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EN
The objective of the present study was to document the knowledge about the biodiversity of benthic insect communities and their distribution patterns in the semi-arid bioclimatic stage in the streams of the Aurès Region (NE Algeria). The distribution patterns of communities were analyzed in relation to some environmental factors: physicochemical water parameters and global habitat characteristics, including human impact. The taxonomic biodiversity of six sampled streams (wadis) comprises 42 insect taxa, belonging to seven orders and 30 families, of which Coleoptera is the most diverse order (15 taxa), whereas Diptera, Trichoptera and Ephemeroptera dominate in terms of abundance. The human impact, flow velocity and some quality parameters of water (potential of hydrogen, nitrite, concentration of orthophosphates and conductivity) were identified as the most influential environmental variables, which allows the prediction of taxonomic diversity indicators. The classification and regression tree analysis (CART) for benthic insects shows the effect of environmental variables (habitat parameters and human impact in the arid region) on the diversity and distribution of insect orders. The RDA analysis showed that altitude, substrate type, human impact and physicochemical parameters of water (pH, flow velocity, conductivity and total dissolved solids) are the most important predictor variables that play an important role in the distribution patterns of benthic insects.
EN
The seasonal patterns of the denitrifiers (denitrifying bacteria) in the sediment of Daya Bay, southern China, were examined using quantitative PCR and high-throughput MiSeq sequencing methods in spring, summer and winter. The abundance and diversity of nirS-encoding denitrifiers were much higher than that of nirK-encoding denitrifiers, indicating that the former probably dominated the denitrification processes in sediments of Daya Bay. The average abundance and diversity of nirS-encoding denitrifiers were much higher in spring than that in summer and winter, on the other hand, the abundance of nirK-encoding denitrifiers showed the opposite pattern. The species composition of nirS-encoding denitrifiers community in spring differed significantly from that in summer and winter, whereas, no significant difference existed between summer and winter. The dominant environmental drivers for the diversity of community species were NO2-, NO3- and DO concentrations. The abundances of dominant genera of nirS-encoding denitrifiers, Accumulibacter sp. and Cuprizvidus sp., were significantly higher in summer and winter than that in spring, and were negatively correlated with NO2-, NO3-, and DO concentrations ( p < 0.05). In contrast, the abundances of Azoarcus sp. and Halomonas sp., were highest in spring, and were positively correlated with NO3- and NO2- content (p < 0.05). For nirK-encoding denitrifiers, a significant difference in community composition was observed between spring and winter. No obvious correlation was found between community composition of nirK-encoding denitrifiers and environmental parameters.
EN
Temporary freshwater rock pools, as special, small-sized and isolated habitats, provide ideal systems for studying island biogeography and ecological theories and processes. In this study, a total of 70 potholes of mountain rivers were sampled during the four seasons from November 2013 to October 2014 to assess the structure of the benthic invertebrate community and to identify the relationships between habitat characteristics and the community composition. Pothole area ranged from approximately 0.01 to 0.39 m2, and pothole depth ranged from 0.03 to 0.74 m. Forty-three taxa belonging to 37 families and 16 orders were collected from the potholes. The highest numbers of benthic invertebrate taxa were observed in summer and the highest average number of taxa per pothole (8.5) was observed in autumn. The diversity was the highest in spring, and the average densities of benthic invertebrates were highest in autumn. Large potholes supported more taxa than small ones and significant relationships between richness and pothole area, richness and water volume were observed. The results of Redundancy Analysis show that the community composition of benthic invertebrates in the potholes was closely correlated with water temperature, pothole area and water depth. Our results indicate that benthic invertebrate communities in river potholes are mainly structured by water depth, pothole area and water volume. The seasonal changes are also an important factor determining the presence/absence of certain taxa.
EN
The influence of the shrub canopy on the spatial distribution of above and below ground arthropod communities in desertified ecosystems is largely unknown. Using the shrubs Hedysarum scoparium (H. scoparium) and Artemisia ordosica (A. ordosica) as model systems, the above and belowground arthropod communities were sampled by using pitfall trapping and hand-sorting, in order to examine the linkage between above and belowground arthropods across shrub microhabitats. Different profile layers harboured mostly distinct arthropod taxon and trophic groups that preferred specific microhabitats. Even the common taxa, including the Carabidae and Formicidae families, were found to have different abundance distributions in above and belowground soil layers across shrub microhabitats. Total abundance distribution was found to differ, while taxon-richness and Shannon-index distributions were similar in above and belowground parts across the shrub microhabitats. Markedly higher taxon-richness and Shannon-index values were found beneath the shrub canopy compared to the open spaces, particularly beneath the A. ordosica shrub canopy. The abundance distribution in above and below ground arthropod communities were affected by the shrub microhabitats along vertical and horizontal axes more than the richness and diversity of these communities. The A. ordosica shrub canopy (compared with the H. scoparium shrub) was found to have greater ecological implications on the spatial distribution of the arthropod communities. All these findings were expected to be helpful for the conservation of biodiversity, shrub plantation management, and desertification control.
EN
The structure of phytoplankton communities of Lake Jeziorak was presented for the first time. The objective of our research was qualitative and quantitative analysis and bioindices of phytoplankton during and outside the tourist season. Analysis of phytoplankton assemblages were performed in 2011-2012. A total of 96 taxa were identified in Lake Jeziorak, mainly: Cyanobacteria - 20, Bacillariophyceae - 49, and Chlorophyta − 19. Biomass of the phytoplankton varied from 10 mg l−1 in October to 29 mg l−1 in May. In the whole research period, Cyanobacteria dominated and represented up to 68% of the total biomass. The cyanobacterial blooms were constantly observed. Biomass in the summer period was composed of filamentous Aphanizomenon gracile, Limnothrix redekei, Planktothrix agardhii and Pseudanabaena limnetica. Outside the holiday season, i.e. in autumn and spring, filamentous Cyanobacteria accompanied cryptomonads in phytoplankton. The species composition, the biomass of phytoplankton, and TSI indicate the hypertrophic conditions of the lake. Phytoplankton in Lake Jeziorak was in a state of equilibrium for almost the entire study period. S1 was a dominant group and its abundance and biomass did not change by more than 10%. There was no significant direct effect of the seasonal tourism impact on the development of phytoplankton in Lake Jeziorak
EN
In this study, the spatial distribution and seasonal variation of large tintinnids (>76 μm) were investigated in Shenhu Bay during three seasons of 2012. Of the 36 species identified, 9 were dominant (i.e. Tintinnopsis radix, Leprotintinnus simplex, Tintinnopsis japonica, Tintinnopsis tubulosoides, Leprotintinnus nordqvisti, Tintinnopsis beroidea, Stenosemella parvicollis, Tintinnidium primitivum, Tintinnopsis nana). A clear seasonal shift of the taxonomic composition as well as the lorica size of the dominant species was observed. The highest numbers of tintinnid species occurred in spring, while the highest abundance and biomass occurred in summer. Clustering indicated that the seasonal variations of the community structure were more obvious than spatial variations. Spearman correlation analysis revealed that density of phytoplankton prey had a significant impact on the tintinnid abundance. Redundancy analysis (RDA) illustrated that temperature, salinity and the nutrient level were the most important abiotic factors affecting the spatial and seasonal pattern of tintinnid communities in Shenhu Bay.
EN
The response of soil nematodes to simulated in spring, summer and autumn periods of warming and drought were studied in a grassland mesocosm experiment. The abundance, diversity and some community parameters of nematodes were analysed at different times after the end of the extreme events – 170 days after the spring treatment, 90 days after the summer treatment and 22 days after the autumn treatment. Among studied parameters the abundance of nematode trophic groups, taxonomic richness and diversity were found to be sensitive to changes in the soil system caused by extremes. Our results showed that warming and drought did not cause predictable shifts in nematode communities. Moreover the extremes’ after-effect was not unidirectional with time. The periods of warming and drought induced a positive or negative long lasting influence on nematodes, and the outcome seems to depend on season, the nematode trophic group or even the nematode taxon.
EN
Spring development in the hydrolittoral zone was investigated at five wave-sheltered and five wave-exposed sites on four occasions from late March to late May (every third week). The number of species was higher at the sheltered locations and increased significantly over time. The difference in community structure was significant: over 95% of the Bray-Curtis dissimilarities were due to the biomass of only eleven taxa, and the total Bray-Curtis dissimilarity between exposed and sheltered sites was 75%. Macroalgae made up 70-80% of the total biomass and was dominated by filamentous species. In contrast to previous studies, macroalgal biomass was higher at the exposed sites, which may be due to the fact that this was a~spring study, unlike previous studies, which were conducted during summer.
EN
We studied the fish assemblages of thirty one, 2nd-4th order "least-impacted" streams with a varying degree of low-level management in central Portugal, using a standardised survey to document the river habitat. Channel, banks and riparian landuse, described separately according to principal component scores, were significantly related to altitude, slope and management intervention. Species diversity was low, represented by four endemic, four pan-European and one exotic species. TWINSPAN classification distinguished 3 community types, characterised by their dominant species: trout (Salmo trutta L.), chub (Leuciscus carolitertii Doadrio) and "roach" (Squalius alburnoides Steindachner and Chondrostoma oligolepis Robalo). Community types were associated with environmental differences with PC Channel scores higher at trout sites compared to other classification groups, whilst PC Bank-1 scores, temperature and conductivity were significantly different at trout compared to "roach" sites. Ecologically important habitat features were, in turn, related to landscape (map-derived) parameters and the extent of channel and bank management. The mis-classification of sites in discriminant analysis was related to management intervention, indicating the potential difficulty in the assignment river-community types for the biological monitoring of fish communities in these stream types.
EN
Comparisons between the carabid communities of natural and drained fens in the Biebrza Valley (NE Poland) were made on the basis of trapped material. Fen drainage appears to result in a restructuring of species composition as there is only a limited (20-40%) similarity between the communities in natural and drained areas. The lowest species diversity was noted for a drained meadow on alder peat. Agonum moestum was dominant on natural fens, and in the one not cultivated and periodically flooded site on drained fens and Carabus granulatus or Pterostichus nigrita on drained ones. Tropic structure also differed, with hemizoophages of the genera Amara and Harpalus associated with agrocoenosesbeing present on drained fens but absent from natural ones. Chlaenius costulatus, a species now rare in Poland, is typical of peatlands, but was not present on drained sites. The number of sites accesible for it have declined as a result of wetland drainage.
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