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PL
W artykule omówiono zastosowaną w praktyce metodologię dynamicznego wyznaczania przegrzania stali oraz jej wpływ na zwiększenie precyzji sterowania procesem ciągłego odlewania stali na maszynie COS. Przeprowadzono również analizę porównawczą metody alternatywnej kontrolnego pomiaru temperatury stali w kadzi pośredniej z wykorzystaniem przykładowych opomiarowanych sekwencji. Wskazano na potencjalne zagrożenia wynikające z bazowania podczas sekwencji ciągłego odlewania na pomiarze kontrolnym w porównaniu do pomiaru ciągłego oraz różnice występujące pomiędzy temperaturą likwidusu liczoną wg różnych modeli matematycznych i mierzoną czujnikiem zanurzeniowym.
EN
This article briefly reviews dynamic superheat of steel determination in practice and presents the outcomes for more accurate continuous casting process control. The competitive methods have been evaluated using casting sequences with both continuous and dip steel temperature measurement. The potential threats of operating a caster based on dip temperature only in comparison with continuous measurement have been indicated along with the differences in liquidus temperatures determined by various mathematical models and the physically measured value.
EN
As in many thermal processing technologies, there is a delicate balance between productivity and quality during ingot cooling process. Higher cooling velocities increase productivity but also create higher temperature gradients inside the ingot. Such a fast cooling does not leave sufficient time to establish the equilibrium within the solid, thus the final metal structure is strongly affected by the set up cooling mode throughout the liquid metal solidification. The first intention in this paper is to compare between three cooling modes in order to identify the required mode for a continuous casting process. Then, we study the influence of heat transfer coefficient on metal liquid-to-solid transition through the spray-cooled zone temperature and the metal latent heat of solidification. A gray iron continuous casting process subjected to water-sprays cooling was simulated using the commercial software for modeling and simulating multiphysics and engineering problems. The primary conclusions, from the obtained results, show the forcefulness of water spray cooling regarding standard cooling. Afterward, we highlight the great influence of heat transfer coefficient on the location of transition region as well as the relationship between heat transfer coefficient, wall outer temperature, latent heat dissipation, and the solidification time.
EN
The mold temperature of the downward continuous unidirectional solidification (CUS) cannot be controlled higher than the liquidus of alloys to be cast. Therefore, the continuous casting speed becomes the main parameter for controlling the growth of columnar crystal structure of the alloy. In this paper, the tin bronze alloy was prepared by the downward CUS process. The microstructure evolution of the CUS tin bronze alloy at different continuous casting speeds was analysed. In order to further explain the columnar crystal evolution, a relation between the growth rate of columnar crystal and the continuous casting speed during the CUS process was built. The results show that the CUS tin bronze alloy mainly consists of columnar crystals and equiaxed crystals when the casting speed is low. As the continuous casting speed increases, the equiaxed crystals begin to disappear. The diameter of the columnar crystal increases with the continuous casting speed increasing and the number of columnar crystal decreases. The growth rate of columnar crystal increases with increasing of the continuous casting speed during CUS tin bronze alloy process.
EN
Consecutive casting of bimetallic applies consecutive sequences of pouring of two materials into a sand mold. The outer ring is made of NiHard1, whereas the inner ring is made of nodular cast iron. To enable a consecutive sequence of pouring, an interface plate made of low carbon steel was inserted into the mold and separated the two cavities. After pouring the inner material at the predetermined temperature and the interface had reached the desired temperature, the NiHard1 liquid was then poured immediately into the mold. This study determines the pouring temperature of nodular cast iron and the temperature of the interface plate at which the pouring of white cast iron into the mold should be done. Flushing the interface plate for 2 seconds by flowing nodular cast iron liquid as inner material generated a diffusion bonding between the inner ring and interface plate at pouring temperatures of 1350°C, 1380°C, and 1410°C. The interface was heated up to a maximum temperature of 1242°C, 1260°C, and 1280°C respectively. The subsequent pouring of white cast iron into the mold to form the outer ring at the interface temperature of 1000°C did not produce a sufficient diffusion bonding. Pouring the outer ring at the temperature of 1430°C and at the interface plate temperature of 1125°C produced a sufficient diffusion bonding. The presence of Fe3O2 oxide on the outer surface of the interface material immediately after the interface was heated above 900⁰C has been identified. Good metallurgical bonding was achieved by pouring the inner ring at the temperature of 1380°C, interface temperature of 1125°C and then followed by pouring of the outer ring at 1430⁰C and flushing time of 7 seconds.
PL
Z uwagi na wysokie własności użytkowe, a przede wszystkim wysoką podatność na obróbkę skrawaniem, elementy wykonane ze stopu aluminium serii 2XXX znajdują szerokie zastosowanie w wielu gałęziach współczesnego przemysłu. Tradycyjna technologia ich wytwarzania bazuje na procesie odlewania wielkogabarytowych wlewków oraz następującego po nim procesie wyciskania. W artykule zaprezentowano wyniki badań nad alternatywną metodą ich wytwarzania, a więc procesem ciągłego odlewania profili okrągłych o średnicy 40 mm. W dalszej części przedstawiono analizę ich własności mechanicznych, elektrycznych oraz składu chemicznego przeprowadzonych dla odlewów w gat. EN AW-2007.
EN
Elements manufactured from aluminum alloys series 2XXX are widely used in many branches of modern industry due to their high functional properties and high susceptibility to machining. Traditionally the production of such elements is based on the casting process of large-sized ingots and their subsequent extrusion process. This article presents the research results of the alternative method of their manufacturing which is the process of continuous casting of round profiles with a diameter of 40mm. The article includes the analysis of mechanical, electrical and chemical properties of the EN AW-2007 alloy castings.
EN
The presented results of investigations are part of a larger study focused on the optimization of the flow and mixing of liquid steel in the industrial tundish of continuous casting machine. The numerical simulations were carried out concern the analysis of hydrodynamic conditions of liquid steel flow in a tundish operating in one of the national steelworks. Numerical simulations were performed using the commercial code ANSYS Fluent. The research concerns two different speeds of steel casting. In real conditions, these speeds are the most commonly used in the technological process when casting two different groups of steel. As a result of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations, predicted spatial distributions of velocity and liquid steel turbulence fields and residence time distribution (RTD) curves were obtained. The volume fractions of different flows occurring in the tundish were also calculated. The results of the research allowed a detailed analysis of the influence of casting speed on the formation of hydrodynamic conditions prevailing in the reactor.
EN
There has been a growing interest in the peritectic due to increasing productivity, quality, and alloy development. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has traditionally been used to study steel solidification but suffers significant limitations when measuring the solidus and peritectic. This work covers a new thermal analysis system that can characterize the peritectic reaction. Heats of AISI/SAE 1030 and 4130 steel were poured to provide some benchmarking of this new technique. The peritectic was detected and the reaction temperature measured. Measurements agree reasonably well with reference information. A review of the literature and thermodynamic calculations did find some disagreement on the exact temperatures for the peritectic and solidus. Some of this difference appears to be related to the experimental techniques employed. It was determined that the system developed accurately indicates these reaction temperatures. The system provides a unique method for examining steel solidification that can be employed on the melt deck.
EN
The paper consists the problem of developing a scientific toolkit allowing to predict the thermal state of the ingot during its formation in all elements of the casting and rolling complex, between the crystallizer of the continuous casting machine and exit from the furnace. As the toolkit for the decision making task the predictive mathematical model of the ingot temperature field is proposed. Displacement between the various elements of the CRC is accounted for by changing the boundary conditions. Mass-average enthalpy is proposed as a characteristic of ingot cross-section temperature state. The next methods of solving a number of important problems with the use of medium mass enthalpy are developed: determination of the necessary heat capacity of ingots after the continuous casting machine for direct rolling without heating; determination of the rational time of alignment of the temperature field of ingots having sufficient heat capacity for rolling after casting; determination of the total amount of heat (heat capacity) required to supply the metal for heating ingots that have insufficient amount of internal heat.
EN
In this paper results of microstructural observations for series of CuZn39Pb2 alloys produced from qualified scraps are presented. The individual alloy melts were differentiated in terms of thermal parameters of continuous casting as well as refining methods and modifications. Structural observations performed by SEM and TEM revealed formation of different types of intermetallic phases including “hard particles”. EDS results show that “hard particles” are enrich in silicon, phosphorus, iron, chromium and nickel elements. Additionally, formation of Al-Fe-Si and Al-Cr in alloy melts was observed as well. It was found that quantity and morphology of intermetallic phases strongly depends upon the chemical composition of raw materials, process parameters, modifiers and refining procedure applied during casting. It was observed that refining process results in very effective refinement of intermetallic phases, whereas modifiers, particularly carbon-based, results in formation of large particles in the microstructure.
PL
Odlewanie ciągłe jest dominującą technologią produkcji półwyrobów hutniczych. Zwiększenie wydajności przy zachowaniu odpowiedniej jakości i ekonomiczności procesu jest głównym celem optymalizacji procesów odlewania ciągłego we wszystkich jego odmianach. MAGMA CC, samodzielne oprogramowanie symulacyjne firmy MAGMA, umożliwia realizację tego celu poprzez wykorzystanie wirtualnych eksperymentów oraz automatycznej optymalizacji.
EN
Continuous casting is the preferred process for manufacturing semi-finished products. Increasing productivity without decreasing quality and efficiency is the main objective for all continuous casting processes. MAGMA CC, stand-alone simulation software from MAGMA, enables fulfilling this objective using Design of Experiments and autonomous optimization.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono analizę procesu ciągłego odlewania półwyrobów z brązu cynowo-cynkowo-ołowiowego przeznaczonego na obrabiane mechanicznie elementy armatury. Przedstawiono wyniki badań zmierzające do określenia przyczyn powstawania wad podczas procesu ciągłego odlewania. W tym celu wykonano analizę procesu ciągłego odlewania, rodzaju, postaci stosowanych materiałów wsadowych i pomocniczych oraz powstających wad. Na podstawie otrzymanych wyników badań, w celu udoskonalenia procesu, przedstawiono zakres wprowadzonych zmian i ich wpływ na jakość wytwarzanych wyrobów.
EN
The paper presents an analysis of the continuous casting process of semi-finished product made of tin-zinc-lead bronze, designed to mechanically machined elements of fittings. The results of tests to determine the causes of defects during the continuous casting process are presented. For this purpose, an analysis of the continuous casting process, as well as the type, the form of batch and auxiliary materials, and the appeared defects were made. Based on the results of the research, in order to improve the process, the scope of introduced changes and their impact on the quality of manufactured products are presented.
EN
Electromagnetic stirrer generates swirling fluid flow, boosts the mixing of molten steel near the solidification front and enhances the quality of the continuously cast products. In the present investigation, attention is paid towards studying the effect of in-mold electromagnetic stirring on fluid flow and solidification. A three-dimensional coupled mathematical model of solidification and magnetohydrodynamics has been established for billet caster mold. The alternating magnetic field is applied to the solidification model where fluid flow, heat transfer, and electromagnetic equations are solved simultaneously. It has been found that an increase in field frequency decreases the length of stirring and the liquid fraction of the steel at the center of the mold exit. Tangential velocity near the solidification front increases with the magnetic field frequency or flux density, due to which, a break in solidified shell near stirrer position is predicted whose width increases accordingly.
EN
The article presents the results of investigations performed on segregation of elements in the billets. The research were performed under standard industrial conditions, during high carbon steel production cycle. Probes (templates with the thickness of 20 mm) were taken from billets with square cross-section of 160 mm. Segregation of elements was determined based on the quantitative analysis of results performed by using spark spectrometry pursuant to PN-H-04045. Changes in concentrations of elements were analysed along two cross-sections. Element contents were performed at points distanced from each other by approx. 10 mm. The segregation of carbon, sulphur and phosphorus was determined for different billets.
EN
Detailed studies of the movement of liquid steel (hydrodynamics) on a real object are practically impossible. The solution to this problem are physical modelling carried out on water models and numerical modelling using appropriate programs. The method of numerical modelling thanks to the considerable computing power of modern computers gives the possibility of solving very complex problems. The paper presents the results of model tests of liquid flow through tundish. The examined object was model of the twonozzle tundish model. The ANSYS Fluent program was used to describe the behavior of liquid in the working area of the tundish model. Numerical simulations were carried out using two numerical methods of turbulence description: RANS (Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes) – model k-ε and LES (Large Eddy Simulation). The results obtained from CFD calculations were compared with the results obtained using the water model.
EN
The paper evaluates two approaches of numerical modelling of solidification of continuously cast steel billets by finite element method, namely by the numerical modelling under the Steady-State Thermal Conditions, and by the numerical modelling with the Traveling Boundary Conditions. In the paper, the 3D drawing of the geometry, the preparation of computational mesh, the definition of boundary conditions and also the definition of thermo-physical properties of materials in relation to the expected results are discussed. The effect of thermo-physical properties on the computation of central porosity in billet is also mentioned. In conclusion, the advantages and disadvantages of two described approaches are listed and the direction of the next research in the prediction of temperature field in continuously cast billets is also outlined.
EN
Based on the mould temperature measured by thermocouples during slab continuous casting, a difference of temperature thermograph is developed to detect slab cracks. In order to detect abnormal temperature region caused by longitudinal crack, the suspicious regions are extracted and divided by virtue of computer image processing algorithms, such as threshold segmentation, connected region judgement and boundary tracing. The abnormal regions are then determined and labeled with the eight connected component labeling algorithm. The boundary of abnormal region is also extracted to depict characteristics of longitudinal crack. Based on above researches, longitudinal crack with abnormal temperature region can be detected and is different from other abnormalities. Four samples of temperature drop are picked up to compare with longitudinal crack on the abnormal region formation, length, width, shape, et al. The results show that the abnormal region caused by longitudinal crack has a linear and vertical shape. The height of abnormal region is more than the width obviously. The ratio of height to width is usually larger than that of other temperature drop regions. This method provides a visual and easy way to detect longitudinal crack and other abnormities. Meanwhile it has a positive meaning to the intelligent and visual mould monitoring system of continuous casting.
EN
The paper presents the research results of the influence of the precipitation hardening on hardness and microstructure of selected Al-Si and Al-Cu alloys obtained as ϕ30 mm ingots in a horizontal continuous casting process. The ingots were heat treated in process of precipitation hardening i.e. supersaturation with subsequent accelerated or natural ageing. Moreover in the range of the study it has been carried out investigations of chemical constitution, microscopic metallographic with use of scanning electron microscope with EDS analysis system, and hardness measurements using the Brinell method. On basis of obtained results it has been concluded that the chemical constitution of the investigated alloys enables to classify them into Al alloys for the plastic deformation as EN AW-AlSi2Mn (alternatively cast alloy EN AC-AlSi2MgTi) and as EN AW-AlCu4MgSi (alternatively cast alloy EN AC-AlCu4MgTi) grades. Moreover in result of applied precipitation hardening has resulted in the precipitation from a supersaturated solid solution of dispersive particles of secondary phases rich in alloying element i.e. Si and Cu respectively. In consequence it has been obtained increase in hardness in case of AlSi2Mn alloy by approximately 30% and in case of AlCu4MgSi alloy by approximately 20% in comparison to the as-cast state of continuous ingots.
EN
The article presents results of research on the influence of variable parameters of horizontal continuous casting on the structure of AlCu4MgSi (EN AW-2017A) alloy ingots. The special character of the process allows for a continuous change of some of its parameters, namely, of the casting speed and of the rate of the cooling fluid flow thorough the crystallizer. These parameters have a significant impact on the crystallization process of the liquid metal. Depending on the cooling rate, intensity of the convection inside the solidifying alloy, and its chemical composition, there may arise some differences in the structure of the cast. In this study, ingots obtained at different casting speeds have been analyzed. The research methodology, based on light microscopy and electron microscopy (SEM), as well as energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), allowed for a thorough examination of the structure of the studied materials. The results were shown that an increase in the ingot casting speed leads to an increase in the average grain surface area.
EN
This article discusses issues related to continuous casting of brass. The tested material was CuZn39Pb2 brass with the use of continuous casting and different parameters of the process. The position consists of a melting furnace with a graphite refining pot of about 4000 cm3 chuting capacity, a graphite crystallizer of 9,5 mm nominal diameter, a primary and secondary cooling system and an extracting system as well. The analysis was carried out in terms of technological parameters of the process and type of charge. Highlighted: feedrate ingot, number of stops, and technological temperatures. The surface quality of the obtained ingots and the structure were analyzed. The most favorable conditions were indicated and technological recommendations indicated. They have been distinguished for ingots for plasticity and other technologies. Favorable casting conditions are low feed and low temperature. Due to the presence of impurities coming from the charge it is disadvantageous to have Ni greater than 0.053% by mass, and Fe more than 0.075% by mass. It is recommended to maintain a high zinc content in the melt which is associated with non-overheating of the metal during casting and earlier melting.
EN
In this paper, the mathematical model and numerical simulations of the molten steel flow by the submerged entry nozzle and the filling process of the continuous casting mould cavity are presented. In the mathematical model, the temperature fields were obtained by solving the energy equation, while the velocity fields were calculated by solving the momentum equations and the continuity equation. These equations contain the turbulent viscosity which is found by solving two additional transport equations for the turbulent kinetic energy and its rate of dissipation. In the numerical simulations, coupling of the thermal and fluid flow phenomena by changes in the thermophysical parameters of alloy depending on the temperature has been taken into consideration. This problem (2D) was solved by using the finite element method. Numerical simulations of filling the continuous casting mould cavity were performed for two variants of liquid metal pouring. The effect of the cases of pouring the continuous casting mould on the velocity fields and the solid phase growth kinetics in the process of filling the continuous casting mould was evaluated as these magnitudes have an influence on the high quality of the continuous cast steel slab.
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