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EN
From the early 90s combined transportation (based on standardized transportation and transshipment technologies) hasn't exceeded 3,5%2 of overall weight of loads transferred by railway in Poland. During the same period the share of that type of transport in overall railway transfers in European Union countries has made up from 10 to 20% and has a tendency to grow systematically. At the same time it should be emphasized that intermodal transportation in Poland has mainly resulted from the requirements of foreign contractors moving their freight in standardized unit loads. The scale of container transport is not large in the internal transport.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono techniczne metody transportu benzyny dwoma najbardziej rozpowszechnionymi środkami transportu: transportem drogowym i kolejowym. Duży nacisk położono na możliwości wykorzystania transportu kombinowanego, mającego największe, zdaniem autorów, perspektywy rozwoju, gdyż jest to najbardziej efektywny, ekologiczny, a w pewnych warunkach także najbardziej ekonomiczny sposób przewozu. Za pomocą przedstawionych metod, po ustaleniu kryteriów oceny, można dokonać optymalizacji wyboru środka transportu.
EN
The paper presents selected carriage technology of dangerous goods in example of petrol carriage by road and rail. Big emphasis was placed on combined transport. The kind of carriage system, in authors' opinion, has the greatest possibilities of development, as the most efficient (speed) and enviromental compatibility (low and take, reduced pollution, noise and energy comsumption). On the basis of presented carriage technology and criterions suggested by the authors, optimalization of choosing mean of transport can be done.
3
PL
Opracowanie podejmuje tematykę związaną z opisem mulimodalnego łańcucha transportowego oraz identyfikuje ilość dokumentów przewozowych występujących w omawianym procesie transportowym.
EN
The study enters upon the matter description of multimodal transport chain and identification quantity of freight documents which appear in this one.
EN
According to the White Paper of EU of 2001, economical growth of 100% is accompanied by commodities transportation growth of 138% and passenger transportation growth of 124%. For year 2010 a growth of transportation of commodity is forecasted of approximately 50 %. Unfortunately, positive economic phenomena are accompanied by not desirable phenomena like not balanced transportation in individual branches of transports and illiquidity of traffic on ways called congestion. Road transport, which spreads out very intensively taking over tasks from other branches of transport, generates enormous social cost. Only costs of congestion are valued in European Union on 200 billion euro. Correction of the situation or at least it moderation is looked out in combined transport. Proper European transport policy, expressed by European Committee of Ministers of Transportation acts is processed to balance the different branches of transport and to slip the transportation from road transport onto railroad transport or water inland transport. Pan-european transport corridors (Creta corridors) and numerous international agreements concerning development of transport infrastructure like AGR, AGC, AGN, AGCT are expression of this operation. Other examples of the policy are structural projects within the confines of packages TEN and TINA. It reports in this policy on development of combined transport. Development of this transport form enables a decrease of costs of transport with maintaining its elasticity and mobility. The very serious problem is to overcome the barrier of time which is caused by necessity of reloading of commodity in combined transport. This loss of time should be compensated by the period of railroad transport. Reserves of time stick in a proper organization of transport and the selection of suitable technology of reloading. In the paper the classification of combined transport technologies is presented. The technologies of Integrated Transport Units ITU reloading (i.e. container, swap body, semi-trailer, truck and trailer) are taken into consideration. To build up general categories of the technologies, existing proposals in studies has been examined. Categories can be for instance built according to: - the type of the terminal (small, medium or big size terminal, hub) with the appropriate performance of the transhipment equipment, - the place of transhipment unit, • - the type of transhipped loading units, - unaccompanied or accompanied transport. Basic problems of applicable technologies and conditionality of their application are discussed. The ideas of most curious solutions in this domain are presented. The most important criteria of choices to estimate and choose the technology of transport and reloading are discussed in detail. These criteria concern technology, functioning, economy and ecology. For solving such a composed multi-criterial problem it is necessary to use an expert system. On the basis of formulated criterions and knowledge about 30 technologies of transshipment in combined road-rail transport the expert system is developed. The system is build using EXSYS Professional „shell" system. The system knowledge base is built of a set of rules: IF condition THEN goal; confidence (0, 1). If the confidence factor of the rule is equal 1 it means that the analysed technology fulfil the client demand. The confidence factors are summarized in the process of reasoning for rules stated as truth. The result of the system operation is a ranking list of the technologies according to the user expectations. The system was positively verified. It can be still perfected from the point of view of its opened character and it can be extended by new solutions, which are generated from range of technology of transport specialists.
EN
The total international traffic performances in combined rail-road transport rose in 2000 by 2 billion tonne-kilometres. The national traffic of the combined transport in Poland is still close to zero. The problem of national traffic concerns the effectiveness of less than 500 - 600 km distance transportation. The paper presents the simplified methodology for combined transport effectiveness comparison. It seems to be sensible to supplement the engineer economic analysis by reliability and safety models. The possibilities of costs analysis of transportation task realisation are discussed. The simplified model of comparison of road and combined transport is shown. The problems of uncertainty of available data acquisition are mentioned and some examples of reliability and safety data are shown.
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