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1
Content available Evaluation of sinking effect in container stack
EN
The container yard is the key element of any modern container terminal. The huge amount of boxes dwelling on the operational areas of the terminals could occupy a lot of space, since one-time storage capacity of the container mega terminal handling over one million TEUs annually is something around 20 000 TEUs. The ecological pressure imposed on modern container terminal does not permit to allocate for this storage large land areas, thus forcing the box stacks grow high. The selection of the individual boxes becomes a complex and time-consuming procedure, demanding a lot of technological resources and deteriorating the service quality. The predicted combinatorial growth of redundant moves needed to clear the access to the individual container is aggravated by the well-known and widely discussed ‘sinking effect’, when containers arrived earlier are gradually covered by the ones arriving afterwards. While the random selection could be adequately assessed by combinatorial methods, the ‘sinking effect’ allows neither intuitive consideration, nor any traditional mathematical means. The only practical way to treat this problem today is in simulation, but the simulation itself causes yet another problem: the problem of model adequacy. This study deals with one possible approach to the problem designated to prove its validity and adequacy, without which the simulation has naught gnoseological value.
EN
Comprehensive forecasting of future volumes of container traffic in seaports is important when it comes to port development, including investments, especially in relation to costly transport infrastructure (e.g. new terminals). The aim of this article is to present a specific, simplified model of demand forecasting for container traffic in seaports as well as to give a practical verification of the model in the Polish seaport sector. The model consists of relevant indexes of containerisation (values, dynamics) referring to the macroeconomic characteristics of the country of cargo origin as well as destination-predictor variables (e.g. population, foreign trade, gross domestic product). This method will facilitate the evaluation of three basic segments of the container market: foreign trade services, maritime transit flows and land transit flows. International comparisons of indexes (benchmarking) as well as extrapolations of future changes can support this prediction process. A practical implementation of this research has enabled us to calculate that the total container volume in Poland will be approximately 4.69 – 4.87 million TEU by the year 2023.
EN
Nowadays, the container shipping industry in Indonesia has a tendency to oligopoly, even in one shipping route. Two big shipping liners in Indonesia, PT. X and PT. Y, have been dominating sales on the Surabaya-Banjarmasin route. The aim of this study is to know how the liners behave in an oligopoly, making decisions that are profitable for both parties. The agreement on challenge, competition, and cooperation between PT. X and PT. Y in serving shipping services is the main focus in this study. The methodology used is a game theory approach to show the possible strategies in rates and supply competition. The result shows that the agreement between PT. X and PT. Y consisted of price decision and supply quantity. The price decision is rated at a lower price of USD 300/TEU where P = MC which has no incentive. While the agreement on supply quantity is 26.000 TEUs in total. Moreover, the cooperative agreement between the shipping liners is a joint allience which not depend on each capacity ratio.
EN
Tsunami disasters have frequently occurred in recent years. More and more researchers are focusing on this topic. To investi-gate the tsunami bore impact mechanism on a container model, a multi-functional slope-changing tsunami flume is built in this study. To simulate a tsunami bore, a dam-break wave was generated by a free-falling gate in a reservoir. A needle water level gauge and a high-speed camera were used to measure the tsunami wave heights and velocities for different storage water levels in the test flume, and the corresponding Froude numbers of tsunami waves were also calculated. The factors af-fecting the movement distance of the tsunami wave impacting the container model are explored in this experiment, and the results show that the movement distance is positively correlated with the storage water level, and negatively correlated with the container density and the coast slope.
5
Content available remote Genesis of intermodal transport
EN
The article presents a short history of intermodal transport, combining the different transport systems using the same loading unit, starting from the transport lines from the end of the 18th century. The original structures for the transport of containers and semi-trailers are presented.
PL
W artykule zaprezentowano krótką historię transportu intermodalnego, łączącego różne systemy przewozów przy użyciu tej samej jednostki ładunkowej, począwszy od linii transportowych z końca XVIII wieku. Przedstawiono pierwotne konstrukcje do przewozu kontenerów oraz naczep siodłowych.
6
Content available remote Effects of Belt and Road Initiative on port selection
EN
Purpose: Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) was announced by China in 2013. In the initiative, railway lines are operated (Belt), and sea transportation is continuing with sea routes (Road) between China and Europe. The geographical scope of the initiative covering the Chinese-European route is increasing day by day. The purpose of this study is to identify the strategies that container terminals in sea routes need to consider to achieve sustainable competitive advantage. Methodology: To achieve the goal, I focused on the criteria that container ship operators considered in port selection as the main user of the container terminals. In the study, a qualitative research process was followed, and data was collected through semi-structured interviews. Results: It is seen that the bilateral agreements between the countries where the ports are located have gained importance especially with China and the other countries involving the initiative. Moreover, it has been determined that the connections with the railway infrastructure will create a competitive advantage. The contribution: The container terminals located on the route have not only enough with classical advantages such as location, equipment, and infrastructure to achieve sustainable competitive advantage. The new criteria found in the study are the areas where the port cannot directly intervene individually. However, the port operator may negotiate with the relevant parties.
PL
Współczesne problemy deficytu mieszkań i infrastruktury towarzyszącej wymuszają poszukiwanie nowych rozwiązań systemowych, które mogłyby spełnić wszystkie funkcjonujące w kraju oczekiwania społeczne. Innowacyjne budownictwo kontenerowe i modułowe stanowi kontynuację historycznego i tradycyjnego budownictwa prefabrykowanego. Moduły są obecnie coraz szerzej stosowane w obiektach mieszkalnych i użyteczności publicznej, mogą stanowić też tymczasowe zaplecze na terenach budowy, działań wojskowych, a także być wsparciem w przypadku imprez masowych, epidemii czy klęsk żywiołowych.
EN
Contemporary problems of housing deficit and accompanying infrastructure force the search for new systemic solutions that could meet all social expectations functioning in the country. Innovative container and modular construction is a continuation of historical and traditional prefabricated construction. Modules are now more and more widely used in residential and public facilities, they can also provide temporary facilities on construction sites, military operations, as well as support in the event of mass events, epidemics or natural disasters.
EN
The society’s main trend for globalisation requires the restructuring of the global transport system as a whole. The ‘Dnieper region’ is no exception, as it needs changes in its practice of organising and managing its process of cargo delivery in accordance with the current trends. This paper considered the main solution directions of this problem in the aspect of ‘container on barge system’ transportation in accordance with the potential of the region. Based on international experience, the competitiveness of the container on barge system can be ensured by applying the different forms of cooperation between the business-players. In the case of horizontal cooperation, it’s raising the problem of distribution of structural elements of the container on barge system during the container-flows adoption. So, the paper proposed the mathematical decision to maximise the use of the linear ship's characteristics by the barge’s loading capacity and by the tug’s engine power.
EN
The main purpose of the paper is to recognize and characterize the substantial trends and ongoing phenomena as well as processes on the supply and demand side of the global ocean container market and then evaluate their impact on global supply chains and the whole mega logistics system. The author has analysed the dynamics of potential supply and effective demand growth on this market in the recent years and assessed changes observed on both market sides with respect to global logistics area. On this basis, the influence of global container market development on global logistics supply chains has been estimated. There were also presented and analysed the main effects of speeding-up implementation of disruptive innovations such as blockchain technology and digital trade platforms development in maritime container transport and trade sectors on the efficiency and effectiveness of global logistics chains and the whole logistics area. The issues related to the security of smooth digital development of container maritime transport and the mega logistics area were taken into consideration as well.
EN
The box selectivity in operational stack of container terminal is a quite common and long studied question. The pure random choice is governed by the theory of probability offering some combinatorial estimations. The introduction of operational rules like import/export separation, storage by shipping lines, sorting by rail or truck transportation etc., as well as the most notorious ‘sinking’ effect, i.e. covering of boxes arrived earlier by next cargo parties – all these blur the clear algebraiс picture and lead to appearance of many heuristic outlooks of the problem. A new impetus to this problem in last decades was given by the rapid development of IT, AI and simulation techniques. There are quite many examples of the models described in the scientific publication reflecting many real and arbitrary terminals, which embed very advanced and complicated mechanisms reflecting selected features and strategies. Unfortunately, these models usually are created ad hoc, with some pragmatic objectives and under the demand of closest possible proximity to the simulating objects. There are much less models designated to pure scientific study of the deep inner mechanisms responsible for the primal behavior of the operating container stack, enabling to introduce step by step new rules and restrictions, providing regular proving of every next stage’s adequacy and easy to use. This paper describes one attempt of this kind to create a new theoretical tool to put into the regular toolkit of the container terminal designer. The study starts with mathematical (combinatorial) considerations, proceeds with some restrictions caused by physical and technological characteristics, and ends up with the simulation model, which adequacy is confirmed by practical results.
11
Content available remote Koncepcja kontenerowego kompleksu szkoleniowego
PL
Artykuł omawia opracowaną w OBRUM sp. z o.o. koncepcję nowoczesnego kontenerowego kompleksu szkoleniowego (zwanego dalej KOKOS) przeznaczonego do treningu sił specjalnych i służb mundurowych – specjalnych organów milicji, straży granicznej, straży pożarnej. Do budowy infrastruktury ćwiczeniowej wykorzystano standardowe kontenery ISO, co umożliwia zmienną konfigurację pomieszczeń. Kompleks szkoleniowy zestawiony z modułów funkcyjnych jest demontowalny i może być przewożony po drogach publicznych dostępnymi środkami transportu przewidzianymi do transportu kontenerów. W artykule przedstawiono kilka wariantów ukompletowania kompleksu. Odniesiono się do uniwersalności rozwiązań, a także do podatności modernizacyjnej.
EN
The paper discusses a concept of a modern modular training compound (KOKOS) developed at OBRUM intended for training special forces and uniformed services (police, border guard, fire brigades). Standard ISO containers were used to build the training infrastructure, allowing for variable configuration of rooms. The training compound composed of functional modules is demountable and can be transported on public roads by transport means intended for moving containers. The paper presents several variants of setting up the compound. Mention is made of the versatility and modernizability of the solutions.
12
Content available remote Concept of a modular training compound
EN
The paper discusses a concept of a modern modular training compound (KOKOS) developed at OBRUM intended for training special forces and uniformed services (police, border guard, fire brigades). Standard ISO containers were used to build the training infrastructure, allowing for variable configuration of rooms. The training compound composed of functional modules is demountable and can be transported on public roads by transport means intended for moving containers. The paper presents several variants of setting up the compound. Mention is made of the versatility and modernizability of the solutions.
13
EN
The article presents the beginnings of the use of containers in transport. The Reich Railway played a major role in this. The transport of containers was to make it easier for railways to compete with the road general cargo. Small containers, up to 3 m3 and load capacity up to one ton were considered to be the most suitable technically and economically. Larger containers had the limited use. They were used mainly in the international transport.
PL
Artykuł przedstawia początki zastosowania pojemników (kontenerów) w transporcie. Główną rolę w tym odgrywała Kolej Rzeszy. Przewóz pojemników (kontenerów) miał ułatwić kolei konkurencję z samochodowymi przewozami ładunków drobnicowych. Za najbardziej odpowiednie pod względem technicznym i ekonomicznym uznano małe pojemniki , do 3 m3 i nośności do jednej tony. Większe pojemniki miały ograniczone zastosowanie. Korzystano z nich głównie w przewozach międzynarodowych.
EN
The right to safety of purchased goods is one of the most important consumer rights. Therefore, an accurate analysis of safety of machinery and equipment purchased on the secondary market is an extremely important issue. One of its elements should be the assessment of the degree of service live usage. In the case of cranes, the subject of such an assessment covers both the supporting structure of the device and its mechanisms and installations. Information on evaluation of the service life expiration of the secondhand cranes may be necessary and support the decision-making process associated with the purchase of the device. The paper deals with the problem of evaluating the expiration of the service life of the supporting structure of cranes coming from the secondhand market. The result of such evaluation makes it possible to determine whether the production capacity of a device has been exhausted. This forms the basis for the decisions on any possible further operation of the crane. The work presents an approach based on the provisions of standard ISO 12482: 2014. This document is the basis for service life evaluation for cranes. The approach presented in it makes the way of analysis dependent on the method used to collect operational data. In this paper the evaluation of service life expiration was prepared on the example of a ship to shore gantry cranes. These devices are characterized by particularly large dimensions and weight. Damage of their supporting structure can lead to the significant losses. Some of these devices change the location during operation. Therefore, it is important to know the current level of their service life usage. A case, in which the operational history of a device is not known, was considered. In the paper the special attention was paid to the methodology of estimating the load distribution coefficient. In order to describe the hypothetical load spectrum, triangular distribution was proposed. The results of the calculations for the structure of port cranes are presented and discussed.
EN
The authors of this article presented technologies of spreading coatings over structural details of automated guided vehicles used in the handling terminals. Technological process of painting with the use of powder paints was presented, as well as innovative methods of surface preparation with the use of BONDERITE M‐NT 2011 technology and OXILAN 9807 preparation. Modern methods of surface preparation with production of silane conversion coatings were presented and analysed. The authors of this article selected a system of guaranteed power supply of the processing lines. ABCUS software was applied to check the time of battery backup of UPS units in selected N+1 system.
16
Content available Simulation Model of Container Land Terminals
EN
The simulation as a tool for the design of port and terminals has emerged as an answer for the demand to enhance the quality and reliability of the project results. Very high costs of the project solution implementation and practically total lack of liquidity of transport infrastructure objects always induced the immense commercial risks in the terminal business. Lately these risks have multiplied significantly due to rapid changes on the global and regional markets of transport services. Today, many experts come to see this volatility as an indicator of the next phase in development of the global trade system and the derivative cargo transportation system, specifically the state of temporal saturation. The shift of the global goods volumes from quick and steady growth to relatively small fluctuations around constant values causes quick oscillations in re-distribution of demand over the oversized supply. This new business and economic environment seriously affected the paradigm of transport terminal design and development techniques. The new operational environment of terminals put a request for the designers to arrange the results not in terms of “point”, but in terms of “functions”. Eventually it resulted in development of the modern object-oriented model approach. The wide spread of this approach witnesses the objective demand for this discipline, while in many aspects it remains in the intuitive (pre-paradigmal) phase of its development. The main reason for it is in the problem definition itself, which usually is formulated as the simulation of a given terminal. At the same time, the task is to assess the operational characteristics of the terminal engaged in processing of a given combination of cargo flows. Consequently, it is not the terminal that should be simulated, but the processes of cargo flows handling performed by this terminal under investigation. Another problem that restricts the practical spread of simulation is in the model adequacy. A model which adequacy is not proved has no gnoseological value at all. The paper describes the approach aimed at development of the models with the features discussed above.
EN
To give full play to the circulation function of the port container logistics park, it is urgent to study the development intensity of the land in the port container logistics park and to guide the scientific development of the port logistics park with reasonable development intensity control index. The current situation of land development intensity control index of container logistics park at home and abroad is analysed, the PENT (politics, economy, society and technology) analysis method is used to analyse the factors influencing the land development intensity control index of container logistics park, and the index system structure of influencing factors is constructed. Finally, index value is obtained quantitatively with the proposed calculation method of the land development intensity index of the port container logistics park. Its practicability is verified in case analysis.
18
EN
This article is about the design of intermodal terminals. The classification of intermodal terminals and their role in the transport chain have been presented. Particular attention has been paid to the design of functional zones of the intermodal terminal serving both containers as well as swap bodies and semi-trailers. Technical and technological requirements for these zones have been determined. Theoretical example of calculation of selected functional zones of intermodal terminal is presented.
EN
The article presents the problems of designing intermodal terminals from the point of view of expenditures on construction and equipment as well as costs of its operation. The scope of factors to be considered at the design stage of the intermodal terminal was determined. The principles of calculation of expenditure on terminal infrastructure are presented. Based on these expenditures, the principles of calculating the cost of maintenance of equipment and labour are outlined. In addition, the practical examples of determining the cost of operation of handling equipment and labour costs are presented. The terminal carries out the functions of transhipment of intermodal transport units between means of transport, belonging to different modes of transport and the operations on these units in connection with their storage. Due to the different types of external means of transport operated in the intermodal terminal, a sufficient number of rail tracks, roads lines, storage, and handling areas should be provided. Apart from expenditures and costs, an important element in the design of an intermodal terminal is its location in the logistics network.
EN
Wreck of a ship is an incident that must be avoided. Ship accidents are generally caused by a several cases, such as human error, natural disaster, technical errors, missed communication, poor condition of the ship, and many more. Ship wreckage have huge impact for ship navigation, environment, economics, and others. Those impact have many disadvantages for the shipowners, and also for environment. For examples the fuel spills that pollute the environment, make disturbance to sailing ship because the track for those navigation is blocked by the ship wreck and their cargo especially on shallow location (<50 m). These research will discuss the effect the container when it is floats on the sea and its interference other ships. The main objective of this study is to present a risk assessment on the environmental impact of the wreck and container cargo. Wrecks on the seabed is likely to pose a risk to passing ships. container and its contents as well as the possibility of refloat, and also their environmental risks emanating from the wreck and container cargo, such as fuels, lubricants, and chemical cargo. Variations scenario is a collision between ships that pass by floating containers. The frequency of refloating container, and the consequences of the passing ship depends on several factors, which will be the subject of research. However, because of the frequency of refloating containers is unlikely, then the risk is low and does not pose a danger to navigation. These risk assessment using risk matrix 5x5 which is the combined value of the frequency and consequences of the incident. The results of this study indicate the level of risk, whether the risk is accepted, not accepted or received by considering the costs and benefits (ALARP). To consequence, there are two parameters which energy is absorbed and the penetration occurs. The absorbed energy is divided into two, namely the energy absorbed by ship and the energy absorbed by containers. In this study were taken 5 groups based on the size of the vessel. In this cases any 5 size group of vessels is based on the size of the ships that pass in the shipping lanes at the site of the sinking. Assumed these vessels have speed 10 knots at the location. As well as speed drifting containers having 0 to 3 knots.
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