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EN
In spite of the alkaline reaction of onion waste composted together with rye straw and pig manure, these materials can be used as a substrate for the growth of moulds of the Trichoderma genus, with proven phytosanitary properties against plant pathogens. This hypothesis was verified in a laboratory experiment with four variants: a control sample and three variants with two Trichoderma sp. strains (T. atroviride T1 and T. harzianum T3). The isolates were entered into compost individually or simultaneously (T1 + T3). The research included microbial analyses, in which the survivability of Trichoderma sp. strains was monitored and the total count of moulds and the dehydrogenase activity were estimated. The analyses were made three times: before applying the strains into compost, one month and two months after the inoculation. Apart from that, the type of interaction between autochthonous fungi isolated from mature compost at the beginning of the experiment and the Trichoderma sp. strains was determined. The count of moulds was most reduced and the lowest dehydrogenase activity was observed in the compost with the T. harzianum isolate. Apart from that, the strain also exhibited the strongest adaptive properties to the compost substrate. The T. atroviride isolate proved to be the more effective antagonist of autochthonous moulds isolated on the first day of the experiment, including fungi of the Alternaria genus. The pH and moisture content of the substrates proved to be significant factors affecting the growth, proliferation and the antagonistic properties of Trichoderma sp. isolates. The simultaneous inoculation of compost with two Trichoderma sp. isolates resulted in the worst growth and proliferation of the Trichoderma sp. strains, although the two isolates were not antagonistic to each other in vitro.
PL
Przekompostowane odpady cebulowe wraz ze słomą żytnią i obornikiem świńskim pomimo zasadowego odczynu stanowią podłoże umożliwiające wzrost grzybów pleśniowych z rodzaju Trichoderma, with proven phytosanitary properties against plant pathogens. Hipotezę tę zweryfikowano na podstawie doświadczenia przeprowadzonego w warunkach laboratoryjnych, w którym zastosowano cztery warianty doświadczalne: kontrolny oraz trzy z dodatkiem dwóch szczepów Trichoderma sp. (T. atroviride T1 oraz T. harzianum T3). Izolaty wprowadzano pojedynczo lub oba jednocześnie (T1+T3) do kompostu. Analizy mikrobiologiczne polegające na monitorowaniu przeżywalności wprowadzonych szczepów Trichoderma sp., oszacowaniu ogólnej liczby grzybów pleśniowych oraz aktywności dehydrogenaz przeprowadzono trzykrotnie: przed wprowadzeniem szczepów do kompostu, miesiąc oraz dwa miesiące po inokulacji. Dodatkowo określano rodzaj interakcji zachodzącej między autochtonicznymi grzybami wyizolowanymi z dojrzałego kompostu w momencie zakładania doświadczenia a zastosowanymi szczepami Trichoderma sp.. Wykazano, że największą redukcję grzybów pleśniowych oraz najniższą aktywność dehydrogenaz uzyskano w kompoście, do którego wprowadzono izolat T. harzianum. Niniejszy szczep wykazał ponadto najsilniejsze właściwości adaptacyjne w kompostowym podłożu. Izolat T. atroviride okazał się natomiast skuteczniejszym antagonistą wobec wyizolowanych w dniu zakładania doświadczenia autochtonicznych grzybów pleśniowych, w tym z rodzaju Alternaria. Wartość pH i poziom wilgotności podłoży okazały się istotnymi czynnikami warunkującymi wzrost, namnażanie, jak również właściwości antagonistyczne izolatów Trichoderma sp. Stwierdzono, że wprowadzając do kompostu jednocześnie dwa izolaty Trichoderma sp. uzyskano najgorszy efekt wzrostu i namnażania się zastosowanych szczepów Trichoderma sp., pomimo, że warunkach in vitro izolaty nie oddziaływały na siebie antagonistycznie.
EN
The model reclamation process of the studied fly ash deposits has been started in 2003 by formation of five different experimental surface layers containing fly ash and organic matter in various combinations. Then, grass mixture was sown on these surface layers. In 2015, selected properties of plant communities growing on different variants of surface layers applied in the reclamation process were assessed. It was assumed that the type of mineral and organic substrates used in the process and their quality were the main factors affecting the long term plant diversity present on different variants of restored surfaces. The aim of this analysis was the assessment of the effectiveness of ash waste reclamation (carried out on five different types of the surface layer) after 12 years since its initiation. The long term results of the reclamation process showed that the applied surface layers allowed for an effective reclamation of ashes since all variants of experimental surfaces were totally covered by dense vegetation. The predominance of plant species from ruderal and segetal habitats indicated that the soil of the experimental habitats was fertile with neutral and slightly alkaline pH, and texture of sandy loams. The experimental surface layers with a texture of sand of favourable C:N ratio, neutral or slightly alkaline did not limit the plant development. The use of organic waste markedly contributed to the floristic diversity of the spontaneously developed vegetation. Coniferous bark used in some experimental variants had a marked effect on their floristic distinctiveness due to the presence of species preferring habitats of lower pH values.
EN
Therefore the carried out study aimed at determination of the effect of high-calcium brown coal ash and compost being produced from municipal sewage sludge on the content and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in potato tubers, wheat grains and rapeseeds during a three-year period. Rapeseeds contained most Cd whereas wheat rains less. Potato tubers, wheat grains and rapeseeds contained more Mn, Ni and Zn in the fertilization objects with municipal sewage sludge with or without coal ash and compared to those where calcium carbonate or coal ash had been introduced into the soil at a dose corresponding to 1.5 Mg CaO · ha−1  at the beginning of this study. Differences in the Mn, Ni and Zn contents in test plants between the fertilization objects with sewage sludge of with and without addition of ash were not significant.
EN
The three-factorial vegetative-pot experiment was carried out in 2007-2008. The first factor consisted of the series with and without compost of municipal sewage sludge and the second factor involved doses of multi-component mineral fertilizers. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) of Stadion cv. was the test plant. The purpose of the work was to determine the effect of mineral multi-component fertilizers with combined organic fertilization on the content total and forms assimilable of macroelements in soil. Single doses of mineral fertilizers and urea increased the content of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the soil compared to the control. Doubling the doses of fertilizers and urea raised the content of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the soil as compared to single doses. Types of multicomponent mineral fertilizers with the addition of urea did not have a major impact on the diversity of studied elements content in the soil. After two years of experiment, the soil to which compost was introduced in spring contained more nitrogen and phosphorus compared to the control object by 21% and 8.96% respectively. The potassium content in the soil was the same as in the control object. Doubling the doses of mineral fertilizers and urea with the participation of compost resulted in an increase in the content of available forms of phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and sulfate in the soil by 2.52%, 9.12%, 2.25% and 0.80%, respectively, in comparison with single doses. The content of available forms of phosphorus and potassium in the soil after the end of the experiment was greater than of the available forms of magnesium and sulfur.
EN
The research was conducted to investigate the efficiency and possibilities of advanced oxidation process based on ozone-hydrogen peroxide. The process was used as a post-treatment step of composting leachate utilisation. The leachate samples were collected from a typical composting plant with the aerobic biological treatment system. The samples were conditioned in a “ozone reactor” without dilution. The effectiveness of the treatment process was measured by pH values (4.0-7.0), H2O2 concentrations (0.5-4.0 g∙dm-3), ozone doses (0.5-1.5 g∙h-1) and reaction times (0-10 min). The highest removal efficiencies achieved were 85% and 92% for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), respectively. The optimum process parameters occurred at pH 5.0, 2.0 g∙dm-3 concentration of H2O2, and 0.75 g∙h-1 of ozone dose. The optimal reaction time was 3 min. The O3/ H2O2 advanced oxidation process was found to oxidize COD and BOD5 of the composting leachate. The oxidation reaction can be used as a feasible technique for composting leachate treatment.
EN
Short-term biotests were used to determine the effectiveness of the use of compost and fly ash in the stabilization of heavy metals in contaminated soil. For this purpose, in two independent experiments, either compost (3:1) or fly ash (1:1) were added to soil contaminated with heavy metals. To assess seed germination and root elongation of Sorghum saccharatum L., Lepidium sativum L., Sinapis alba L. after three days a Phytotoxkit test was used. Seedling emergence and biomass yield after 21 days were evaluated. Obtained data indicate better practical applicability of the seedling emergence test thanks to the longer duration resulting in more reliable conclusions provided in that test. A short, 3-day test did not confirm any effective stabilizing role of theapplied additives. Sorghum saccharatum L. turned out to be most sensitive to the altered soil conditions, while Lepidium sativum L. was most tolerant.
PL
W latach 2005–2017 prowadzono doświadczalnie ocenę udziału roślin w rekultywacji złoża odpadów paleniskowych energetyki węglowej użyźnionego czteroma rodzajami kompostów i osadem ściekowym. Złoże odpadów paleniskowych założono w pojemnikach cylindrycznych o średnicy 80 cm (0,5 m2 powierzchni) i 100 cm wysokości. Celem eksperymentu była ocena rekultywacyjnej efektywności kompostów i osadu ściekowego na złożu odpadów paleniskowych na podstawie wybranych wskaźników roślinnych (różnorodności, właściwości ekologicznych, plonowania). Corocznie w okresie wegetacyjnym oceniano ilościowo-jakościowy stan i plonowanie roślin zasilanych substancjami użyźniającymi. Wykazano wysokie bogactwo gatunkowe roślin o znacznej biomasie. Stwierdzono wysoką efektywność rekultywacyjną złoża odpadów paleniskowych w większości wariantów nawożenia. Podczas wieloletniego eksperymentu wykazano, że oprócz roślin wysianych do pojemników doświadczalnych, duży udział w kształtowaniu pokrywy roślinnej ma flora samosiewna. Wyniki badań dowodzą, że stosowanie kompostów i osadów ściekowych tworzy korzystne warunki dla rozwoju spontanicznej roślinności na złożach odpadów paleniskowych. Podkreślono duże znaczenie roślin w procesie biologicznej rekultywacji złoża odpadów paleniskowych, co w konsekwencji może przyczynić się do zwiększenia powierzchni biologicznie czynnych i poprawy stanu środowiska naturalnego.
EN
In the years 2005–2017, an experiment was carried out to assess the share of plants in the reclamation of the furnace waste deposit of coal power plants, fertilized with four types of compost and sewage sludge. The furnace waste deposit was installed in cylindrical containers with a diameter of 80 cm (0.5 sq m) and 100 cm height. The aim of the experiment was to assess the reclamation effectiveness of composts and sewage sludge on the furnace waste deposit based on selected plant indices (diversity, ecological properties, yield). Every year during the growing season, the quantity and quality status and yield of plants fed with fertilizers were evaluated. There was demonstrated a high species richness of plants with significant biomass. High reclamation efficiency of the furnace waste deposit was found in the majority of fertilization variants. During a long-term experiment it was demonstrated that in addition to plants sown in experimental containers, self-seed flora has a large share in shaping the plant cover. The research results prove that the use of composts and sewage sludge creates favourable conditions for the development of spontaneous vegetation on furnace waste deposits. The importance of plants in the process of biological reclamation of furnace waste deposits has been emphasized, which in consequence may contribute to increasing the biologically active area and improving the condition of the natural environment.
EN
The research was carried out in the years 2003-2013 in lysimeters filled with loamy sand. The leachate was tested in three variants: Z - no fertilization, S - 20 g-m-2 of N delivered annually in sewage sludge and C - 20 g-m-2 of N in the form of compost. The lysimeters were planted with Miscanthus giganteus, which is an energy plant with a high demand for water and nutrients. The amount of leaching of mineral nitrogen forms was determined on the basis of measured volumes of leachates from the soil and volumes of ammonium nitrogen (N-NH4) and nitrate nitrogen (N-NO3) contained in them. The research results showed a significant increase in the average content of mineral nitrogen forms in the effluents from the fertilized soil (S - 6.8 mg-dm-3 of N-NO3 and 0.3 mg-dm-3 of N-NH4, C - 7.8 mg-dm-3 of N-NO3 and 0.4 mg-dm-3 of N-NH4), compared to their concentrations in the leachates from non-fertilized soil (Z - 2.1 mg-dm-3 of N-NO3 and 0.2 mg-dm-3 of N-NH4). The content of mineral forms of nitrogen, in particular N-NO3, were similar in both fertilization variants. The lowest concentrations of mineral nitrogen in the leachates occurred in the third and fourth year after planting Miscanthus giganteus, when it entered the period of the highest yield. In the fifth year, due to a cold, snowless winter, there was a weakened growth of plants, which resulted in an increase in the concentration of mineral nitrogen in the leachates from the fertilized soil. It follows that in addition to the intensity of precipitation, the collection of this component by plants primarily influences nitrogen leaching from the soil. The general amount of mineral nitrogen leached from the soil was not large and amounted Z - 2.5 kg-m-2, S - 6.7 kg-m-2, C - 6.4 kg-m-2. This testifies to the intense collection of this form of nitrogen by Miscanthus giganteus.
9
Content available Ocena parametrów jakościowych wybranych kompostów
PL
Składowanie jest jedną z najstarszych metod w gospodarce odpadami. W związku z tym dąży się do jej ograniczenia, a nawet całkowitego wyeliminowania. W ostatnich kilku latach zaobserwowano wzrost ilości odpadów komunalnych podczas selektywnej zbiórki, do której zaliczyć można kompostowanie. Proces ten należy do biologicznych metod przetwarzania odpadów, gdzie produktem staje się cenny nawóz. Przeprowadzone badania miały na celu określenie właściwości nawozowych wybranych kompostów z odpadów zielonych.
EN
Storage of waste is one of the oldest methods in waste management. Therefore, it seeks to limit it and even eliminate it altogether. Over the last few years there has been an increase in the amount of municipal waste at selective collection, including composting. This process belongs to biological waste treatment methods, where the product becomes a valuable fertilizer. The research was conducted to determine the fertilizer properties of selected green waste composts.
PL
Proces stabilizacji tlenowej zmienia w głównej mierze zawartość i rodzaj substancji organicznych zawartych w osadach ściekowych. Proces kompostowania sprzyja również immobilizacji metali ciężkich w kompoście. Im kompostowanie i dojrzewanie trwa dłużej, tym tworzy się więcej trwałych kompleksów metalowo-humusowych.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono zmiany zawartości żelaza (Fe) i manganu (Mn) w glebie lekkiej piaszczystej corocznie nawożonej osadami ściekowymi i kompostami z osadów na podstawie wieloletniego doświadczenia lizymetrycznego prowadzonego w latach 2008–2013. Badano również mobilność tych pierwiastków z wykorzystaniem 1 M HCl. Osady i komposty charakteryzowały się dużą zawartością żelaza, znacznie większą niż gleba wykorzystana w doświadczeniu lizymetrycznym. Zawartość manganu w glebach, osadach i kompostach była zbliżona. Nawożenie gleb osadami ściekowymi i kompostami z osadów w nieznacznym stopniu wzbogaciło glebę w żelazo i mangan. Żelazo w osadach i kompostach oraz glebie występowało głównie w formach niemobilnych, natomiast mangan – w mobilnych. W kolejnych latach trwania doświadczenia lizymetrycznego nie stwierdzono znaczących zmian w mobilności obydwu metali w badanej glebie.
EN
This scientific description covers iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) content changes in light sandy soils fertilized with sewage sludge and composts, that was examined during long-term lysimeter experiment that took place in the years 2008–2013. The mobility of those elements using 1 M HCl was also measured. Sewage sludge and composts contained much more iron, than soils used in the lysimeter experiment, while the manganese content was at a similar level. Soils fertilized with sewage sludge and compost were slightly enriched in iron and manganese. The sludge, composts and soils contained mainly iron in immobile, while manganese in mobile forms. During the following years of lysimeter experiment, no significant changes in the mobility of both metals in soils were noticed.
PL
Celem pracy była ocena niektórych zmian w jakości gleby lekkiej w warstwie 0-90 cm, pod uprawą wierzby wiciowej (Salix viminalis) w 4-letnim cyklu, na skutek zastosowania nawożenia kompostem z osadów komunalnych i nawożenia mineralnego. Doświadczenie realizowano w latach 2006-2009 na polu doświadczalnym Politechniki Koszalińskiej w Kościernicy, gmina Polanów (16°24´N i 54°8´E). Doświadczenie założono na glebie lekkiej klasy IVb – V, kompleksu żytniego dobrego, o składzie granulometrycznym piasku gliniastego lekkiego do głębokości 100 cm oraz gliny lekkiej poniżej 100 cm. Czynnikami doświadczenia były: nawożenie (I) – (a) obiekty bez nawożenia, (b) nawożone kompostem z osadów komunalnych (10 t·ha-1 s. m.), (c) nawożone kompostem z osadów komunalnych (10 t·ha-1 s. m.) i azotem mineralnym w ilości 90 kg N·ha-1 oraz (d) nawożone kompostem z osadów komunalnych (10 t·ha-1 s. m.) i azotem mineralnym w ilości 180 kg N·ha-1 oraz klony wierzby wiciowej (II) – 1047, 1054, 1023, 1013, 1052, 1047D, 1056, 1033 i 1018. Kompost charakteryzował się: pHKCl – 6,63, zawartość suchej masy – 68,42%, a zawartość w suchej masie wyniosła: materii organicznej – 39,06%, N – 1,75%, P – 1,60%, K – 0,112%, Ca – 3,426% i Mg – 0,325%. Kompost zastosowano wiosną 2006 roku, a nawóz azotowy wysiewano corocznie przed ruszeniem wegetacji wierzby w latach 2006-2009. Poletko miało powierzchnię 34,5 m2, na którym wysadzono 120 zrzezów (34782 sztuk· ha-1). Corocznie po zakończeniu wegetacji wierzby pobierano z każdego poletka próby gleby z trzech głębokości: 0-30 cm, 31-60 cm i 61-90 cm. Analiza gleby po zakończeniu wegetacji wierzby po pierwszym (2006 r.), po drugim (2007 r.), po trzecim (2008 r.) oraz po czwartym roku (2009) obejmowała ocenę na zawartość: suchej masy, próchnicy i węgla organicznego, azotu ogólnego, amonowego, azotanowego i mineralnego oraz odczynu gleby. Badania wykazały, w miarę upływu lat odstania pędów wierzby malała zawartość w glebie azotu ogólnego, azotanowego i mineralnego, a wzrastała zawartość azotu amonowego, węgla organicznego i próchnicy. Nawożenie wierzby kompostem z osadów komunalnych zwiększało zawartość w glebie próchnicy i węgla organicznego oraz podnosiło odczyn gleby, a nie wpływało na zawartość mineralnych form azotu. Stosowanie mineralnego nawożenia azotowego uprawy wierzby energetycznej podnosiło w glebie zawartość azotanów i azotu mineralnego, obniżało odczyn gleby, a nie wpływało na zawartość próchnicy, węgla organicznego, azotu ogólnego i amonowego.
EN
The aim of the study was to evaluate selected changes of the quality of light soil in a layer of 0-90 cm, under cultivation of willow coppice (Salix viminalis) in the 4-year cycle, due to fertilization with compost from municipal sewage sludge and mineral fertilizers. The experiment was carried out in 2006-2009 on the experimental field of Koszalin University of Technology in Kościernica, Polanów municipality (16°24'N and 54°8'E). The experiment was established on light soil of class IVb-V, of good rye complex, and granulometric composition of light loamy sand to a depth of 100 cm and light loam below 100 cm. The experiment factors were: fertilization (I) – (a) objects without fertilization, (b) fertilized with compost from municipal sewage sludge (10 t·ha-1 d.m.), (c) fertilized with compost from municipal sewage sludge (10 t·ha-1 d.m.) and mineral nitrogen in the amount of 90 kg N· ha-1, and (d) fertilized with compost from municipal sewage sludge (10 t· ha-1 d.m.) and mineral nitrogen in the amount of 180 kg N·ha-1 and clones of willow (II) – 1047, 1054, 1023, 1013, 1052, 1047D, 1056, 1033 and 1018. Compost characterized by: pHKCl – 6.63, dry mass content – 68.42%, and content in dry mass was as follows: organic matter – 39.06%, N – 1.75%, P – 1.60%, K – 0.112%, Ca – 3,426% and Mg – 0.325%. Compost was applied in the spring of 2006, and nitrogen fertilizer was applied each year before start of vegetation of willow in the years 2006-2009. The field area was 34.5 m 2, it was planted 120 cuttings (34782) pieces·ha-1. Each year, after vegetation period of willow soil samples were taken from each plot from three depths: 0-30 cm, 31-60 cm, 61-90 cm. Analysis of soil after first (2006), second (2007), third (2008) and fourth year (2009) the willow vegetation periods included assessment of the content of dry matter, humus and organic carbon, total, ammonium, nitrate and mineral nitrogen and soil pH. Studies show that during years of shoots regrowth of willow content of total, nitrate and mineral nitrogen decreased in soil and content of ammonium nitrogen, organic carbon and humus increased. Fertilization of willow with compost from municipal sewage sludge caused increase of the content of humus and organic carbon in soil and raised soil pH. It did not affect the content of mineral nitrogen forms. Fertilization of willow with mineral nitrogen caused increase of nitrate and mineral nitrogen content in the soil, and decrease of soil pH, and did not affect the content of humus, organic carbon, total and ammonium nitrogen.
PL
Przedstawiono wyniki badań całkowitej zawartości cynku i kadmu oraz ich form w glebach rekultywowanych zróżnicowanymi dawkami kompostu wytworzonego na bazie komunalnego osadu ściekowego oraz osadu ściekowego z dodatkiem 20 i 30% popiołu z elektrowni. Analizy obejmowały glebę po założeniu doświadczenia oraz po 10 latach. Zawartość cynku i kadmu w wytworzonych kompostach nie przekraczała wartości referencyjnych dla przyrodniczego zagospodarowania osadów ściekowych. Udział popiołu w kompostach znacznie zmniejszył zawartość form rozpuszczalnych (I i II) tych metali w glebie, a zwiększył zawartość formy związanej z materią organiczną (III) i formy rezydualnej (IV) silnie związanej z mineralną fazą gleby, w porównaniu z wariantami pozostałymi i glebą kontrolną.
EN
A degraded soil was reclaimed by addn. of lime and composts (3-9%) consisting of sewage sludge and power plant ash. The soil was studied twice for Zn, Cd and org. C content directly and after 10 years. The av. metal contents 45.12 and 0.313 mg/kg, resp., met the environmental requirements for workable soils. The org. matter-coupled metal fractions prevailed in both cases.
EN
We conducted a two-year study to prove the antagonistic properties between three Trichoderma sp. strains entered into soil in compost carriers and plant pathogens of the Fusarium and Alternaria genera. Another aim of the study was to analyse the influence of these strains on the value of the biological fertility index (BIF) and the commercial yield of napa cabbage. Eleven combinations were used in the experiment, including a control variant, a variant with soil treated with a mineral fertiliser, one with manure and eight variants treated with tomato or onion waste composts. Some of them were inoculated with Trichoderma atroviride (T1) and/or T. harzianum (T2 and T3) isolates. Soil samples were collected at three terms of the investigations and they were subject to microbiological (the total count of moulds, Trichoderma sp., Fusarium sp. and Alternaria sp.) and enzymatic analyses (dehydrogenase and catalase activity). After harvesting the dry and fresh weight of napa cabbage leaves was measured. The total count of moulds and the commercial yield of napa cabbage were most strongly modified in the variant with the tomato waste compost inoculated with the T1 strain. The variants with the onion waste composts caused the greatest increase in the biological fertility index (BIF). The research showed that the phytosanitary properties of Trichoderma sp. resulted from the specificity of the species. The smallest count of Fusarium sp. was observed in the soil treated with the onion waste compost inoculated with the T1 strain. The smallest count of Alternaria sp. was noted after treatment with the tomato waste compost, which was simultaneously inoculated with two isolates, i.e. T1 and T2. Apart from that, the research proved that both types of composts were good carriers for Trichoderma sp. isolates. The tomato waste composts caused more intense proliferation of Trichoderma sp. in soil.
PL
Przeprowadzono dwuletnie badania, których celem było wykazanie właściwości antagonistycznych trzech szczepów Trichoderma sp. wprowadzonych do gleby na nośnikach w postaci kompostów, w stosunku do patogenów roślinnych z rodzaju Fusarium i Alternaria. Ponadto celem badań była analiza wpływu wyżej wymienionych szczepów na wartość wskaźnika żyzno- ści gleby (BIF) oraz plon handlowy kapusty pekińskiej. W doświadczeniu zastosowano jedenaście kombinacji, na które składał się obiekt kontrolny, gleba nawożona mineralnie, obornikiem oraz osiem obiektów, do których wprowadzono komposty wytworzone z odpadów pomidorowych lub cebulowych. Część z nich zainokulowano izolatami Trichoderma atroviride (T1) i/lub T. harzianum (T2 i T3). W trzech terminach badań pobierano próbki gleby, a następnie poddano je analizom mikrobiologicznym (ogólna liczba grzybów pleśniowych, Trichoderma sp., Fusarium sp., Alternaria sp.) oraz enzymatycznym (aktywność dehydrogenaz oraz katalazy). Ponadto po zbiorach roślin określono suchą i świeżą masę liści kapusty pekiń- skiej. Ogólna liczba grzybów pleśniowych oraz plon handlowy roślin w największym stopniu modyfikowane były w obiekcie z dodatkiem kompostu pomidorowego, zainokulowanego szczepem T1. Do wzrostu wartości biologicznego wskaźnika żyzności gleby (BIF) w największym stopniu przyczyniły się warianty z dodatkiem kompostów cebulowych. Stwierdzono, że wła- ściwości fitosanitarne Trichoderma sp. wynikały ze specyfiki gatunku i tak najniższą liczebność Fusarium sp. w glebie zaobserwowano po zastosowaniu szczepu T1 wprowadzonego na nośniku w postaci kompostu cebulowego, natomiast Alternaria sp. po wprowadzeniu do gleby kompostu pomidorowego, zainokulowanego jednocześnie dwoma izolatami T1 i T2. Ponadto wykazano, że obydwa rodzaje zastosowanych kompostów okazały się dobrym nośnikiem dla izolatów Trichoderma sp.. Silniejsze namnażanie się Trichoderma sp. w glebie spowodowane było jednakże dodatkiem kompostów wytworzonym z odpadów pomidorowych.
EN
This paper presents the results of work on the reduction of toxic metal content while decreasing its oxygen activity. During the study the effects of different doses of ozone in the air used for aeration of the stabilized compost in the first post-thermophilic phase were analyzed. The results showed the possibility of reducing the concentrations of toxic metals and decrease the activity of oxygen by up to 30%, compared to traditional stabilized compost aeration system without using ozone.
PL
W pracy oceniono wpływ składu mieszaniny kompostowej, składającej się z osadów ściekowych, trawy oraz organicznej frakcji odpadów komunalnych, na efektywność procesu kompostowania oraz wpływ uzyskanych kompostów na efektywność firoremediacji gleb. W pierwszym etapie prowadzono proces kompostowania a następnie w drugiej części badań założono doświadczenia wazonowe i aplikowano dodatki glebowe oraz oceniano ich wpływ na proces rekultywacji gleby zdegradowanej. W ramach badań oceniono właściwości fizyczne i chemiczne gleb po zastosowaniu preparatów w postaci kompostu oraz bionawozu otrzymanego z przetworzenia osadów ściekowych podczas procesu wspomaganej fitoremediacji gleby silnie zdegradowanej (duża zawartość metali ciężkich). Proces kompostowania prowadzono w dwóch etapach, pierwszy etap trwał 4 tygodnie i prowadzony był w zamkniętym bioreaktorze, gdzie doprowadzany był tlen. Natomiast drugi etap obejmował tzw. dojrzewanie proces ten trwał 6 tygodni, również z dostępem do tlenu. Obie mieszanki charakteryzowały się pod koniec procesu dużą zawartością substancji odżywczych oraz niską zawartością metali ciężkich, przez co kwalifikowały się do zastosowania, w procesie rekultywacji gleby zdegradowanej. Przeprowadzone badania potwierdzają możliwość wykorzystania uzyskanych kompostów w celach nawozowych. Również granulat uzyskany z przetwarzania osadów ściekowych wykazał pozytywny wpływ na badaną glebę. Wszystkie dodatki zwiększyły przyrost uzyskanej biomasy wprowadzając do gleby brakujące substancje odżywcze.
EN
The thesis has evaluated the impact of the composition of the compost mixture containing sewage sludge, grass and organic fraction of municipal waste, on the effectiveness of the composting process as well as the influence of the obtained composts on the effectiveness of soil phytoremediation. In the first stage, the composting process was carried out and in the second stage of the research, a pot experiment was conducted and the soil supplements were gradually applied, then their influence on the process of degraded soil renourishment was evaluated. During the research, the physical and chemical properties of the soils after the use of resources such as compost and bio-fertilizer gained from the processing of sewage sludge during the process of assisted phytoremediation of highly degraded soil (high content of heavy metals) were assessed. The composting process was carried out in two stages, the first of which lasted for four weeks and was carried out in a closed bioreactor with a flow of added oxygen. The second stage, on the other hand, included so-called ripening. This process lasted for six weeks and it also included the flow of added oxygen. By the end of the process, both mixtures were characterized by high content of nutrients and low content of heavy metals which qualified them to be used in the process of renourishment of degraded soils. The conducted research confirms the possibility of using the obtained composts for fertilization. Moreover, the granulate obtained from the processing of the sewage sludge showed positive influence on the examined soil. All of the supplements increased the increment of the obtained biomass, introducing the missing nutrients into the soil.
EN
In this study, it was aimed to compare the economic aspect of different applications of composts obtained from solid wastes of rose oil processing (RC) applications in organic apple production. The data used in the study were obtained from the experiments carried out in Egirdir Fruit Research Institute of Food, Agriculture and Livestock Ministry, Turkey. The trial was carried out with a total of 6 applications consisting of 5 different nutritional applications (RC, ERC (50%) (half dosage of the enriched RC, ERC (100%) (full dosage of the enriched RC, AB (azotobacter), and ST (standard application: 50% commercial solid organic manure +50% commercial liquid manure)) and 1 control (no nutrients applications). According to the results of the research, it was determined that apple production in all treatments was higher than control application. The result showed that the highest yield was determined for ERC (100%). The production costs per decare of the organic production in all treatments were found to be higher than the control application. Production cost was 854.97 USD da-1 in control application, while it varied between 914.61 USD da-1 and 984.79 USD da-1 in all treatments. When a comparison was made in terms of net profit, it was determined that the most advantageous application was ERC (100%). The net profit per decare for the ERC (100%) application was determined as 214.35 USD. In the control application, net profit per decare was determined as 130.42 USD.
EN
In this research, it was aimed to determine the amount of compost obtained from organic kitchen waste in Isparta province and the resulting economic loss when these wastes were not recycled as compost. Composting of organic kitchen wastes collected from the selected households was carried out in a home composter in the Laboratory of Composting and Biogas, Department of Agricultural Machinery and Technology Engineering, Süleyman Demirel University. The results showed that the concentrations of N, P2O5 , K2O, MgO, and CaO of the finished compost were determined as 1.73%, 1.00%, 1.91%, 1.00%, and 3.72%, respectively. Results revealed that kitchen organic waste corresponding to 0.66 kg N, 0.38 kg P2O5 , 0.73 kg K2O, 0.38 kg MgO, and 1.41 kg CaO kitchen waste per household per year was wasted without utilization. In the study, the economic value of the wastes when not recycled as compost was determined as 54658$, 29389$, and 111237$ per year corresponding urea, triple superphosphate, and potassium sulphate, respectively based on the commercial fertilizer price. It was determined that compost obtained from organic kitchen wastes was found to be 386164$ per year when economic value was calculated directly as compost rather than as equivalent commercial fertilizer.
EN
Floristic studies were conducted in 2011 and 2012 on the soil reclaimed using composts made of sewage sludge with the addition of various amounts of ash from power plant and sawdust. The experiment was carried out in 2002 on devastated soilless formation in the area of “Jeziórko” sulfur mine. Strongly acidic soilless formation (weak loamy sand) was reclaimed using post-flotation lime for de-acidification at the dose of 300 t/ha and compost in various variants: municipal sewage sludge, sewage sludge (80%) + ash (20%), sewage sludge (70%) + ash (30%), and sewage sludge (70%) + sawdust (30%). The compost was added at following doses of dry weight: 90, 180, and 270 t/ha. In the prepared plots, each with the area of 15 m2, a mixture of reclamation grasses was sown: Festuca pratensis –41.2%, Festuca rubra – 19.2%, Lolium perenne – 14.7%, Lolium multiflorum –12.4%, Dactylis glomerata – 6.5%, Trifolium pratense – 6%. The phyto-indication method was used to evaluate the impact of different ways of the soilless formation remediation on the habitat development. The assessment took into account following indicators: soil moisture, trophism, pH, organic matter content, resistance to salinity, and increased content of heavy metals. The largest number of species was found on plots where compost made of sewage sludge was used, while the smallest – on those reclaimed with sewage sludge compost with sawdust addition. In terms of habitat conditions, species preferring wet habitats typical of fresh soils, trophism of the subsoil corresponding to the abundant soils (eutrophic), neutral soil reaction, and subsoil with organic matter like in humus and mineral soils, dominated. The most favorable habitat conditions were found in plots reclaimed using sewage sludge compost.
EN
The effect of increasing contamination with copper on the content of trace elements in soil after application of compost, bentonite and zeolite has been examined. The contents of copper, cadmium, lead, chromium, zinc, nickel, manganese, iron and cobalt were determined in soil. Soil contamination with copper and the application of neutralizing substances (compost, bentonite and zeolite) had significant effects on the contents of trace elements in soil. Copper pollution mainly caused a very high increase in the content of copper and a smaller one in the amount of cadmium in soil. Copper contamination caused a decrease in the content of cobalt, nickel, zinc, manganese, iron and lead in soil. All of applied substances, especially zeolite, reduced the content of copper, as well as cadmium, chromium and, to a smaller extent, lead and manganese in soil. It is worth noticing that the effect of zeolite was much stronger than the effect of bentonite or compost. Compost acted similarly with respect to cobalt and nickel. Zeolite had a similar effect on the content of zinc and iron in soil. Bentonite had a comparable influence on the accumulation of zinc in the soil. In turn, bentonite and zeolite contributed to an increase in the content of nickel and cobalt in the soil.
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