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EN
In this study, we investigate the mechanical behavior of each skin layer, in terms of the nominal stress-strain curve by uniaxial tensile tests using specimens of porcine skin in two forms: dermis containing epidermis, and all three layers. All tests were performed under cyclic loading at the constant strain rate of 10-3 s-1 at ambient temperature. To measure the precise initial crosssectional areas of each layer, the thickness of each skin layer was quantified by counting the number of pixels on the photo-image using image-processing software. In the tensile test, force-strain curves of the total skin and dermis with epidermis were obtained. Subsequently, a rule of mixtures was applied to determine the nonlinear mechanical properties of the hypodermis layer. In conclusion, we could define the uniaxial tensile behavior of the hypodermis, and additionally predict the weight effect of the dermis and hypodermis layers in the tensile test.
EN
Uniaxial tensile tests were performed on porcine skin to investigate the tensile stress-strain constitutive characteristic at qua-sistatic deformations using uniaxial tensile tests. Experimental results were then used to determine the parameters of the various constitutive model types for rubber, including the Mooney-Rivlin, Yeoh, Ogden, and others. The Prony series viscoelastic model was also calibrated based on the stress relaxation test. To investigate the calibrated constitutive equations (visco-hyperelastic), the falling impact test was conducted. From the viewpoint of the maximum impact load, the error was approximately 15.87%. Overall, the Ogden model predicted the experimental measurements most reasonably. The calibrated constitutive model is expected to be of practical use in describing the mechanical properties of porcine skin.
EN
Knowledge of mechanical behavior of healthy human arteries as the guidelines to target properties of vascular grafts deserves special attention. There is a lack of mathematical model to characterize mechanical behavior of biomaterial while many mathematical models to reflect mechanics of human arteries have been proposed. The objective of this paper was set to measure mechanical properties of healthy human arteries including Common Carotid Artery (CCA), Abdominal Aorta Artery (AAA), Subclavian Artery (SA), Common Iliac Artery (CIA) and Right and Left Iliac Artery (RIA and LIA) and compare them to those of commercial ePTFE and Dacron®. Methods: Series of stress relaxation and strain to failure tests vere performed on all samples. The experimental data was utilized to develop quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) model of both natural and artificial arteries. Results: ePTFE is the stiffest sample, while the CCA is the most compliant one among all. RIA and CIA are more viscous than the other natural arteries, while AA and CCA are less viscous. The proposed model demonstrated an accurate fit to the experimental results, a proof of its ability to model both nonlinear elasticity and viscoelasticity of the human arteries and commercial ones. Conclusions: ePTFE and Dacron® are much stiffer than human arteries that may lead to the disruption of blood hemodynamic and may not be biomechanically feasible as a replacement.
EN
The article reports the application of the mathematical theory of hysteresis to soil dynamics to characterise its behaviour under the action of cyclic loads. Based on appropriate laboratory experiments for a given soil, the achieved values were verified in simulations. The cycle shapes of stress–strain shear response for all strain levels and different combinations of static and cyclic shear stress loading were replicated. For proper characterisation in the case of repeated loads, the model incorporates the phenomenon of degradation of the structure and generation of excess pore pressure in considering its continuous variation throughout the loading process using an energy approach. The model is defined by parameters with physical interpretations that are evident from the tests.
EN
The aim of the study was the estimation of the ability of hyperelastic material models for the fitting of experimental data obtained in the tensile testing of silicone liners used in lower-limb prosthetics. Three groups of liners were analysed: I – silicone liner, II – part of the liner in which the silicone has a fabric reinforcement, III – silicone liner with an outer covering material. Both longitudinal and circumferential samples were taken. The Neo-Hookean, Mooney-Rivlin and Ogden parameters of constitutive models of hyperelastic materials were calculated.
PL
Celem badań była ocena przydatności modeli materiałów hipersprężystych do dopasowania danych doświadczalnych uzyskanych w próbie rozciągania dla silikonowych linerów ortopedycznych stosowanych w protezach dolnych. Przeanalizowano trzy grupy: I – liner silikonowy, II – liner silikonowy z wewnętrznym wzmocnieniem, III – liner silikonowy z zewnętrznym wzmocnieniem. Wyróżniono dwa kierunki pobrania próbek: podłużny i obwodowy. Zidentyfikowano parametry określonych funkcji modeli konstytutywnych materiałów hipersprężystych: Neo-Hookean’a, Mooney-Rivlin’a i Ogden’a.
EN
Cyclic hardening and stress relaxation experiments of SUS316HTP were performed under creep-fatigue loading with tensile strain holding at 700ºC. Experiments revealed that under strain holding, the slow stress-relaxation stage satisfying Norton’s law with slight cyclic hardening followed a rapid stress-relaxation stage that was noticeably affected by cyclic hardening. This suggests that in the slow stress-relaxation stage, inelastic deformation mechanisms different from that of viscoplasticity occurred. Experiments were simulated using a cyclic viscoplastic-creep model in which the inelastic strain-rate was decomposed into viscoplastic and creep components that were affected differently by cyclic hardening. The simulation accurately reproduced the experiments.
PL
W pracy sformułowano nowe równanie konstytutywne dla gąbczastej tkanki kostnej człowieka. Zapostulowano funkcję energii odkształcenia, która opisuje sprężystą odpowiedź tkanki na obciążenie. W modelu konstytutywnym uwzględniono także nieliniową lepkosprężystość. Stałe materiałowe w równaniu konstytutywnym zidentyfikowano na podstawie wyników testów relaksacji naprężeń i monotonicznego ściskania metodą dopasowania krzywych. Wykorzystano tutaj algorytm Levenberga-Marquardta metody najmniejszych kwadratów. Na podstawie testów relaksacji zidentyfikowano wartości czasów relaksacji, natomiast na podstawie testów monotonicznego ściskania określono stałe sprężyste i lepkosprężyste. Testy były wykonane w temperaturze pokojowej na prostopadłościennych próbkach kości gąbczastej uzyskanych z główek kości udowej podczas operacji wszczepienia endoprotezy stawu biodrowego.
EN
In the paper a new constitutive equation for human cancellous bone tissue was formulated. A strain energy function was postulate, which describes the elastic response of the tissue to the load. The nonlinear viscoelasticity was also taken into account in the constitutive model. The material constants in the constitutive equation were identified on the basis of the results of stress relaxation tests and monotonic compression tests using the curve fitting method. The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm of the least square method was used here. On the basis of the relaxation tests, the values of relaxation times were identified, while the elastic and viscoelastic constants were determined on the basis of monotonic compression tests. The tests were performed at room temperature. On the cuboidal samples of cancellous bone obtained from femoral heads during the surgeries of hip joint prosthesis implantation.
EN
In this paper parameters of the Johnson-Cook (J-C) constitutive material model were predicted more accurately based on the static and dynamic material tests and mathematical modelling of relevant response surfaces using specially developed Matlab scripts. Experimental tests were performed under strain rates of 10-3 and 101 1/s and the temperature ranging from the ambient up to 700°C. As a result, a set of mathematical models which fit the experimental data was determined. The experimentally-derived constitutive models were implemented into FEM-based simulations of real machining processes of Inconel 718.
EN
The paper presents a simplified methodology for the analysis of static building construction longwall when within the horizontal projection of the foundation can find a local threshold or a fault area. It shows the formulation of the basic assumptions of work and provides theoretical considerations leading to the determination of additional load rigid structure located above the gap. Then formulated a way that the separation of the designated load spatial body of the building on each side of the building. The results were confronted with the results of the analyzes of numerical aspects of behavior of buildings on the emerging facet of land in the form of a threshold. Analyzed the structures of rigid construction, constructed in accordance with the principles set out in the guidelines. The analysis was performed by MES with the program Abaqus and the Robot program. It adopted with the assumption that the fault coverage will not exceed the defined work called. critical distance. In the construction of the model surface mining in addition to the model of linear-elastic and model Winkler's used for substrates simplest models of the material elastic-plastic - model of the surface of plasticity in the form of a condition Coulomb-Mohr and Drucker-Prager, and model the mechanics of the critical state of Modified-Cam-Clay.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono uproszczoną metodykę przeprowadzania analizy statycznej budynków o konstrukcji ścianowej w sytuacji, gdy w obrębie rzutu poziomego ich fundamentów może znaleźć się lokalny próg lub uskok terenu. Przedstawiono sformułowanie podstawowych założeń pracy oraz podano rozważania teoretyczne prowadzące do określania dodatkowego obciążenia budowli sztywnej znajdującej się nad uskokiem. Następnie sformułowano sposób pozwalający na rozdzielenie wyznaczonego obciążenia przestrzennej bryły budynku na poszczególne ściany budynku. Uzyskane rezultaty skonfrontowano z wynikami przeprowadzonych analiz numerycznych zagadnienia zachowania się budowli nad powstającym uskokiem terenu w postaci progu. Analizie poddano budowle o konstrukcji sztywnej, skonstruowane zgodnie z zasadami podanymi w wytycznych. Analizę przeprowadzono metodą MES przy pomocy programu Abaqus oraz programu Robot. Przyjęto przy tym założenie, że zasięg uskoku nie przekroczy zdefiniowanej w pracy tzw. odległości krytycznej. W budowie modelu podłoża górniczego oprócz modelu liniowo-sprężystego oraz modelu Winklera wykorzystano dla podłoża najprostsze modele materiału sprężystoplastycznego – model z powierzchnią plastyczności w postaci warunku Coulomba-Mohra oraz Druckera-Pragera, a także model mechaniki stanu krytycznego Modified-Cam-Clay.
EN
Purpose: In this work, the mechanical behavior of two block copolymers for biomedical applications is studied with particular regard to the effects induced by a steam sterilization treatment that biomedical devices usually undergo in healthcare facilities. This investigation is aimed at describing the elasto-plastic behavior of the stress-strain response, determining a functional dependence between material constitutive parameters, to obtain an optimal constitutive model. Methods: The mechanical properties of these polymers are analyzed through uniaxial tensile tests, before and after the sterilization process. The effect of sterilization on the mechanical behavior is evaluated. The Ramberg-Osgood model is used to describe the elasto-plastic behavior of the stress-strain response. Results: Data from uniaxial tensile tests are discussed in the light of previous data on the same polymeric materials, in order to highlight the correlation between physicochemical and mechanical properties variation. The material constitutive parameters are determined and the functional dependence between them is found, thus enabling an optimal constitutive model to be obtained. Conclusions: The effect of sterilization on the material constitutive parameters is studied, to evaluate the suitability of the model in describing the mechanical response of biomedical polymer before and after sterilization treatment. The same approach can be applied to other biomaterials, under various tensile tests, and for several processes that induce variation in mechanical properties.
EN
The aim of the study was an estimation of the possibility of using hyperelastic material models to fit experimental data obtained in the tensile test for the swine skin tissue. Methods: The uniaxial tensile tests of samples taken from the abdomen and back of a pig was carried out. The mechanical properties of the skin such as the mean Young’s modulus, the mean maximum stress and the mean maximum elongation were calculated. The experimental data have been used to identify the parameters in specific strain-energy functions given in seven constitutive models of hyperelastic materials: neo-Hookean, Mooney–Rivlin, Ogden, Yeoh, Martins, Humphrey and Veronda–Westmann. An analysis of errors in fitting of theoretical and experimental data was done. Results: Comparison of load –displacement curves for the back and abdomen regions of skin taken showed a different scope of both the mean maximum loading forces and the mean maximum elongation. Samples which have been prepared from the abdominal area had lower values of the mean maximum load compared to samples from the spine area. The reverse trend was observed during the analysis of the values of elongation. An analysis of the accuracy of model fitting to the experimental data showed that, the least accurate were the model of neo- -Hookean, model of Mooney–Rivlin for the abdominal region and model of Veronda–Westmann for the spine region. Conclusions: An analysis of seven hyperelastic material models showed good correlations between the experimental and the theoretical data for five models.
EN
A constitutive model of rocks subjected to cyclic stress–temperature was proposed. Based on statistical damage theory, the damage constitutive model with Weibull distribution was extended. Influence of model parameters on the stress–strain curve for rock reloading after stress–temperature cycling was then discussed. The proposed model was initially validated by rock tests for cyclic stress–temperature and only cyclic stress. Finally, the total damage evolution induced by stress–temperature cycling and reloading after cycling was explored and discussed. The proposed constitutive model is reasonable and applicable, describing well the stress–strain relationship during stress–temperature cycles and providing a good fit to the test results. Elastic modulus in the reference state and the damage induced by cycling affect the shape of reloading stress–strain curve. Total damage induced by cycling and reloading after cycling exhibits three stages: initial slow increase, mid-term accelerated increase, and final slow increase.
EN
Stress-strain mechanical properties of polystyrene foam plastic material were tested under different loading conditions. An empirical constitutive model for describing metal materials was proposed for the polystyrene plastic foam. The static and dynamic tests results show that the ductility and watertightness of the polystyrene plastic foam are significantly improved. At the same time, in order to check its seismic-isolation property, the high-performance foam concrete as filling materials of Galongla tunnel in Tibet was simulated by FEM. The simulated results show that the polystyrene plastic foam can remarkably decrease the stress and the plastic zone in final lining, so it can effectively reduce the seismic damage of the tunnel. Considering the seismic-isolation property and low price of polystyrene plastic foam, it is a good reference for the anti-seismic design of tunnels in high intensity zones.
14
Content available remote Non-linear viscoelastic constitutive model for bovine cortical bone tissue
EN
In the paper a constitutive law formulation for bovine cortical bone tissue is presented. The formulation is based on experimental studies performed on bovine cortical bone samples. Bone tissue is regarded as a non-linear viscoelastic material. The constitutive law is derived from the postulated strain energy function. The model captures typical viscoelastic effects, i.e. hysteresis, stress relaxation and rate-dependence. The elastic and rheological constants were identified on the basis of experimental tests, i.e. relaxation tests and monotonic uniaxial tests at three different strain rates, i.e. [...] = 0:1 min_1, [...] = 0:5 min_1 and [...] = 1:0 min_1. In order to numerically validate the constitutive model the fourth-order stiffness tensor was analytically derived and introduced to Abaqus® finite element (FE) software by means of UMAT subroutine. The model was experimentally validated. The validation results show that the derived constitutive law is adequate to model stress–strain behaviour of the considered bone tissue. The constitutive model, although formulated in the strain rate range [...] = 0:1-1:0 min_1, is also valid for the strain rate values slightly higher than [...] = 1:0 min_1. The work presented in the paper proves that the formulated constitutive model is very useful in modelling compressive behaviour of bone under various ranges of load.
EN
Although rock strength anisotropy is a well-known phenomenon in rock mechanics, its impact on geotechnical design is often ignored or underestimated. This paper explores the concept of anisotropy in a high stress environment using an improved unified constitutive model (IUCM), which can account for more complex failure mechanisms. The IUCM is used to better understand the typical responses of anisotropic rocks to underground mining. This study applies the IUCM to a proposed rock shaft located in high stress/anisotropic conditions. Results suggest that the effect of rock strength anisotropy must be taken into consideration when assessing the rock mass response to mining in high stress and anisotropic rock conditions.
EN
In the automotive industry the use of modern technology and provision of the highest quality product and related services is the most important element of rivalry between global corporations and motorcycles. In a competitive struggle for the recognition of its brand in the automotive market, global organizations continuously raise the requirements for quality management systems, so that the finished product meets all the standards in terms of safety and quality and satisfies the ever-growing needs of customers - present and future drivers and passengers of cars. ISO/TS 16949 quality management system is presented in this paper. The framework for customer specific requirement is illustrated as well as prevention of problems.
PL
W publikacji przedstawiono wyniki badań dotyczących lepko-plastycznych właściwości komercyjnie czystego stopu tytanu oraz stopu Ti6Al4V. Analiza została przeprowadzona dla szerokiego zakresu szybkości odkształcania od 2 × 10⁻⁴s⁻¹ to 2 × 10³s⁻¹ z wykorzystaniem maszyny wytrzymałościowej oraz pręta Hopkinsona, odpowiednio w quasi-statycznym i dynamicznym zakresie obciążeń. Wpływ temperatury na krzywe ściskania został wyznaczony w zakresie temperatur od 23 do 400°C przy wykorzystaniu pręta Hopkinsona wyposażonego w piec. Na podstawie otrzymanych wyników przeprowadzono kalibrację współczynników modelu Johnsona–Cooka (J–C) opisującego lepko-plastyczne właściwości badanych materiałów. Badania właściwości mechanicznych zostały poparte analizą mikrostrukturalną, w celu określenia wpływu temperatury i szybkości odkształcania na mechanizm odkształcania.
EN
The paper presents results of tests concerning visco-plastic properties of commercially pure titanium and Ti6Al4V titanium alloy. The analyses were carried out at wide range of strain rates from 2 × 10⁻⁴s⁻¹ to 2 × 10³s⁻¹ using servo-hydraulic testing machine and Hopkinson bar at quasi-static and dynamic range of loadings, respectively. The influence of temperature on the compressive curves was determined within the range of temperatures from 23°C to 400°C applying Hopkinson bar equipped with temperature chamber. Taking into account obtained results, the coefficients of Johnson–Cook (JC) constitutive model were calibrated. Mechanical investigations were accompanied by microstructural analysis in order to determine influence of temperature and rate of deformation on the plastic deformation mechanisms.
EN
The mechanical properties of two rubber materials, RB-55 rubber and FM-32 foam rubber, were tested under quasistatic and dynamic compressive loadings with a universal testing machine and a nonmetallic split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB), respectively. The results show that the hyperelasticity dominates the mechanical characteristics of the both materials. And the strain rate dependencies can be observed over the wide strain rate range from 10-2 s-1 to order 103 s-1. But in the rather narrow bands of 10-2—100 s-1 and 2 • 103 —6 • 103 s-1, the strain rate effects are not significant. In order to numerically simulate rod-explosive loading tests where the two rubber materials were used as a combined buffer, the strain rate-independent hyperelastic behaviors at the strain rate of order 103 s-1 were characterized by Ogden constitutive models, incompressible for RB-55 rubber and compressible for FM-32 foam rubber, respectively. The numerical prediction of the structural responses agrees very well with the experimental results. This means the testing and modeling are successful.
PL
Za pomocą uniwersalnej maszyny wytrzymałościowej oraz metodą pręta Hopkinsona (SHPB) zbadano właściwości mechaniczne gumy (RB-55) i gumy piankowej (FM-32) poddanych kwazistatycznym i dynamicznym obciążeniom ściskającym. Wyniki badań wskazały, że w materiałach tych dominują właściwości hipersprężyste. Krzywe zależności naprężenia od odkształcenia wyznaczono w szerokim zakresie szybkości odkształcania rzędu 10-2 — 103 s-1. Stwierdzono, że szybkość odkształcania nie wywiera istotnego wpływu na krzywe naprężenie-odkształcenie tylko w dość wąskich zakresach wartości, tj. 10-2 — 0 s-1 oraz 2 • 103 — 6 • 103 s-1. W celu numerycznego symulowania testów obciążeniowych metodą wybuchających prętów (z ang. rod-explosive loading tests), gdzie oba materiały gumowe pełniły rolę buforów, zastosowano model konstytutywny Ogdena, przeznaczony do analizy materiałów hipersprężystych. Wyniki symulacji numerycznych wykazały dobrą zgodność z wynikami doświadczalnymi.
19
Content available remote Wpływ eksploatacji górniczej na budynki wykonane w technologii tradycyjnej
PL
W artykule przedstawiono możliwości wykorzystania modeli numerycznych w analizach wytężenia konstrukcji murowych eksploatowanych na terenach szkód górniczych. Zaprezentowano wybrane wyniki obliczeń uzyskane przy wykorzystaniu modeli sprężysto-plastycznych w przypadku konstrukcji budynku i podłoża gruntowego.
EN
The paper presents the possibilities of using numerical models in the analysis of the existing masonry structures effort in the areas of mining damage. Selected results of the numerical calculations obtained by using elastic-plastic models for the building structure and the subsoil were presented.
EN
An austenitic stainless steel has been subjected to large amplitude strain paths containing a strain reversal. During the tests, apart from the stress and the strain also magnetic induction was measured to monitor the transformation of austenitc to martensite. From the in-situ magnetic induction measurements an estimate of the stress partitioning among the phases is determined. When the strain path reversal is applied at low strains, a classical Bauschinger effect is observed. When the strain reversal is applied at higher strains, a higher flow stress is measured after the reversal compared to the flow stress before reversal. Also a stagnation of the transformation is observed, meaning that a higher strain as well as a higher stress than before the strain path change is required to restart the transformation after reversal. The observed behavior can be explained by a model in which for the martensitic transformation a stress induced transformation model is used. The constitutive behavior of both the austenite phase and the martensite is described by a Chaboche model to account for the Bauschinger effect. In the model mean-field homogenization of the material behavior of the individual phases is employed to obtain a constitutive behavior of the two-phase composite. The overall applied stress, the stress in the martensite phase and the observed transformation behavior during cyclic shear are very well reproduced by the model simulations.
PL
Próbki z austenitycznej stali nierdzewnej poddawano od-kształceniom o dużej amplitudzie i przeciwnych zwrotach. W przeprowadzonych doświadczeniach, poza pomiarem naprężenia i odkształcenia, mierzono również indukcję magnetyczną do monitorowania przemiany austenitu w martenzyt. Dzięki bezpośrednim pomiarom indukcji magnetycznej możliwe było oszacowanie wielkości naprężenia w poszczególnych fazach materiału. Przy małych odkształceniach, dla przeciwnego zwrotu, obserwowany jest klasyczny efekt Bauschingera. Gdy dokonywana jest zmiana zwrotu przy większych odkształceniach, mierzone naprężenie jest większe niż przed zmianą. Obserwowana jest również stagnacja przemiany fazowej, to znaczy, że potrzebne jest wyższe odkształcenie i naprężenie niż przed zmianą ścieżki odkształcania aby ponownie zaczęła się przemiana po zmianie. Zaobserwowane zachowanie można opisać modelem, w którym dla przemiany martenzytycznej ma zastosowanie model naprężenia indukowanego przemianą. Zachowanie konstytutywne austenitu i martenzytu zostało opisane modelem Chaboche'a uwzględniającym efekt Bauschingera. W modelu wykorzystano metodę homogenizacji dla opisu materiału i faz, otrzymując konstytutywny model zachowania się dwu-fazowego kompozytu. Przyłożone naprężenie, naprężenie w fazie martenzytu i obserwowane zachowanie się podczas przemiany w trakcie cyklicznego ścinania zostało bardzo dobrze odtworzone w symulacjach modelu.
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