections from the reef bottom, and onlap reflections from the reef flanks. Some impedance response regularities, such as the lower impedance of the reef cap relative to the reef core and biodetritus beach and the fluctuating impedance of the reef-flat complex, are observed by combining log data with geological and high-resolution seismic data for a reef reservoir inversion. These methods were applied to the Changxing Formation in the Yuanba Gas Field. Good prediction results were obtained with a high consistency between the log and seismic data in a comparative analysis with the original seismic data and well logs.
EN
Dissolved gas-in-oil analysis (DGA) is a sensitive and dependable technique for the detection of incipient fault condition within oil-immersed transformers. When the mineral oil is subjected to high thermal or/and electrical stresses, it decomposes and, as a result, gases are generated. This paper presents modification of Duval triangle DGA diagnostic graph to numerical method that is easy to use for diagnosing and a Matlab program. To study such as the following evaluation. This evaluation is carried out on DGA data obtained from three different groups of transformers each group are two identical transformers. A Matlab program was developed to automate the evaluation of Duval Triangle graph to numerical modification, Also the fault gases can be generated due to oil decomposing effected by transformer over excitation which increasing the transformer exciting current lead to rising the temperature inside transformer core beside the other causes.
EN
The paper presents two options of the parallel algorithm for finding the shortest covering of a large Boolean matrix, where the decomposition of the initial matrix into matrices of smaller sizes is based on the partitioning of rows. The parallel algorithm COVMB contains sequential algorithms for partitioning of initial m × n Boolean matrix on submatrices, building special matrices, summering of the shortest coverings of special Boolean matrices with smaller sizes as well as the sequential algorithm SECNOP for finding the shortest coverings of smaller Boolean matrices.
17
Content available remote Decomposition of information technologies in the system of food products safety
EN
Implementation and application of food products safety management according to the principles of HACCP (Hazard analysis and critical control points) is a set of interrelated operations in time and space that can be optimized and efficiently solved by means of information tools using. To create a close information connection between the process participants, quality of technological processes and measuring of safety parametres in food production it is necessary to use information technologies on processing and storage of information, works automatization, using modern means of communication and integration of advanced technologies directly to the conditions of safety management system of the enterprise. Taking into consideration the tasks of information technologies in the central system of food products safety functional decomposition of information ties was conducted. For an objective understanding of the information technologies functioning process in the food products safety system of the enterprises decomposition of information technologies was conducted according to functional feature, including the allocation of basic parts that implement system of functions in the safety management of food products.
PL
Wdrożenie i stosowanie systemów zarządzania bezpieczeństwem żywności na zasadach HACCP jest zbiorem operacji powiązanych ze sobą w czasie i przestrzeni, które można zoptymalizować i skutecznie rozwiązać za pomocą narzędzi informacyjnych. Aby stworzyć ścisły związek informacyjny pomiędzy stronami procesu, jakością parametrów bezpieczeństwa w produkcji żywności, niezbędne jest zastosowanie technologii informacyjnych w zakresie przetwarzania i przechowywania informacji, automatyzacji prac, użycie nowoczesnych środków komunikacji i integracji technologii bezpośrednio na warunkach określonych w systemie zarządzania bezpieczeństwem firmy. Ze względu na problemy dotyczące funkcjonowania technologii informacyjnych w centralnym systemie bezpieczeństwa żywności przeprowadzono ich dekompozycję, uwzględniając podział na podstawowe części, które realizują funkcje systemowe w zakresie zarządzania bezpieczeństwem żywności.
18
Content available SMTBDD : New Form of BDD for Logic Synthesis
EN
The main purpose of the paper is to suggest a new form of BDD - SMTBDD diagram, methods of obtaining, and its basic features. The idea of using SMTBDD diagram in the process of logic synthesis dedicated to FPGA structures is presented. The creation of SMTBDD diagrams is the result of cutting BDD diagram which is the effect of multiple decomposition. The essence of a proposed decomposition method rests on the way of determining the number of necessary ‘g’ bounded functions on the basis of the content of a root table connected with an appropriate SMTBDD diagram. The article presents the methods of searching non-disjoint decomposition using SMTBDD diagrams. Besides, it analyzes the techniques of choosing cutting levels as far as effective technology mapping is concerned. The paper also discusses the results of the experiments which confirm the efficiency of the analyzed decomposition methods.
EN
Decomposition is the best method to analyze complicated systems. The whole system is divided into a set of smaller parts, i.e. subsystems. These items are connected to each other by input and output interfaces. Every subsystem could be analyzed using separate algorithms and procedures that are more suitable for solving the local task. In the article, a complicated electrical system is decomposed and the interaction decoupling mode is used to coordinate the local task solution. Each of the first–level subsystems, such as an optimization problem, is defined completely independently from the other problems. The subsystems are instructed to select the local input as well as the local interface output in an optimal fashion. The local task's solution depends not only on the internal subsystems’ parameters, but on the value of interfaces too. To achieve the global task solution, local tasks have to be coordinated using an appropriate coordination principle.
EN
The problem of decomposition of a teaching sequence (TS) for distributed database is formulated. Three types of TS decomposition for a distributed database are formulated. Theorems concerning memory occupancy by the TS after decomposition are proved. The results of a calculation experiment are presented, that illustrate the memory occupancy depending upon the decomposition type, the redundancy of features in the tree and upon the type of the dispersion.
PL
Sformułowano problem dekompozycji ciągu uczącego (CU) dla rozproszonej bazy danych. Zdefiniowano trzy rodzaje dekompozycji. Przedstawiono twierdzenia dotyczące zajętości pamięci przez zdekomponowany ciąg uczący. Zaprezentowano wyniki badań symulacyjnych ilustrujących zajętość pamięci w zależności od typu rozproszenia i rodzaju dekompozycji.
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